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1917:1918:1919 




WASHslSfGTON 
GOVEB.NMENT PRSWTSNG OFFICE' 
' • 1920 . . 



x. 



Complete Report 



of the 






Chairman of the Committee 
on Public Information 



1917:1918:1919 




WASHINGTON 

tJOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1920 



f, 






0. of y, 
OCT 22 1920 



■^"^ 



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CONTENTS. 

Page. 
... 1 

•. General survey of activities 

Finaii^al-^epOTt 

Voluntary censorship 

Division of News _ 

.- Division of Civic and Educational Cooperation ' - 1^ _ 

Division of Production and Distribution - 19 

Four-Minute Men 

Speaking Division 

Advertising Division • 

Division of Films 

Financial report of Division of Films •• 

Bureau of Distribution of the Division of Films 51 

..-Educational Department of the Division of Films 5o 

Scenario Departmentjjf the -Division of Films 56 

.Bureau of War Expositions ^-^ 

Bureau of War Photographs ^^ 

Official Bulletin - - ^^ 

Service Bureau • 

Exhibits at State fairs '^* 

Division of Syndicate Features . • ^^ 

Division of Women's War Work '^5 

no 

.^Bureau of Cartpoij3,.;„„ - 

'division of Business Management - '^^ 

Division_ofJWprk. among the Foreign JBfim 78 

"Fourth of July demonstration "^ 

OK 

Scandinavian Bureau - "'^ 

Polish Bureau. • • ■ ^^ 

on 

Ukrainian Bureau ' 

Lithuanian Bureau ^° 

Czechoslovak Bureau ■ °° 



German Bureau. 



89 



Hungarian Bm'eau ^^ 

Italian Biu-eau - ""^ 

Russian Bureau ^^ 

Jugoslav Bureau ""* 

Motion-picture export - ^^^ 

Showing America to the foreign press '. 104 

Work of the Foreign Section 1^8 

Wii'eless and cable service 1^^ 

,Enemy propaganda . ^ H* 

III 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Sustaining Soldiers' Morale 115 

Front news service - 116 

Cooperation with the world press 117 

Personnel of the division 118 

Post-war work 119 

Summary of press-cable service 121 

Foreign Press Bureau . - 127 

Foreign pictorial service - 134 

Foreign film activities ,■ HO 

Foreign picture service - 147 

Reports from foreign c{>mmissioners. . .'. 149 

Report on the work iri Mexico. By Robert H. Murray 149 

Report on the work in France. By James Kerney 166 

Enemy propaganda from France 173 

Work in Holland. By Henry Suydam 175 

Work in Switzerland. By Vii'a B. Whitehouse 183 

Further Work in Switzerland. By Guy Croswell Smith 189 

Work in Italy. By Jolm H. Hearley - 191 

Work in Spain. By Frank J. Marion 194 

Work in Denmark. By Edward V. Riis 201 

Work in Russia ' 212 

General Introduction. By Edgar G. Sisson 214 

Moscow and Petrograd. By Read Lewis 221 

Siberian activities. Report by Malcolm Davis 230 

Russian Motion-Picture Division 244 

Publications in Russia. By Graham R. Taylor 247 

Letters from Russian organiz^-tions 257 

Distribution of literature in Russia 267 

Work in Archangel. By Read Lewis. 273 

Work in China. Report by Carl Crow 274 

Work in Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay. By H. H. Sevier 279 

Work in Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia. By C. N. Griffis 283 

Other work in South America 290 

Work in Sweden and Norway 290 



COMPLETE REPORT 



CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC 
INFORMATION. 



New York, June i, 1919. 
To the President : 

I have the honor to submit herewith a full report of the 
activities of the Committee on Public Information from the 
time of its establishment to the period of its conclusion. 

Created under your Executive order of April 14, 1917, in 
the very first hours of the war, and forced into instant opera- 
tion by imperative necessities, the committee had to start with 
a purpose only, rather than any predetermined program, and 
grew under pressure instead of the orderly sequence provided 
by deliberated plan. This primary purpose was to drive home 
the absolute justice of America's cause, the absolute selfless- 
ness of America's aims. 

Realizing public opinion as a vital part of the national de- 
fense, a mighty force in the national attadi, our task was to 
devise machinery with which to make the fight for loyalty 
and unity at home, and for the friendship and understanding 
of the neutral nations of the world. 

At no point were our functions negative. We dealt in the 
positive, and our emphasis was ever on expression, not sup- 
pression. We fought indifference and disaffection in the 
United States and we fought falsehood abroad. We strove 
for the maintenance of our own morale by every process of 
stimulation ; we sought the verdict of mankind by truth tell- 
ing. We did not call it " propaganda," for that word, in Ger- 
man hands, had come to be associated with lies and corrup- 
tions. Our work was educational and informative only, for 
we had such confidence in our case as to feel that only fair 
presentation of its facts was needed. 

121033—20 1 



2 KEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOKMATION. 

Under the insistence of this necessity, the committee grew 
to be a world organization. Not only did it reach deep into 
every commmiity in the United States, but it carried the aims 
and objects of America to every land. 

There was no part of the great war machinery that we did 
not touch, no medium of appeal that we did not employ. The 
printed word, the spoken word, the motion picture, the poster, 
the signboard^all these were used in our campaign to make 
our own people and all other peoples understand the causes 
that compelled America to take arms in defense of its liberties 
and free institutions. 

Besides the daily war news, issued officially to the whole 
press of the country, the committote supplied the specialized 
press with feature articles and selected services. We had deep 
appreciation that it was not the war of an administration, but 
the war of 110,000,000 people, and even to the point of mili- 
tary indiscretion we opened up the activities of the Govern- 
ment to the inspection of the citizenship. ' Of 6,000 releases, 
'dBalifig'with the most vital importances, only three were ques- 
tioned as to accuracy, and inquiry upheld two of these. 

In the Four Minute Men alone the committee commanded 
the volunteer services of 76,000 speakers, operating in 5,200 
communities, and making a total of 755,190 speeches. 

Through the speaking division it toured great groups, like 
the Blue Devils, Pershing's Veterans, and the Belgians, ar- 
ranged mass meetings, conducted 45 war conferences, sent 
famous speakers from coast to coast, and coordinated the 
speaking activities of the entire Nation. 

Through a pamphlet division it prepared and published 
the war literature that was issued in pamphlet form. It 
commanded the services of any writer that it chose to call, 
and at its back were over 3,000 of the leading historians of 
the country, every man in the service. These pamphlets, cov- 
ering every phase of America's ideals, purposes, and aims, 
were printed in many languages. Seventy-five millions 
reached the people of America, and other millions went to 
every corner of the world, carrying our defense and our 
attack. Experts planned the most effective circulation 
schemes, and experts directed the distribution, in order that 
every printed bullet might reach its mark. 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 3 

The committee mobilized the advertising forces of the 
country — press, periodical, car, and outdoor — for the patri- 
otic campaign that gave millions of dollars' worth of free 
space to the national service. 

It mobilized the artists of America, on a volunteer basis, 
for the production of posters, window cards, and similar ma- 
terial of pictorial publicity for the use of various Govern- 
ment departments and patriotic societies. A total of 1,438 
drawings were used. 

It issued an official daily newspaper, serving every depart- 
ment of Government, with a circulation of 100,000 copies 
a day. For official use only its value was such that private 
citizens ignored the supposedly prohibitive subscription price^ 
subscribing to the amount of $77,622.58. 

With the aid of a volunteer staff of several hundred trans- 
lators the committee kept in direct touch with the foreign- 
language press, supplying selected articles designed to com- 
bat ignorance and disaffection. 

It organized and directed 23 societies and leagues designed 
to appeal to certain classes and particular foreign-language 
groups, each bod}^ carrying a specific message of unity and 
enthusiasm to its section of America's adopted peoples. 

It acted as a bureau of information for all persons who 
sought direction in volunteer war work, in acquiring knowl- 
edge of any administrative activities, or in approaching busi- 
ness dealings with the Government. In the 10 months of its 
existence it gave answers to 86,000 requests for specific 
information. 

Xhe committee supervised the voluntary censorship of the 
newspaper and periodical press. 

It established rules and regulations for the cable censorship 
with respect to press dispatches. 

It planned war exhibits for the State fairs of the United 
States, also the great series of interallied war expositions 
that brought home to our millions the exact nature of the 
struggle that was being waged in France. In Chicago alone 
2,000,000 people attended in two weeks, and in 19 cities the 
receipts aggregated $1,432,261.3(5. 

It gathered together the leading novelists, essayists, and 
publicists of the land, and these men and women, without 



4 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOlSr. 

payment, worked faithfully in the production of brilliant, 
comprehensive articles that went to the press as syndicate 
features. 

One division paid particular attention to the rural press 
and the plate matter service. Others looked after the 
specialized needs of the labor press, the religious press, and 
the periodical press. The Division of Women's War Work 
prepared and issued the information of peculiar interest to 
the women of the United States, also aiding in the task of 
organizing and directing. 

Through the medium of the motion picture America's war 
progress, as well as the meanings and purposes of democracy, 
were carried to every community in the United States and to 
every corner of the world. Pershing's Crusaders, America's 
Answer, and Under Four Flags were types of feature films 
by which we drove home America's resources and determina- 
tions, while other pictures, showing our social and industrial 
life, made our free institutions vivid to foreign peoples. 
From the domestic showings alone, under a fair plan of dis- 
tribution, the sum of $878,215 was gained, which went to sup- 
port the cost of the campaigns in foreign countries that were 
necessarily free. 

Another division prepared and distributed still photo- 
graphs and stereopticon slides to the press and public, over 
200,000 of the latter being issued at cost. This division also 
conceived the idea of the " permit system " that opened up 
our military and naval activities to civilian camera men, and 
operated it successfully. It handled also the voluntary cen- 
sorship of still and motion pictures in order that there might 
be no disclosure of information valuable to the enemy, the 
number averaging 700 a day. 

Another division, in New York, guarded the reputation 
of America in foreign countries by stopping the export of 
film giving false or misleading impressions of American 
life. By an arrangement with the War Trade Board, no 
export license was granted without the approval of the 
committee, and this leverage, aided by the patriotism of the 
industry, enabled us to control the flow of film to foreign 
countries, changing it in such manner as to serve the national 
cause. 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC IISTFORMATION. 5 

Soon discovering that the fight for world opinion must 
be made on the ground, the committee opened offices in every 
capital of the world. To these offices went a cable and wire- 
less service carrying the "spot" news of the day; a mail 
feature service; still j)hotographs and posters for window 
display ; feature films showing our military effort, our social 
and industrial progress; pamphlets for translation and dis- 
tribution; speakers to augment the efforts of those secured 
in the country itself, etc. 

At the outset we found that America was dependent upon 
foreign press services for her intercourse with other coun- 
tries; that the volume of information was small, and what 
was worse, concerned only with the violent and unusual in 
our national life. The wireless and cables were used to remedy 
this evil situation. In close cooperation with the Navy, a 
service went out from Tuckerton to the Eiffel ToAver for use 
in France, and then for relay to our offices in Berne, Eome, 
Madrid, and Lisbon. From Tuckerton the service flashed to 
England, and from England there was relay to Holland, 
the Scandinavian countries, and Russia. We went into 
Mexico by cable and land wires ; from Darien we sent a serv- 
ice in Spanish to Central and South American countries for 
distribution by our representatives; the Orient was served 
by leaps from New York to San Diego, to Cavite to Shanghai. 
From Shanghai the news went to Tokio and Pekin, and 
from Pekin on to Vladivostok for Siberia. Australia, 
India, Egypt, and the Balkans were also reached, and by 
balloons, mortars, and aeroplanes we carried the truth across 
the firing line into the Central Powers. 

For the first time in history the speeches of a national 
executive were given universal circulation,! and I am proud 
to tell you, sir, that your declarations had the force of 
armies. 

In many countries your speeches were printed by the com- 
mittee's agents on native presses and circulated by the million. 
They were sent out by the million from America in a score of 
languages. They were printed on post cards and embodied 
in moving-picture films and interpreted by the committee's 
speakers. The acts of Congress, all of our official deeds and 
utterances, the laws that showed our devotion to justice, 



6 EEPORT COMMITTEE OIST PUBLIC INFORMATIOZST. 

instances of our enthusiasm and unity — all were put into print 
in every language — Teheran and Tokio getting them as com- 
pletely as Paris or Rome or London or Madrid. 

Before this flood of publicity the German misrepresenta- 
tions were swept away in Switzerland, the Scandinavian 
countries, Italy, Spain, the Far East, Mexico, Central and 
South America. From being the most misunderstood nation 
in the world, America became the most popular. 

This daily news service by wire and radio was supplemented 
by a mail service of special articles and illustrations that 
went into foreign newspapers and magazines and technical 
journals and periodicals of special appeal. We aimed to give 
in this way a true picture of the American democracy, not 
only in its war activities but also in its devotion to the inter- 
ests of peace. There were, too, series of illustrated articles 
on our education, our trade and industry, our finance, our 
labor conditions, our religions, our work in medicine, our 
agriculture, our women's work, our Government, and our 
ideals. 

Reading rooms were opened in foreign countries and fur- 
nished with American books, periodicals, and newspapers. 
Schools and public libraries were similarly supplied. Pho- 
tographs were sent for display on easels in shop windows 
abroad. Window hangers and news-display sheets went out 
in English, French, Italian, Swedish, Portuguese, Spanish, 
Danish, Norwegian, and Dutch; and display sheets went to 
Russia, China, Japan, chosen parts of India, and the Orient, 
to be supplemented with printed reading matter by the com- 
mittee's agents there. Every conceivable means was used to 
reach the foreign mind with America's message. 

And there was no bribery, no sneaking influence of any 
sort. We got into the foreign press by the simple expedient 
of making our output so newsy and so interesting that the 
editor could not resist it. ' The records show that as high as 
90 per cent of our material was printed in foreign countries, 
despite the shortage of paper everywhere and the pressure of 
war news on newspaper space. 

Many of the foreign problems were far from simple. 
When our propaganda films began to go abroad it was found 
that the Germans had bought up practically all the moving- 
picture houses in some of the neutral countries. They were 



REPORT COMMITTEE 01^ PUBLIC INFORMATION. 7 

busy with German propaganda films. They would not take 
American war pictures on any terms. It looked like a com- 
plete blockade for the committee's films, but a way was 
found to submarine it. The heads of the American exporting 
companies met with the committee's officers and agreed that 
no American films should be exported unless a certain amount 
of American propaganda film was included in the order. 
The foreign movie houses could not live without American- 
film. The war had reduced the output of the foreign film 
companies to a minimum. The German-owned movie houses 
had either to capitulate or starve to death. Some took one 
alternative, some the other, but practically all gave up the 
fight. Charlie Chaplin and Mary Pickford led Pershing's 
Crusaders and America's Answer into the enemy's territory 
and smashed another Hindenburg line. 

The net effect of the whole foreign campaign of the com- 
mittee has been to make a world of friends and well-wishers 
for the United States out of a world that was either inimical 
or contemptuous or indifferent. We were looked upon as a 
Nation of dollar-mad materialists. All the American news 
in foreign papers confirmed that view of us. It was news of 
strikes and lynchings, riots, murder cases, graft prosecutions, 
and all the public washing of the Nation's dirty linen. Our 
policies, America's unselfish aims in the war, the services by 
which these policies were explained and these aims sup- 
ported, and the flood of news items and articles about our 
normal life and our commonplace activities — these have com- 
bined to give a picture of the United States to foreign eyes 
more truthful and more flattering. It is a picture that is of 
incalculable value in our future dealings with the world, 
political and commercial. It is a bit of press agenting that 
money could not buy, done out of patriotism by men and 
women whose services no money could have bought. 

Even as the Committee on Public Information claims suc- 
cess in its fight for public opinion in other countries, so does 
it advance its pride in the unity and enthusiasm that marked 
America's war effort. The foreign born, feared with respect 
to their ignorances and prejudices, were brought into closer 
touch with our national life than ever before, while absolute 
openness and honesty in the matter of official news, the elo- 
quence of speakers, the story of motion pictures and posters, 



8 KEPOBT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

all combined to banish the ignorances and indifferences that 
threatened the full loyalty of the native born. 

I am happy to report that your original instructions have 
been disregarded in no single particular. The activities of 
the committee have been open and honest. There is not one 
that we are ashamed to reveal. No dollar has ever been sent 
on a furtive errand. Neither at home nor abroad has a cent 
been spent for any secret or corrupt purpose. 

It may be asserted also that the most searching investiga- 
tion will discover no waste, but that study of the following 
tables will reveal a care and economy in expenditure that' is 
in itself a striking testimonial to the intelligence and devo- 
tion of the men and women associated in the work. 

1. Funds received by the Committee on Public Informa- 

tion from appropriations : 

From the President, 1917-1919 $5, 600, 000. 00 

From Congress, 1918-19 1, 250, 000. 00 

Total 6, 850, 000. 00 

2. Receipts by committee from earnings, 1917-1919 2, 825, 670. 23 

is ' . 

8. Total moneys received by committee : 

Appropriation 6, 850, 000. 00 

Earnings and miscellaneous receipts 2, 825, 670. 23 

Total 9, 675, 670. 28 

4. Committee expenditure (domestic and foreign, 1917- 

1919) : 

From national security and defense 4, 236, 494. 54 

From congressional appropriation 1, 305, 715. 28 

From earnings 1, 748, 062. 85 

Total 7, 290, 272. 62 

5. Returned to appropriations : 

National security and defense 1, 754, 322. 12 

Congressional appropriations 573, 549. 60 

Miscellaneous receipts 57, 525. 89 

Total 2,885,397.61 

6. What the committee cost the Government from Apr. 

14, 1917, to June 1, 1919 4, 464, 602. 39 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC UsTFORMATION. 9 

6. Statement of expenditures by divisions of the Committee on Public 
Information from the organization of each division to June 1, 1919. 

DOMESTIC WORK. 



Appropriation . 



National 

security and 

defense 

expenses, 

1918. 



Executive ^ 

State Pair Exliibitions. 

Civic and Educational 

Official War Savings Bulletin 

Division of SpeaVing 

Division of Four Minute Men 

Division of News 

Division of Syndicate Features 

Division of Films 

Bureau of Expositions 

Bureau of War Photographs 

Division of Foreign Language News- 
papers 

Division of Business Management 

Division of Distribution and Produc- 
tion 

Division of Labor Publications. ....... 

Division of Women's War Work 

Service Bureau 

Division of Pictorial Publicity . ....... 

Division of Advertising 

Division of Industrial Relations 

Division of Americanization Survey. . . 



S48, 886. 92 
1,635.49 

457, 973. 32 

264, 272. 26 
52,158.11 
72, 870. 46 
37,873.75 
15, 407. 96 

217, 250. 03 



23,616.57 

9, 080. 57 
109, 940. 55 

126, 997. 79 
51,754.44 
19,956.42' 
14,810.95 
8,310.35 
12, 612. 93 
920. 75 
2, 709. 00 



Total 1 , 549, 038. 62 1, 305, 715. 23 1, 713, 567 



Salaries and 

expenses. 

Committee 

on Public 

Information, 

1919. 



1, 
110, 
470, 
18, 
67, 
38, 

192, 



982. 07 
332. 76 

609. 17 
685. 63 
279. 94 
450. 07 

438. 18 
729. OS 



26, 098. 63 



Disburse- 
ments from 
earnings. 



56, 751. 48 
1,006,142.80 
50, 643. 06 



187, 610. 82 

102, 673. 41 
18,127.18 
2,354.01 
28,884.86 
4, 860. 62 
9, 899. 69 
.23 



30.35 



Total. 



$73, 585. 80 

3, 61 7. 5 J 

568,306.08 

734,881.43 

70,8^3.74 

140, 150. 40 

76, 323. 82 

15,846.14 

1,066,730-59 

1,006,142.80 

100, 358. 26 

9, 080. 57 
297,551.37 

229, 701. 55 
69, 881. 62 
22,310.43 
43, 695. 81 
13,170.97 
22>512.62 
920. ■98 
2, 709. 00 



4,568,321.54 



FOREIGN WORK. 





Appropriation. 


Total. 






National 
Security and 
Defense Ex- 
penses, 1918. 


National 
Security and 

Defense 

Committee 

on Public 

Information, 

1919. 


Disburse- 
ments from 
earnings. 


Foreign Section 


.1871,373.56 

85,427.41 

11,133.45 

112, 162. 60 


$852,587.95 

206, 026. 08 

141,004.82 

181, 106. 52 

60,000.00 

30,923.76 

9, 200. 07 

35,194.06 

4, 797. 49 

32, 677. 07 

10,094.87 

3,819.80 

1,629.17 

3,603.49 

3, 2.52. 18 

2, 032. 53 


81,723,961.51 
291,453.49 
152, 138. 27 
293, 269. 12 
60,000.00 
30,923.76 
21, 688. 48 
39,887.99 
4,851.49 
44,849.77 
10, 094. 87 
3, 819. 80 
1, 629. 17 
3,603.49 
3,252.18 
2, 032. 53 




Foreign Picture Service 


.134, 495. 16 


Foreign Press— Mail 


Foreign Press— Cable 




Peace Conference 




Work with Foreign Born 






Hungarian Bureau 


12,488.41 

4,693.93 

54.00 

12, 172. 70 




Scandinavian Bureau 




Polish Bureau 




German Bureau 




Italian Bureau 




Lithuanian Bureau 






Czecho-Slovak 






Jugo-Slav 






Russian Bureau 


- 




Four Minute Men 












Total 


1,109,506.06 


1,577,949.86 


2,721,951.08 


34,495.16 





10 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION^. 

7. Receipts from the activities of the Committee on Public Information. 

Division of Films $859, 994. 35 

Bureau of Expositions ' 1,438,004.24 

Bureau of War Pliotographs 70, 600. 10 

Division of Distribution 19, 509. 22 

Oflicial Bulletin 71, 323. 80 

Foreign Section films 179, 439. 70 

Miscellaneous refunds and receipts 186, 798. 82 

2, 825, 670. 23 

PART I. 

Work of the Domestic Section of the Committee on Public In- 
formation. 

In no other belligerent nation was there any such degree 
of centralization as marked the duties of the Committee on 
Public Information. In England and France, for instance, 
five and more organizations were intrusted with the tasks 
that this committee discharged in the United States. And in 
one country, in one year, many of the warring nations spent 
more money than the total expenditure of the Committee on 
Public Information during the 18 months of its existence in 
its varied activities that reached to every community in 
America and to every corner of the civilized world. 

A brief outline of the work, division by division, is here- 
with appended: 

THE VOLUNTARY CENSORSHIP. 

Despite general opinion, the Committee on Public Infor- 
mation was not an agency of censorship, nor was the press of 
the United States at any time under any compulsion of 
statute in the sense that the European press was curbed and 
supervised. Instead of being bound by prohibitive laws, 
backed by drastic penalties, the newspapers of the United 
States were put upon their honor, and made the partners of 
Government in guarding " military information of tangible 
benefit to the enemy." 

The Coromittee on Public Information had its sole connec- 
tion with press censorship in the issuance of the following 
card, which will show in itself the baselessness of those 
rumors that charged control of " opinion " and " criticism." 

WHAT THE GOVERNMENT ASKS OF THE PRESS. 

The desires of the Government with respect to the concealment from 
the enemy of military policies, plans, and movements are set forth in 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 11 

the following specific requests. They go to the press of the United 
States directly from the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the 
Navy and represent the thought and advice of their technical advisers. 
They do not apply to news dispatches censored by military authority 
with the expeditionary forces or in those cases where the Government 
itself, in the form of official statements, may find it necessary or ex- 
pedient to make public information covered by these requests. 

For the protection of our military and naval forces and of mer- 
chant shipping it is requested that secrecy be observed in all matters 
of— 

1. Advance information of the routes and schedules of troop move- 
ments. (See par. 5.) 

2. Information tending to disclose the number of troops in the ex- 
peditionary forces abroad. 

3. Information calculated to disclose the location of the permanent 
base or bases abroad. 

4. Information that would disclose the location of American units 
or the eventual position of the American forces at the front. 

5. Information tending to disclose an eventual or actual port of 
embarkation ; or information of the movement of military forces to- 
vs^ard seaports or of the assembling of military forces at seaports 
from which inference might be drawn of any intention to embark them 
for service abroad ; and information of the assembling of transports 
or convoys ; and information of the embarkation itself. 

6. Information of the arrival at any European port of American 
war vessels, transports, or any portion of any expeditionary force, 
combatant or noncombatant. 

7. Information of the time of departure of merchant ships from 
American or European ports, or information of the ports from which 
they sailed, or information of their cargoes. 

8. Information indicating the port of arrival of incoming ships 
from European ports or after their arrival indicating, or hinting at, 
the port at which the ship arrived. 

9. Information as to convoys and as to the sighting of friendly or 
enemy ships, whether naval or merchant. 

10. Information of the locality, number, or identity of vessels be- 
longing to our own Navy or to the navies of any country at war A^il^h 
Germany. 

11. Information of the coast or antiaircraft defenses of the United 
States. Any information of their very existence, as well as the num- 
ber, nature, or position of their guns, is dangerous. 

12. Information of the laying of mines or mine fields or of any 
Iiarbor defenses. 

13. Information of the aircraft and appurtenances used at Gov- 
ernment aviation schools for experimental tests under military au- 
thority, and information of contracts and production of air mate- 
rial, and information tending to disclose the numbers and organiza- 
tion of the air division, excepting when authorized by the Committee 
on Public Information. 



12 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

14. Information of all Government devices and experiments in war 
material, excepting when authorized by the Committee on Public 
Information. 

15. Information of secret notices issued to mariners or other con- 
fidential instructions issued by the Navy or the Department of Com- 
merce relating to lights, lightships, buoys, or other guides to naviga- 
tion. 

16. Information as to the number^ size, character, or location of 
ships of the Navy ordered laid down at any port or shipyard, or in 
actual process of construction ; or information that they are launched 
or in commission. 

17. Information of the train or boat schedules of traveling official 
missions in transit through the United States. 

18. Information of the transportation of munitions or of war 
material. 

Photographs. — ^Photographs conveying the information specified 
above should not be published. 

These requests to the press without larger authority than the 
necessities of the war-making branches. Their enforcement is a mat- 
ter for the press itself. To the overwhelming proportion of news- 
papers who have" given unselfish, patriotic adherence to the voluntary 
agreement, the Government extends its gratitude and high apprecia- 
tion. 

Committee on Public Infobmation, - 
By Geokge Creel, Chairman. 

As will be seen, no law stood behind these requests, com- 
pliance resting entirely upon honor and patriotism. There 
were violations, as a matter of course, but as it was realized 
that the requests of Government were concerned with human 
lives and national hopes, as it was driven home that the pass- 
ing satisfaction of a news item might endanger a transport or 
a troop train, the voluntary censorship grew in strength and 
certainty. 

DIVISION OF NEWS. 

A first duty of the committee, as we saw it, was the coordi- 
nation and control of the daily news of military operations 
given out by the war-making branches of Government. The 
work was soon turned over to the Division of News, which be- 
came the sole medium for the issuance of official war infor- 
mation, and acted not only for the Army and Navy, but for 
the White House, the Department of Justice, the Department 
of Labor, the National War Labor Board, the Council of Na- 
tional Defense, the War Industries Board, the War Trade 
Board, and the Alien Property Custodian. It had its sworn 
representatives in the war-making branches of the Govern- 



REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOlsr. 13 

ment, trained newspaper men whose duty was to open up 
operations to the inspection of the people. The committee 
believed that public support was a matter of public under- 
standing, and it became the duty of the division to take dead- 
wood out of the channels of information, permitting a freer, 
more continuous flow. This was not the simplest thing in the 
world. On one hand was the press, impatient of reticence 
and suspicious of concealments, and on the other hand were 
generals and admirals reared in a school of iron silence. Both, 
however, grew in understanding. The press finally realized 
our honesty of purpose, and the military experts came to have 
an increasing faith in the power of absolute frankness. The 
Army and Navy, through this Division of News, pledged 
themselves to give to the people instant and honest announce- 
ment of all casualties, all accidents, all disasters. We did not 
have to conceal reverses because we did not have to fear for 
the courage of America. 

All the official news of government, with direct relation to 
the war, went to the people through the Division of News. 
The Pershing communiques, the weekly press interviews with 
Gen. March, Chief of Staff, and daily interviews with Secre- 
tary of War Baker were other regular news features issued 
in mimeographed form. 

Preparation of the daily casualty lists for the newspapers 
was one of the duties of the News Division. Originally these 
lists were issued for immediate release, but as the totals 
swelled to such a point that the taslv of carrying them on the 
telegraph wires became too great an arrangement was made 
at the request of the press associations by which the lists 
were printed and mailed to newspapers with a five-day 
release date. This system meant no delay in the notification 
of relatives, who received word by telegraph from The 
Adjutant General's Office several days in advance of publica- 
tion in the newspapers. 

During the latter part of its existence the News Division 
took over the preparation of a nightly review of the news of 
the world for transmission by wireless to the vessels of the 
Navy in all waters, as well as to all transports in passage. 

The division also acted as a reference bureau in connection 
Avith the voluntary censorship, advising and interpreting the 
Government's requests. 



14 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOKMATIOE". 

The News Division also issued a weekly digest of war news 
for country weeklies. Country dailies also asked to be put 
on this list, which grew to more than 12,000. At any intima- 
tion that this matter was not desired, the paper was removed 
from the mailing list and by this and other checking we were 
able to keep a more or less careful watch on the extent to 
which the service was used. It ran as high as 6,000 columns 
a week. Some 2,000 newspapers throughout the country 
were served by wire association. An extremely conservative 
estimate placed our average daily figure with these at one 
column per newspaper per day, or 12,000 columns per week, 
not including the mass of our stuff which was printed first- 
hand in Sunday newspapers and worked into mosaics for 
feature stories. Nor did this include the large number of 
newspaper and magazine stories for which we supplied data 
exclusively to a writer or correspondent who brought in the 
idea of the story he wanted, nor the vast amount of time 
spent in clearing the way for them to get first-hand such 
information as they required. Reckoned solely on the basis 
of mimeographed matter issued by the News Division, 20,000 
columns per week was an extremely conservative estimate of 
the use made of the service by the press of America. 

A special and painstaking effort was made to present the 
facts without the slightest trace of color or bias, either in 
the selection of the facts to be made public or in the manner 
in which they were presented. Thus the News Division set 
forth in exactly the same colorless style the remarkable suc- 
cess of the Browning guns on the one hand and on the other 
the facts of bad health conditions in three or four of our 
large camps. 

Every precaution was exercised also to guard against mis- 
statements. Manuscript of articles prepared by employees of 
the committee were invariably submitted for approval to the 
department chief from which the information emanated. 
In cases where a subordinate furnished the information one 
of the heads of the department also approved it. No pos- 
sible check as to accuracy was omitted. The effectiveness of 
the system is proved by the fact that while over 6,000 releases 
were issued in the year and a half of operation, only three 
were ever questioned. As two of the attacks were without 
honest foundation, the record of the News Division stands as 



REPORT COMMITTEE 01^ PUBLIC INFORMATION. 15 

one mistake in 6,000 instances. No news organization in the 
world equals, or even approaches, this record of painstaking 
accuracy established by a war organization hastily assembled 
and driven at all times under tremendous pressure. 

Mr. J. W. McConaughy was director of the Division of 
News until sent to Central America, at which time Mr. Leigh 
Eeilly took up the work, carrying it forward with the same 
faith, devotion and brilliance. 

From first to last, the division never closed doors, remain- 
ing open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, a clearing house for 
Government news, a service bureau to the press. 

DIVISION OF CIVIC AND EDUCATIONAL COOPERATION. 

A second imperative duty of the Committee on Public In- 
formation was to put into convincing print America's reasons 
for entering the war, the meaning of America, the nature of 
our free institutions, and our war aims, together with a 
thorough analysis of the Prussian system, as well as an ex- 
posure of the enemy's misrepresentations, aggressions, and 
barbarities. The Division of Civic and Educational Coopera- 
tion was formed, and to its aid were called the best American 
investigators, writers, economists, historians, and political 
scientists, and in addition we enlisted the powerful coopera- 
tion of the National Historical Board. / 

Money could not have purchased the voluntary aid that was 
given freely, the various universities lending their best men, 
and individuals devoting weeks of their time to specific tasks 
without remuneration. In logical sequence, the following 
pamphlets were prepared, printed, and distributed: 

How the War Came to America 5, 428, 048 

Swedish :_! 67,487 

Polish 82, 658 

German 292,610 

Italian 129,860 

Spanish 96, 816 

Bohemian 121, 058 

Portuguese 9, 375 

National Service Handbook 454, 699 

The Battle Line of Democracy 94, 848 

President's Flag Day Address 6, 813, 340 

Conquest and Kultur ^ 1, 203, 607 

German War Practices 1, 592, 801 

The War Cyclopedia 195,231 



16 KEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOKMATION. 

German Treatment of Conquered Territory 720, 848 

War, Labor, and Peace 584, 027 

Qerman Plots and Intrigues 127, 153 

The War Message 2, 499, 903 

Nation in Arms 1,666,231 

Government of Germany 1, 798, 155 

German 20, 500 

Great War from Spectator to Participant 1, 581, 908 

War of Self-Defense 721,944 

American Loyalty 702, 598 

German 564, 787 

American Interest in Popular Government Abroad 596, 533 

Home Beading Course for Citizen Soldiers 361, 000 

First Session of War Congress 608,950 

German War Code . 514, 452 

American and Allied Ideals . 228,986, 

German Militarism 303, 600 

German 103,300 

War for Peace 302,370 

Why America Fights Germany 725, 345 

Study of the Great War 678, 929 

The Activities of the Committee on Public Information 23, 800 

Friendly Words to the Foreign Born : 570, 543 

The Prussian System 571, 036 

Labor and the War ■ 509,550 

A War Message to the Farmer : 546, 911 

Plain Issues of the War 112,492 

•Ways to Serve the Nation 568, 907 

What Really Matters 574, 502 

The Kaiserite in America— 5, 550, 521 

War Publications Bulletin : 13, 126, 006 

Post Cards 1, 687, 408 

Posters — Why Germany Wants Peace . 31, 000 

Germany's Confession 324, 985 

The German Whisper 487, 484 

I National School Service : 4, 251, 570 

Lieber and Schurz 26,360 

America's War Aims and Peace Terms 719, 315 

Total 61,626,852 

Publication for Foreign Section. 

La Libertad Universal 102, 967 

Las Intenciones del Alemania 95, 798 

Lialtad a Estados Unidos 124, 229 

The German Bolsheviki 187,375 

La Guerra Intrepreation 125, 100 

Las Reve'ationes del Principe Lichnowsky 46,850 

La Guerra del Trabajo 48,611 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC IFFORMATION-. 17 

Ein Aufruf Meiner Vaterland 60, 500 

R. W. & B. No. 10 (Spanish) 49*750 

Portuguese 15, ooo 

America's War Aims (Spanish) 80,600 

Mexican ^ 17 400 

Total 904, 180 

PuUicatioiis for Friends of German Democracy (in German). 

My London Mission (Prince Lichnowsky) 661,300 

Tlie Meaning of America 10, 421 

The Democratic Rising of German people in '48 20, 320 

On Loyalty, Liberty, and Democracy 19,070 

Friends of German Democracy 61, 500 

Democracy, the Heritage of All : 30, 000 

The Root of the Evil 30,000 

No Qualified Americanism 30 lOO 

German Militarism 1^ 500 

Total _ 864, 211 

Publications for Division of American Alliance for Labor and 
Democracy. 

Why Workingmen Support 313, 535 

Who is Paying for This War? 313, 082 

German Socialists and the War L 316, 005 

To the Workers of Free America '. 323, 605 

What Can Your Local Branch Do? 15,000 

Labor's Red, White, and Blue Book 99, 355 

\ Total 1,380,612 

Miscellaneous. 

Posters — Capitol Building 26, 100 

Posters — Independence Hall ; 26, 100 

• Farmers' Bulletin 8, 000 

Posters for War Cyclopedia 2, 050 

Purpose and Scope ; 25, 000 

For Freedom (Serbian National Defense) 5,000 

War Savings Campaign Appeals 6, 000 

Posters — America Gave you All 7, 500 

Map — The Pan-German Plan 122, 000 

Buttons, American-Hungarian Loyalty League 25, 489 

Nevs^spaper, United States Department of Labor 80, 000 

Streamers, Four-Minute Men 25, 000 

Division of Films Bulletin 121, 119 

Selective Service Registration Bulletin 765, 700 

The Advertising Bulletin 112, 000 

Register, Four-Minute Men 1, 606, 350 

1210S3— 20 2 \ 



18 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

Circulars, Every Man Must Register 7, 163, 770 

The Ameriean Navy 2, 100 

Flying for America 2, 100 

America at War 12,000 

Guarantee of Permanent Peace 26, 162 

Under Four Flags (posters) 22,000 

Window Display Suggestions 5, 600 

Will American Socialists Do This (Yiddish) 32,000 

Why Workingmen Support the War (Yiddish) 33,000 

No Compromise for America 15, 683 

Ships, More Ships (poster) 15,000 

Address of Secretary Lansing : 

Spanish 34, 000 

Portuguese 15, 000 

Total 10, 350, 553 

Grand total 75,117,178 

Such was the excellence of the pamphlets that many of the 
great metropolitan dailies printed them in their entirety as 
supplements. Nor does the total take account of the hundreds 
of thousands of copies of these pamphlets printed and dis- 
tributed by private agencies and individuals at their own cost. 
The figures also show domestic circulation conclusively, 
although a great majority of the pamphlets were put into 14 
foreign languages and given world-wide distribution. 

It is a matter of pride to the Conunittee on Public Infor- 
mation, as it should be to America, that the directors of 
English, French, and Italian propaganda were a unit in 
agreeing that our literature was remarkable above all others 
for its brilliant and concentrated effectiveness. 

At no time was any haphazard method of distribution em- 
ployed, for while a fixed mailing list was maintained 75 per 
cent of the pamphlets were sent only upon request as a safe- 
guard against waste. Among the organizations that assisted 
in effective distribution were the Department of Agriculture, 
the American Federation of Labor, the Department of State, 
the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, the Young 
Men's Christian Association, National War Council, the 
American Library Association, the State defense councils, 
Members of both Houses of Congress, and the political par- 
ties. Besides the usual newspaper notices given when pam- 
phlets were released the last two, " Conquest and Itultur " 
and " German War Practices," as well as the " Flag Day 
Speech " (with annotations) , " How the War Came to Amer- 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION, 19 

ica," and the " War Message " (with annotations), were pub- 
lished serially in many papers throughout the country. 

A second great task of the division was to reach the school^, 
the colleges, and universities with the message of America in 
ordeT that the youth of the land should be made to under- 
stand the nature of the conflict in every detail. Representa- 
tives of the division went before teachers' institutes, summer 
sessions, educational bodies, etc., and the great institutions 
of learning were joined in organized form for the study of 
the war by teachers, pupils, and whole communities. 

In direct response to a request from the Emergency Coun- 
cil of Education and the Education Commission of the Na- 
tional Education Association, the division commenced the 
publication of the J National School Servi ce, a 16-page paper 
issued twice a month to every one of the 520,000 teachers in 
the United States. I^ many respects this publication was one 
of the most remarkable features of the war, for it gave to the 
schools the needs and messages of Government in concise 
and usable form and to the Government a direct medium 
for reaching the 20,000,000 homes represented in the schools. 

The achievements of the division are due entirely to the 
devotions and abilities of Prof. Guy Stanton Ford, dean of 
the University of Minnesota, its director from first to last. ^ 

DIVISION OF PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION?^ 

The production and distribution of the literature and other 
printed matter issued by the committee started in June, 1917, 
upon the publication of the "War Message and Facts Be- 
hind It." The printing was all done hy the Public Printer. 
The distribution was handled through the circulation depart- 
ment at No. 10 Jackson Place. 

From June to November 1, 4,399,650 copies of nine pam- 
phlets were printed and distributed. The Public Printer 
could not keep up with the demand for pamphlets and the 
distribution facilities were not adequate at No. 10 Jackson 
Place, so the Division of Production and Distribution was 
organized, printing contracts were let in New York, and on 
January 1, 1918, the first floor of the Printers Craft Build- 
ing was leased as a distribution center. 

A complete stock of all the committee's publications was 
kept to fill the constant demand from all parts of the coun- 



20 KEPOET COMMITTEWl ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

try. The requests came from Congressmen and Senators, 
ministers and school-teachers, labor leaders and war organiza- 
tions, etc., who wished to spread the truth about the war 
and America's position. The number of pamphlets sent on 
each request was limited and a definite understanding that 
the pamphlets be carefully distributed was made in each case. 

A mailing list of the leaders of thought in the country was 
compiled, to whom a copy of the pamphlets for general dis- 
tribution were sent as soon as issued. 

Special campaigns were planned to carry a particular 
message over a wide distribution. Five million copies of the 
President's Flag Day Address were delivered by hand by 
the Boy Scouts of America to men and women who agreed 
to read the pamphlets and then pass them on. 

Five hundred and sixty thousand copies of the " Kaiserite 
in America " were sent to traveling men in the United States 
to combat German lies. 

Other special campaigns were made in schools, camps, and 
cantonments; Liberty loan workers and Four-Minute Men 
and local leaders were urged to advise of special conditions 
requiring attention in their districts, mailing lists of names 
to whom literature should be sent. Over 30,000,000 pamphlets 
were distributed by these methods to July 1, 1918. 

As the work of the division grew and the efficiency of the 
distribution facilities became apparent, the work of pro- 
ducing and distributing all the printed matter issued by the 
committee, except that done at the Government Printing 
Office, was centered in the division. 

In July the division undertook the campaign for the De- 
partment of Labor to promote registration of men for em- 
ployment. It furnished all the channels of distribution for 
the literature of the campaign. 

On extremely short notice the committee undertook the 
advertising campaign for the Provost Marshal General prior 
to the second draft. The greater part of the campaign was 
based on the equipment of the Division of Production and 
Distribution. As the time was so short onl}^ the most direct 
methods could be employed. 

It distributed 100,000 copies of a four-page newspaper to 
all publication advertisers, advertising agents, and large 
manufacturers, containing advertising copy for reprinting. 



ilEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 21 

The Selective Service Register was issued as a four-page 
newspaper, serving a double purpose of a news sheet and 
poster. 

A small poster was distributed to every rural free-delivery 
box in the country. 

All churches received a copy of the Four Minute Men 
registration bulletin. A total of over 8,000,000 pieces of 
literature were sent out to specific addresses. The able 
director of this division was Mr. Henry Atwater. 

FOUR MINUTE MEN. 

The Four Minute Men will live in history as the most 
unique and one of the most effective agencies developed dur- 
ing the war for the stimulation of public opinion and the pro- 
motion of unity. The following letter, written by the Presi- 
dent of the United States, may be cited as one of many de- 
served tributes from the heads of Government : 

The White House, 
Washington, Novem'ber 29, 1918. 
To all the Four Minute Men of the Committee on Public Information: 

I have read with real interest tlie repoi't of your activities, and I 
wish to express my sincere appreciation of tlie value to the Govern- 
ment of your effective and inspiring efforts. It is a remarkable record 
of patriotic accomplishment that an organization of 75,000 speakers 
should have carried on so extensive a work at a cost to the Govern- 
ment of little more than $100,000 for the 18-month period — less than 
$1 yearly on an individual basis. Each member of your organization, 
in receiving honorable discharge from the service, may justly feel a 
glow of proper pride in the part that he has played in holding fast the 
inner lines. May I say that I, personally, have always taken the 
deepest and most sympathetic interest in your work, and have noted, 
from time to time, the excellent results you have procured for the 
various departments of the Government. Now that this work has 
come to its conclusion and the name of the Four Minute Men (which 
I venture to hope will not be used henceforth by any similar organiza- 
tion) has become a part of the history of the great war, I would not 
willingly omit my heartfelt testimony to its great value to the country, 
and indeed to civilization as a whole, during our period of national 
trial and triumph. I shall always keep in memory the patriotic co- 
operation and assistance accorded me throughout this period and shall 
remain deeply and sincerely grateful to all who, like yourselves, have 
aided so nobly in the achievement of our aims. 
Cordinally and sincerely, yours, 

WooDROw Wilson. 



22 El!POKT COMMITTEE OlSr PUBLIC INEORMATION. 

From first to last, fully 75,000 speakers were used. The 
number of speeches made were 755,190 and a fair estimate of 
audiences makes it certain that a total of 314,454,514 people 
were addressed. 

The idea of the Four Minute Men was originated by Mr. 
Donald Ryerson, of Chicago, who made the first Four Minute 
speech in a Chicago theater. Two days after the formation 
of the Committee on Public Information, Mr. Ryerson came 
to Mr. Creel, in Washington, who saw instantly the possi- 
bilities of the plan and straightway proceeded to put it upon 
a national basis under Government supervision. Under the 
original arrangement this statement of policy was issued : 

The , Four Minute Men is a. specialized publicity service giving 
four-minute talks by local volunteers, introduced by a standard in- 
troduction slide furnished by the Government, in the intermission at 
motion-picture theaters in accordance with a single standard plan 
throughout the country. 

At this time the following form of slide was adopted : 



MINUTE MEN 
(Copyright, 1917. Trade-mark.) 



(Insert name of speaker.) 

will speak four minutes on a subject 
of national importance. He speaks 
under the authority of 

The Committee on Public 
Information. 

Geokge Ceeel, Chairman, 
Washington, D. C. 



This same bulletin went on to define that all topics are 
of national importance connected with the war plans of the 
Government and are assigned by the department at Wash- 
ington. Each campaign is of a stated length and is inaugu- 
rated by the delivery to the chairmen (1) of campaign in- 
structiofis to themselves and (2) of a brief with a typical 
four-minute talk approved and released by the Committee 
on Public Information to be distributed to the speakers. 



REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION". 23 

The talks are prepared by the individual speaker on the basis of 
the policy* points of emphasis, lines of argument, and general in- 
formation contained in this bulletin on each subject. The aim is to 
preserve individuality and forcefulness of expression and yet con- 
fine the message absolutely to the four-minute limit and within the 
policy limits of the bulletin in order that the character of the original 
message formulated in Washington may not be lost in transmission 
through the speaker. 

The speakers in every case received their authority and 
appointment from the chairmen of the local branches of the 
organization, who, in turn, were appointed through the 
State chairman or direct from headquarters at Washington. 
Each local chairman was registered at once in Washington. 

The original method of organizing a local branch was as 
follows: The written indorsement of three prominent citi- 
zens — bankers, professional, or business men — written on 
their own stationery in a prescribed official form was re- 
quired for the nomination of a local chairman. These in- 
dorsements were forwarded to headquarters in Washington, 
together with the proper form of application for authority 
to form a local branch with the privilege of representing the 
Government, in which application the number of speakers 
available was stated, in order that material might be for- 
warded promptly in case the application was approved. 

Early in June, 1917, Mr. Ryerson, who had previously re- 
ceived a commission in the United States Navy and had se- 
cured two months' furlough in order to establish the organi- 
zation, resigned from the Four Minute Men in order to enter 
tho training school at Annapolis. 

William McCormick Blair, of Chicago, became national 
director on June 16, and the work of organizing progressed 
swiftly. Mr. Blair appointed State chairmen immediately 
in a number of States, while the rest of the country was 
organized through the State councils of defense by writing 
directly to the governors of the various States, outlining the 
plan of organization and urging them to nominate State 
directors and to incorporate it in the work of their respective 
State councils. 

The National Advisory Council was formed about this 
time, Mr. William H. TngersoU, of New York, becoming the 



24 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC IN.FORMATION. 



first member. Prof. S. H. Clark and Samuel Hopkins Adams 
subsequently became members of the council, which in the 
fall of 1918 was greatly increased in membership. 

The following is a complete list of bulletins issued from 
the original inception of the organization to the date of its 
official demobilization on December 24, 1918 : 

Four Minute Men Bulletins, 1911-18. 



Bulletin 
No. 




Period. 



1,2... 
3,4... 
5,6... 

7 

8,9,10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

7A.... 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

36 

37 

38 

39 

30 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 



Universal Service by Selective Draft . 

First Liberty Loan 

Red Cross 

Organization 

Food Conservation 

Why We Are Fighting 

The Nation in Arms 

The Importance of Speed 

What Our Enemy Really Is 

Unmasking German Propaganda 

Onward to Victory 

Second Liberty Loan 

Food Pledge 

MaLutaining Morals and Morale 

Carrying the Message 

War Savings Stamps 

The Shipbuilder 

Eyes for the Navy , 

The Danger to Democracy 

Lincoln's Gettysburg Address 

The Income Tax 

Farm and Garden 

President WUson's Letter to Theaters 

Third Liberty Loan 

Organization 

Second Red Cross Campaign 

Danger to America 

Second War Savings Campaign 

The Meaning of America 

Mobilizing America's Man Power. . . . 
Where Did You Get Your Facts? .... 

Certificates to Theater Members 

Register 

Four Minute Singing 

Fourth Liberty Loan 

Food Program for 1919 

Fire Prevention 

United War Work Campaign 

Red Cross Home Service 

What Have We Won? 

Red Cross Christmas Roll Call 

A Tribute to the Allies 



May 12-21, 1917. 
May 22-June 15, 1917. 
June 18-25, 1917. 

July 1-14, 1917. 
July 23-Aug. 5, 1917. 
Aug. 6-26, 1917. 
Aug. 19-26, 1917. 
Aug. 27-Sept. 23, 1917. 
Aug. 27-Sept. 23, 1917 (supplementary- 
topic). 
Sept. 24-Oct. 27, 1917. 
Oct. 8-28, 1917. 
Oct. 29-Nov. 4, 1917. 
Nov. 12-25, 1917. 
Nov. 26-Dec. 22, 1917. 
Jan. 2-19, 1918. 
Jan. 28-Feb. 9, 1918. 
Feb. 11-16, 1918. 
Feb. 18-Mar. 10, 1918. 
Feb. 12, 1918. 
Mar. 11-16, 1918. 
Mar. 25-30, 1918. 
Mar. 31-Apr. 5, 1918. 
Apr. 6-May 4, 1918. 
(Republished Apr. 23, 1918.) 
May 13-25, 1918. 
May 27-June 12, 1918. 
June 24-28, 1918. 
June 29-Julv 27, 1918. 
July 29- Aug. 17, 1918. 
Aug. 26-Sept. 7, 1918. 
Sept. 9-14, 1918. 
Sept. 5-12, 1918. 
For general use. 
Sept. 28-Oct. 19, 1918. 
Changed to Dec. 1-7; finally canceled.. 
Oct. 27-Nov. 2, 1918. 
Nov. 3-18, 1918. 
Dec. 7, 1918. 
Dec. 8-14, 1918. 
Dec. 15-23, 1918. 
Dec. 24, 1918. 



These bulletins were issued to the field workers and to asso- 
ciated individuals and official organizations in the following^^ 
quantities : 



EEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INl'OKMATION. 
Statement of literature issued to tJie field. 



25 



state. 



Alabama 

Alaska: 

Chairmen 

Lodges 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Canal Zone 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 



Sept. 
1917. 



370 
560 
300 



305 
425 
165 
100 
370 
5 



275 
620 
685 
540 



340 
100 
200 
100 
875 
550 
355 
120 
400 
90 
50 
120 
580 



Mar. 
31, 
1918. 



675 
540 



420 

950 

1,815 

50 

870 

650 

165 

125 

560 

500 

50 

455 

2,335 

1,890 

2,275 

1,945 

645 

225 

1,280 

260 

1,135 

1,250 

2,120 

1,275 

2,880 

765 

2, 875 

325 

1,395 



Nov. 

1, 
1918. 



2,806 

447 
68 

519 

1,241 

2,630 

50 

927 
1,252 

175 

125 
2,155 

677 
50 

689 
7,668 
1,936 
3,140 
3,093 
1,376 

733 
1,221 

898 
1,225 
1,879 
2,027 
3, 280 
4,203 
1,163 
2,622 

400 
2,197 



State. 



Nevada 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Porto Rico 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

"Washington 

West Virginia 

"Wisconsin 

"Wyoming 

Colleges 

San Francisco speakers 

Current list 

New Hampshiregrange 
Maryland grange. . 
Vermont speakers . 
Connecticut grange 
Vermont grange. . . 



Total. 



Sept. 
15, 
1917. 



145 

75 

,180 

525 

465 

890 

25 

160 

50 



380 
450 
100 
835 
50 
100 



180 
235 
775 
455 



15,675 



Mar. 
31, 
1918. 



225 
255 

4,280 
725 

1,450 

2,170 

1,375 
760 

6,530 
15 
270 
540 
470 
405 

1,245 

50 

490 

225 

1,384 
780 

1,610 
436 



58, 390 



Nov. 

1, 
1918. 



262 

410 

5,784 

1,151 

1,875 

3,007 

1,424 

815 

9,057 

500 

179 

529 

844 

1,474 

1,600 

276 

■ 482 

2,100 

2,l25 

1,425 

1,956 

186 

4,536 

57 

568 

780 

172 

184 

312 

398 



97, 340 



Aoproximate number of bulletins required on Nov. 23, 1918, 101,000. 



ARMY BULLETINS. 

At the request of the War Department bulletins similar to 
those published for the use of Four Minute Men were pro- 
duced by national headquarters to be used by company com- 
manders in many cantonments throughout the country in pre- 
paring short talks to their men on the causes and issues of the 
war. 

The following campaigns of the kind were conducted to the 
complete satisfaction of the War Department as expressed in 
its official report on the subject: 

1. Why We Are Fighting. January 2, 1918. 

2. Insurance for Soldiers and Sailors. February 1, 1918. 

3. Back of the Trenches. April 6, 1918. 

Early in August the scope of the work was extended to 
reach other audiences besides those in motion-picture 
theaters. A church department of the Four Minute Men 
was organized in many of the local branches to present four- 



26 KEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INEORMATIOIf. 

minute speeches in churches, synagogues, and Sunday 
schools. The first church department was organized in 
New York City. 

OTHER MEETINGS. 

National arrangements had already been made to have 
speakers appear at the meetings of lodges, fraternal organi- 
zations, and labor unions and this work progressed swiftly. 
In most cases these speakers were selected from the member- 
ship of the organizations to whom they spoke. 

Under the authority of State lecturers of granges, four- 
minute messages based upon the official bulletins were given 
also at all meetings of the granges- in many States. 

The work was next extended to reach the lumber camps 
of the country, some 500 organizations being formed in 
such communities. The work was also extended to cover 
Indian reservations. 

women's divisions. 

About this time some of the States, acting under authority 
from headquarters, organized women's divisions to bring 
the messages of the Government to audiences at matinee per- 
formances in the motion-picture theaters, and to 'the mem- 
j bers of women's clubs, and other similar organizations. 

JUNIOR FOUR MINUTE MEN. 

The Junior Four Minute Men movement commenced with 
a Junior War-Savings Stamps bulletin published for the 
State of Minnesota. Eesults were such that in March, 1918, 
a Junior War-Savings Stamps campaign was held for the 
rest of the country. Over a million and a half copies of 
the bulletin published for this campaign were sent out 
through the various State war-savings stamps committees, 
which distributed them to the schools. 

The general plan was for the teacher to explain the sub- 
ject, using the bulletin as a textbook, and the children then 
wrote their speeches and submitted them to the teacher or 
principal. The best were selected and delivered as speeches 
or were read. In a few cases extemporaneous talks were 
given. 



\ 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOKMATIOE". 27 

There were many different ways of conducting these con- 
tests. Sometimes they were considered as a regular part of 
the school work and were held in the classroom with no 
outsiders present, but more often they were made special 
events, the entire school, together with parents and other 
visitors, being present. 

Both boys and girls were eligible and the winners were 
given an official certificate from the Government, commission- 
ing them as Four Minute speakers upon the specified topic 
of the contest. 

Following the war savings stamps contest came the third 
Liberty loan contest of April 6 to May 4, 1917. A million 
copies of this bulletin were published and were sent directly 
to the schools from the stencils of the United States Bureau 
of Education in Washington. About 200,000 schools in all 
parts of the country were reached in this way. The same plan 
of distribution was used for the junior fourth Liberty loan 
contest and for the junior Eed Cross Christmas roll call, 
and these two bulletins were published in connection with 
the School Service Bulletin which was then going out from 
the committee twice monthly to all schools on this list. 

THEATER MEMBERS. 

On September 9 a special bulletin (No. 36) was published, 
governing the presentation of certificates to the proper repre- 
sentatives of the motion-picture theaters in recognition of 
the patriotic service of granting to the Four Minute Men the 
exclusive priAdlege of speaking to their audiences, creating 
them theater members of the organization. 

FOUR-MINUTE SINGING. 

Prior to Mr. Blair's leaving, another innovation had been 
inaugurated in the decision to add four-minute singing to the 
work of the division. A bulletin (No. 38) of specially pre- 
pared songs was published on September 10 for general use, 
and instructions were issued to the chairmen to appoint song 
leaders to encourage the audiences of the motion-picture 
theaters in community singing. 



28 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

COLLEGE FOUR MINUTE MEN. 

In September also college Four Minute Men were organ- 
ized, under instructors acting as chairmen, to study the regu- 
lar Four Minute Men bulletins and practice speaking upon 
the subjects thereof, each student being required to deliver at 
least one four-minute speech to the student body during the 
semester in addition to securing satisfactory credits, in order 
to qualify as a Four Minute Man. This work was organized 
in 163 colleges. 

JUNIOR BULLETINS. 

A further development of the original field was the intro- 
duction of four-minute speaking contests in schools to decide 
which of the pupils were worthy to become Junior Four 
Minute Men on specific topics presented in bulletins similar 
to those used by the senior speakers. 

This work was conducted on a national scale and was par- 
ticipated in by many millions of American school children 
in connection with each of the following four campaigns: 

JUNIOR FOUR MINUTE MEN CONTESTS. 

1. War Savings Contest. March 11, 1918. 

2. Third Liberty Loan Contest.^ April 6-May 4, 1918. 

3. Fourth Liberty Loan Contest. September 28-October 
19, 1918. 

4. Eed Cross Christmas Eoll Call. December 2-20, 1918. 

NEWS BULLETINS. 

To keep the thousands of separate organizations in touch 
with each other and with developments of the actual appli- 
cation of the work, six News Bulletins were published at in- 
tervals of about three months. 

PUBLICITY. 

In addition to the messages brought to the people by means 
of the spoken word, the Four Minute Men secured for the 
Government pul lictify \v«itih at least three- (piartors of a 
Hiilliou dollars. 



EEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 29 

Articles containing the pith of each bulletin were sent 
out from headquarters and released through local chair- 
men and publicity managers in thousands of communities 
for use in the local papers. 

The average number of press clippings received at head- 
quarters from a single clipping bureau, covering only the 
larger newspapers of the country, was 873 a month, or more 
than 15,000 during the 18-month life of the organization. 

These clippings averaged certainly not less than 60 lines 
each, totaling 900,000 lines, which at a low rate for this 
type of publicity, if purchased, would have cost $225,000. 

Hundreds of newspapers mailed to headquarters from the 
smaller towns indicate that much Targer space was con- 
sistently devoted to the Government messages in these places, 
while during the ban on public meetings due to the influenza 
epidemic newspapers in all parts of the country devoted 
sufficient space to carry daily four-minute messages prepared 
for them by members of the organization. 

It is extremely conservative to estimate the total value 
of all this publicity at $750,000. 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS, 

Exact reports, covering approximately one-half of the 
full activities of the organization, give a total of 505,190 
speeches made to audiences totaling 202,454,514 people. 
This total does not cover the six campaigns from October 27, 
1918, to the closing date of December 24, nor does it include 
the first campaigns from May 22 to October 27, 1917. At a 
very reasonable estimate, these first campaigns added 40,- 
000,000 to the total audience reached and not less than 70,000 
to the number of speeches delivered, while the final six cam- 
paigns added certainly not less than 72,000,000 to the total 
audience and 180,000 to the number of speeches. Adding 
these conservative estimates to the above incomplete reports, 
the following results are shown: 

Number of speeches given 755, 190 

Total audience 314,454,514 

A very reasonable allowance for the considerable number 
of communities from which incomplete or no reports were 
received justifies an estimate of final totals of a million 



30 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 



speeches heard by four hundred million individuals during 
the 18-month life of the organization — an average of about 
28,000 speeches, reaching more than 11,000,000 people, during 
each of the 36 distinct campaigns covered by the 46 bulletins. 



COSTS. 
OFFICIAL EXPENDITT.TEES. 



The amounts expended from presidential and congressional 
appropriations on behalf of the Four Minute Men from the 
commencement of the work in 1917 to the date of disbanding 
in December, 1918, were as follows : 





July, 1917- 
June, 1918. 


July-Dec, 
1918. 


Totals. 




S24,033.04 

29,107.08 

7, 300. 68 

4,942.09 

5,856.90 


.?18, 711.96 
7,344.82 


$42, 745. 00 


Printing 


36,451.88 


Slides 


7, 300. 68 


Traveling 


1,000.00 
3,258.55 


5, 942. 09 


General 


9 115.45 






Total 


71,239.77 


30,315.33 


101,555.10 







(July to December, 1918, figures partly estimated, as business division is unable to give 
figures after September 30, 1918. Old fiscal year figures subject to change, as bills are still 
coming in.) 

CONTEIBUTED EXPENDITURES. 

In addition to the foregoing, large sums have been ex- 
pended from July, 1917, to December, 1918, from private 
sources and public subscriptions in the maintenance of the 
offices of State directors and local chairmen, and by the 
individual speakers in their travels to and from places of 
speaking and in their incidental expenses. These expenses 
have been recorded exactly wherever possible, and in other 
cases have been estimated very carefully from accurate data. 

Actual expenses of State director's offices $177, 090 

Expenses of local chairmen's offices ; estimated at $10 
monthly for the known average number of chairmen 

(.4,422 averaged over the entire 18-month period) 795,960 

Expenses of individual speakers, averaging 10 speakers to 
the chairman and allowing for each speaker $2 monthly 
for all traveling and incidental expenses 1, 591, 920 



Total of contributed expenses 2, 564, 970 

Thus the estimated amounts expended from voluntary con- 
tributions were more than 25 times the expenditures from the 
official appropriations. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 31 

SUMMARY. 

It is impossible to set an adequate monetary valuation upon 
services contributed so graciously and so patriotically as 
were those of all the Four Minute Men, the motion-picture 
theaters, newspapers, churches, granges, lodges, labor unions, 
and other agencies which have furthered this work. The fol- 
lowing attempt is made merely with a view to visualizing in 
some concrete and tangible form the material value of this 
work in relation to the actual cost thereof to the Government. 

It would not be reasonable to set a lower valuation than $4 
on the delivery of a four-minute speech, requiring the most 
painstaking and exact preparation and unusual skill in con- 
densation and forcefulness of delivery. Indeed, this sum is 
ridiculously small, but because of its numerical appropriate- 
ness let it be taken as a basis of valuation, in addition, of 
course, to the actual expenses of the speakers. 

Not with any suggestion of undervaluing the inestimable 
cooperation of the theaters and other places in which speeches 
were delivered, but rather, with a view to the most thorough 
conservatism, we will estimate a " rental value " for the deliv- 
ery of each speech at one-half the speakers' rate. 

The expenses of the various offices and individuals on the 
number of speeches, and also on the value of publicity gener- 
ously contributed by the press, have been recorded above. 
A summary of all these items gives the following estimated 
valuation : 

Official expenditures (headquarters) $101,555.10 

Contributed expenditures -— 2, 564, 970. 00 

One million speeches at $4 each 4, 000, 000. 00 

" Rent " of theaters, etc., to deliver above 2, 000, 000. 00 

Speeches (331) of traveling spealiers 8,275.00 

Publicity contributed by press 750, 000. 00 

Grand total - 9, 424, 800. 10 

Thus it appears that the investment of a sum of little more 
than $100,000 in this war-emergency agency has procured for 
the Government services and patriotic contributions to a con- 
servatively estimated total of nearly 95 times as much. 

In the fall of 1918 Mr. Blair entered an officers' training 
camp, and his place was taken by Mr. William H. IngersoU, 
a member of the Advisory Council since 1917. 



32 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

THE SPEAKING DIVISION. 

The Speaking Division owed its establishment to the need 
for some organization to act as a clearing house for national 
speaking campaigns. By the beginning of September, 1917, 
more than a dozen national speakers' bureaus were being con- 
ducted by Government departments and by associations which 
were seeking to promote the national interest. Scores of 
State speaking campaigns were being inaugurated under the 
auspices of councils of defense and other organizations. All 
these were competing for speakers, in danger of duplicating 
each others' activities, and failing to coordinate their efforts 
in an effective and comprehensive campaign. There was a 
need of some central clearing house in Washington through 
which these various organizations, working for a great com- 
mon purpose, but each with its special message, could be 
brought into touch with the affairs and facilities of other 
departments, and given the inspiration and information 
which came from the vital national interests involved. 
■ In consideration of these needs, the Speaking Division of 
the Committee on Public Information was brought into be- 
ing on September 25, 1917, through the approval of the 
President, given in the following letter : 

My Dear Mr. Creel : 

I heartily approve of the suggestion you have made that through 
your committee some effort be made to coordinate the work of the 
various bureaus, departments, and agencies interested in presenting 
from the platform various phases of the national task. With the 
cooperation of the departments, the Food Administration, the Council 
of National Defense, and the Committee on Public Information, it 
would seem possible to enlist the many State and private organizations 
who have put. the Nation's cause above every other issue and stand 
ready to participate in a speaking campaign that shall give to the 
people that fullness of information which will enable and inspire each 
citizen to play intelligently his part in the greatest and most vital 
struggle ever undertaken by self-governing nations. 

Your suggestion of Mr. Arthur E. Bestor, president of Chautauqua 
Institution, to direct this work is excellent. You are fortunate to 
be able to enlist one who has been so intimately connected with a 
great American educational institution devoted to popular instruction 
without prejudice or partisanship. 

Cordially and sincerely yours, 

WooDBOw Wilson. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 33 

Certain general policies were followed from the very be- 
ginning with such modifications as from time to time became 
necessary. It was not the purpose of the division to attempt 
to combine the speakers' bureaus of the several departments 
or private organizations, nor to assume any responsibility 
for supervision over them, but rather to establish a bureau 
to coordinate their efforts where they related to common 
aims or activities. It was the purpose to seek cooperation 
among these speakers' bureaus by agreement and consulta- 
tion; to offer a national clearing house for speaking cam- 
paigns; to avoid duplication of effort and overlapping of 
territory; and to supply speakers with usable information 
from Government departments; to concentrate the attention 
of speakers during special periods upon different national 
needs; and to foster in all speakers a sense of the unity of 
the national purpose. There was never an attempt to con- 
trol and supervise the speaking of the country — the problem 
was one of cooperation and coordination. 

A card catalogue of over 10,000 speakers and makers of 
public opinion was eventually gathered and a select list of 
300 effective speakers. Whenever a request was made for an 
individual address a list was prepared of those available for 
such service. This resulted in many appointments being 
made by organizations direct with speakers reconunended by 
the division. 

While aid was given to every organization that requested 
it, direct relationship was constantly kept up with the follow- 
ing organizations: Treasury Department (for the three Lib- 
erty loans). Department of Labor, Council of National De- 
fense, United States Food Administration, American Red 
Cross, Friends of German Democracy, American Alliance for 
Labor and Democracy, National Committee on the Churches 
and the Moral Aims of the War. Relations were established 
with many national organizations which had organized audi- 
ences, such as the United States Chamber of Commerce, Inter- 
national Association of Rotary Clubs, Advertising Clubs of 
the World, Open Forum National Council, League to Enforce 
Peace, and various bureaus conducting circuit chautauquas. 
The International Lyceum Association held a very successful | 
Conference for American Lecturers in Washington whose |^ 

121033—20 3 



34 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

I program was largely arranged through Mr. Creel's personal 
% approach to officials of our own and to allied Governments. 
The division kept in touch with all these organizations 
through bimonthly bulletins, conferences, and correspondence, 
and was thus able at all times to have knowledge of the 
patriotic campaigns which were being carried on in the 
country. 

In January, 1918, a service of speakers bulletins was in- 
augurated, which supplied approximately 15,000 makers of 
public opinion with various governmental publications. In 
order not to duplicate the work so admirably done by the 
Four Minute Men, it was decided after the third issue to 
utilize the bulletins of the Four Minute Men and other gov- 
ernmental agencies. I'he following bulletins were issued 
together with various publications of the committee : 

No. 1. " Purpose and Scope of the Work of the Speaking Division." 
No. 2. "Hints for Speakers — The Issues of the War at a Glance," ac- 
companied by publications of the Committee on Public In- 
formation as follows : 

How the A¥ar Came to America. 
The War Message and the Facts Behind it. 
The Nation in Arms. 
The Government of Germany. 
The Great War : from Spectator to Participant. 
No. 3. " Ships, Ships, and yet More Ships — The Nation's Greatest 
Need," accompanied by the War Encyclopedia issued by the 
Committee on Public Information. This bulletin was issued 
in cooperation with the United States Shipping Board. 
No. 4. Letter transmitting Four Minute Bulletin No. 24 "The Danger to 
Democracy " and the pamphlet " Conquest and Kultur " 
issued by the Committee on Public Information. 
No. 5. Letter transmitting the Four Minute Bulletin on the Third 
Liberty Loan issued in cooperation with the Treasury 
Department. 

In cooperation with the States Relations Division of the 
Council of National Defense speaking organizations were cre- 
ated under the State councils of defense in all of the States 
except New York and Delaware. Upon recommendation of 
the division, in connection with many State speakers' bureaus, 
there was organized a committee in which the following in- 
terests were represented: 

State Council of Defense. 

State Division of the Woman's Committee. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 35 

Extension Division, Department of Agriculture. 

State Department of Education. 

Extension Division of the State University. 

State Department of Labor. 

State Community Organizer. 

Cliairman Four Minute Men. 

Federal Food Administrator. 

Federal Fuel Administrator. 

Patriotic Societies which have carried on effective speaking cam- 
paigns or have ready-made audiences. 

It was possible therefore to route national speakers on 
short notice and put them into communities and before 
audiences where they could be most effective. This decen- 
tralization of the work meant that responsibility was put 
upon the State officials who knew intimately of local needs ~ 
and who had in Washington an organization in touch with 
all speaking campaigns. 

District conferences to plan war conferences and more 
effective organization were held by officers of the Speaking 
Division and the States Kelations Division with representa- 
tives of the State councils of defense as follows : Washing- 
ton, November 10, 1917, for Pennsylvania and the South 
Atlantic States ; Chicago, November 17, 1917, for the Middle 
Western States; Birmingham, February 15, 1918, for the 
Southern States; and Boston, April 1, 1918, for New Jersey 
and the New England States. 

In cooperation with the States Relations Division of the 
Council of National Defense and under the direct auspices 
of the State councils of defense, there were held 45 War 
Conferences in 37 States, and in addition, local conferences 
were held in four cities in Arizona and five cities in Utah. 
These War Conferences brought together all the effective 
war workers in the State, usually occupied two days, and m 
addition to the general meetings addressed by the speakers 
sent out by the division, there were sectional conferences 
held by Federal and State officials who were carrying on 
war work. These War Conferences were oftentimes the 
greatest gatherings held within the States during the war. 
They had a profound effect upon public opinion and upon 
the efficient organization of State war work. Usually the 
State-wide conferences were followed by county and town 
conferences of the same character. A list of the War Con- 



36 EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

ferences, with the speakers furnished by the division, is as 
follows : 

December 5-6, Richmond, Va. : 

Secretary Newton D. Baker, Hon. Henry J. Allen, George F. 
Porter, and Arthur E. Bestor. 
December 6-7, Columbia, S. O. : 

Hon. Henry J. Allen and Dr. J. A. B. Scherer. 
December 13-14, Indianapolis, Ind. : 

Vice President Marshall, George Creel, Medill McCormick, 
Lieut. Paul Perigord, and Arthur E. Bestor. 
December 14-15, Des Moines, Iowa. 
December 17-18, Philadelphia, Pa. : 

Secretary William G. McAdoo, Lieut. Paul Perigord, and Ar- 
thur E. Bestor. 
December 20, Little Rock, Ark. 

January 14-15, Chicago, 111. ; 15-16, Louisville, Ky. ; 16-17, Columbia, 
Mo. ; 17-18, Topeka, Kans. ; 18-19, Lincoln, Nebr. : 

Sir Frederick E. Smith, Solicitor General John W. Davis, Dr. 
George E. Vincent, and Arthur E. Bestor. 
February 20, Lansing, Mich. ; 2'2', Sioux Falls, S. Dak. : 

Hon. Crawford Vaughan and Prof. Thomas F. Moran. 

February 24, St. Paul, Minn. : "^^ 

Hon. Joseph C. Grew and Prof. Thomas F. Moran. 
February 25, Bismarck, N. Dak. : 

Hon. Joseph C. Grew, Prof. Thomas F. Moran, and Charles 
Edward Russell. 
February 26, Aberdeen, S. Dak. : 

Hon. Joseph C. Grew and Prof. Thomas F. Moran. 
March 11, Oklahoma City, Okla. ; 12, Dallas, Tex. ; 13, Houston, Tex. ; 
14, Shreveport, La. ; 15, Jackson, Miss. ; 16, New Orleans, La. ; 18, 
Birmingham, Ala. ; 19, Atlanta, Ga. ; 21, Tampa, Fla. ; 22, Jackson- 
ville, Fla. ; 23, Columbia, S. C. : 

Secretary David ¥. Houston, Lieut. Paul Perigord, and Prof. 
Thomas F. Moran. 
May 7-8, Denver, Colo. ; 9-10, Albuquerque, N. Mex. ; 10-11, El Paso, 
Tex. ; 11, Phoenix, Ariz. ; 13-14, Los Angeles, Calif. ; 14-15, San 
Francisco, Calif.; 16-17, Reno, Nev. ; 17-18, Salt Lake City, Utah; 
20-21, Boise, Idaho ; 22-23, Portland, Oreg. ; 24-25, Seattle, Wash. ; 
27-28, Spokane, Wash. ; 28-29, Helena. Mont. : 

Lieut. Paul Perigord, Prof. Guy Stanton Ford, and George B. 
Chandler. 
May 7, Trenton, N. J. : 

Maj. Laughlin McLean Watt, Maj. Rutledge Smith, Senator J. 
Hamilton Lewis, and Arthur E. Bestor. ■ 
May 8, Portland, Me. ; 9, Concord, N. H. ; 10, Montpelier, Vt. ; 11, 
Hartford, Conn. : 

Hon. Frederick D. Walcott, Maj. Laughlin McLean Watt, Maj. 
Rutledge Smith, and Arthur E. Bestor. 



EEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 37 

The most extensive work of the division was the handling 
of national speakers and routing through the country repre- 
sentatives of our own Government and of our Allies. No sal- 
aries were paid any speakers and no payment made for indi- 
vidual addresses except traveling expenses, which were some- 
times borne by the division and oftentimes by the State or 
local organization for whom they spoke. The most distin- 
guished speakers in America were among those who gave 
their services on this basis. The division worked in close co- 
operation with the British War Mission, the French High 
Commission, the Italian Embassy, the Belgian Legation, as 
well as with the various departments of the United States 
Government. 

Among officials of our own Government for whom appoint- 
ments were made were Vice President Marshall ; Secretaries 
Baker, Lane, McAdoo, Houston, and Redfield; Solicitor Gen- 
eral John W. Davis ; Senators Kenyon and Nelson ; Congress- 
man Albert Sidney Johnson ; Col. Clarence Ousley and Carl 
Vrooman, Assistant Secretaries of Agriculture ; Hon. Joseph 
E. Grew ; Hon. Gaillard Hunt and Hon. Wesley Frost, of the 
Department of State ; Hon. F. C. Walcott ; Dr. Vernon Kel- 
logg; Maj. W. L. Brown, Dr. Henry J. Waters, and Dr. Henry 
C. Culbertson, of the Food Administration; and Dr. Anna 
Shaw and Miss Ida Tarbell, of the Woman's Committee of 
the Council of National Defense. 

In cooperation with the British War Mission, engagements 
were made for Sir Frederick E. Smith, the British Attorney 
General; Sir Walter Lawrence, Sir George Adam Smith, 
Gen. H. D. Swinton, Col. A. C. Murray, Maj. Ian Hay Beith, 
Lieut. Hector MacQuarrie, Hon. Harald Smith, Maj. Robert 
Massie, and Maj. Laughlin McLean Watt. 

The French High Commission placed at the disposal of the 
division Lieut. Paul Perigord for seven months' service, and 
appointments were also made for M. de Billy, M. Maurice 
Casenave, and Lieut. Wierzbicke. 

Speaking engagements were also arranged for Lieut. Bruno 
Roselli, of the Italian Embassy. 

In cooperation with the Friends of German Democracy, 
Mr. Henry Riesenburg made 27 addresses in 19 States ; Dr. 
Frank Bohn, 9 addresses in 3 States ; Dr. William H. Bohn, 



38 EEPORT COMMITTEE OK PUBLIC INFOKMATION. 

26 addresses in 3 States ; Dr. Karl Mathie, 18 addresses in 2 
States ; and Prof. A. E. Koenig, 9 addresses. 

The American Alliance for Labor and Democracy were fur- 
nished many speakers, but most the engagements were made 
direct. 

Lieut. Paul Perigord, loaned to the division for seven 
months by the French High Commission, made 152 addresses 
under the auspices of the division in all parts of the country. 
Probably no speaker heard in America aroused more en- 
thusiasm. 

Lieut. Hector MacQuarrie, through the cooperation of the 
British War Mission, gave 93 addresses in four months in 9 
States, and everywhere was a most effective speaker for the 
allied cause. 

Hon. Crawford Vaughan, ex-premier of South Australia, 
a noted labor leader, was brought across the continent" by the 
division, spoke at several of the War Conferences, and gave 
in all 22 addresses under the auspices of the division until he 
became connected with the United States Shipping Board. 

Capt. Eaould Amundsen, who had had unusual opportunities 
to observe the American troops at the front, made a tour in 
March and April, speaking 13 times in 6 States with par- 
ticular success before Scandinavian audiences. 

Hon. Wesley Frost, former consul at Queenstown, and the 
official reporter of 81 submarine sinkings, created profound 
sensation in his transcontinental tours, and from September 
to February gave 63 addresses in 29 States for the Speaking 
Division. 

Charles Edward Russfell, a member of the President's 
Commission to Russia, who was particularly effective before 
labor audiences, gave 58 addresses from October to February 
in all parts of the country. 

Congressman Albert Johnson, just back from the front, 
delivered 19 addresses in 9 States from December to Feb- 
ruary. 

In conjunction with the Four Minute Men, Prof. S. H. 
Clark delivered 19 addresses in 4 of the Western States 
in March and April. 

Among others for whom the division made speaking en- 
gagements are the following: Prof. Guy Stanton Ford, Dr. 
Mitchell Carroll, George B. Chandler, Maj. Rutledge Smith, 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 39 

Mary Antin, Dr. George E. Vincent, Prof. J. S. P. Tatlock, 
Dr. Hugh Birckhead, Richard D. Hollington, Justice S. 
Harrison White, Dr. T. Alexander Cairns, Dr. James Sulli- 
van, Judge A. D. Dabney, Gapt. J. M. de Beaufort, William 
Forkell, Prof. Bertram Nelson, Dr. E. Y. Mullins, Judge 
Clarence W. Goodwin, Sergt. Bernard S. Wolff, Felix M. 
Warburg, Dr. D. F. Garland, Dr. George E. Raiguel, William 
B. Guthrie, Bishop William F. McDowell, James Hugh 
Keeley, Col. Thomason, Miss Jane Addams, Dr. J. A. B. 
Scherer. 

Inasmuch as the division had relations with State councils 
of defense in practically all the States and with various 
organizations like the chambers of commerce, rotary clubs, 
and others that had ready-made audiences, the division came 
more and more to be the organization to handle tours for 
patriotic purposes which were other than merely speaking 
tours. The French Blue Devils were routed under the aus- 
pices of the division and the 344 Belgian soldiers returning 
from Russia were brought across the continent by the divi- 
sion. The 50 American soldiers sent by Gen. Pershing to 
aid in the third Liberty loan were, at the conclusion of that 
loan, routed by the division for one month and heard in 
practically all of the States. 

An extensive trip through the South was arranged for the 
Marquis and Marquise de Courtivron and the Marquis and 
Marquise de Polignac, accompanied by Mr. Charles Edward 
Russell. 

Mr. Arthur E. Bestor, president of Chautauqua Institu- 
tion, and from May until September, 1917, chairman of the 
committee of lecturers and entertainments in training camps 
for the Young Men's Christian Association War Council, 
was Director of the Speaking Division from its organiza- 
tion, September 25, 1917, until its consolidation with the 
Four Minute Division, September 1, 1918. From Septem- 
ber until May he delivered 53 addresses under the auspices 
of the division. 

Mr. J. J. Petti John, director of the extension division of 
Indiana University and head of the Indiana State Speakers' 
Bureau, became associate director of the division on May 
6, 1918, and from June was in active charge in the absence 
of Mr. Bestor, until the consolidation of the division with 



40 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

the Four Minute Men, when he become the associate director 

of that division. His wide experience in popular education 

and his ability as an organizer were of great value to the 

division in the last months of its separate organization. 

, *'/■ Prof. Thomas F. Moran, of Purdue University, was loaned 

|ffo the division by that institution for service from January 

jto April. His ability as a writer and speaker was used to 

1^ great advantage in the editing of the bulletins and in ad- 

■ dresses before the Southern War Conferences and individual 

addresses before many audiences, 34 in all. 

Mr. W. Frank McClure, publicity director of the Eedpath 
Bureau, Chicago, was loaned by that organization to the 
division for the month of November. He performed a very 
useful service in organizing the publicity machinery for the 
committee. 

DIVISION OF PICTORIAL PUBLICITY. 

One of the first realizations of the Committee on Public 
Information was the importance of pictorial publicity in 
building morale, arousing the spiritual forces of the Nation, 
and stimulating the war will of the people. It was not only 
that America needed posters, but it needed the hest posters 
ever drawn. To this end the Division of Pictorial Publicity 
was created on April 17, 1917, and the following organization 
formed to mobilize the art forces of the United States : 

Chairman. — Charles Dana Gibson. 

Vice chairman and secretary. — F. D. Casey. 

Associate chairmen. — Herbert Adams, E. H. Blashfleld, Ralph Clark- 
son, Cass Gilbert, Oliver D. Grover, Francis Jones, Arthur F. Mat- 
thews, Joseph Pennell, Edmond Tarbell, Douglas Volk. 

Executive committee. — F. G. Cooper, N. Pousette-Dart, I. Doskow, 
F. E. Dayton, C. B. Falls, Albert E. Gallatin, Ray Greenleaf, Miss 
Malvina Hoffman, W. A. Rogers, Lieut. Henry Reuterdahl, U. S. N. 
R. F. ; H. Scott Train, H. D. Welsh, J. Thompson Willing, H. T. Web- 
ster, Walter Whitehead, Jack Sheridan. 

Departmental captains. — C. B. Falls, H. T. Webster, Walter White- 
head, Ray Greenleaf, I. Doskow, N. Pousette-Dart, H. Scott Train. 

Enlisting for the duration of the war, as members of the 
division, American painters, sculptors, designers, postermen, 
illustrators, and cartoonists volunteered their artistic services 
to the Government, and worked together under the chairman- 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOlJT. 



41 



ship of Mr. Gibson, with headquarters at No. 200 Fifth Ave- 
nue, New York City. 

To increase the scope of the committee and to stimulate 
the personal interest of the artists outside of New .York, 
sectional branches were formed, and Oliver Dennett Grover, 
of Chicago, became the chairman of the Western Committee, 
Mr. E. Tarbell and Mr. Arthur F. Matthews taking charge 
in Boston and San Francisco. 

The full contribution of the artists of America to the na- 
tional cause, as well as the reliance placed upon the Division 
of Pictorial Publicity by every department of Government, 
is shown by the following record of achievement : 





Poster 
designs. 


Car, bus, 

and 
window 
cards. 


News- 
paper and 
other ad- 
vertising. 


Cartoons. 


Seals, 

buttons,. 

banners, 

etc. 


American Red Cross, Washington and 


100 

50 

3 

100 

100 

7 

101 

18 

10' 

50 

25 

11 

11 

14 

6 

6 

4 

1 

33 


25 
50 
10 


100 
25 
15 
25 


50 
50 






















8 


1 






43 
3 

15 
3 

10 






2 
1 
1 

15 
10 




1 




1 

10 
50 
23 

1 


4 


















1 








1 


Pubhc Health Service 


6 


3 

7 
7 
3 
2 
4 
3 






Young Men's Christian Association 

Young Women's Christian Association . 














15 








1 








1 








2 








20 

7 




Umted States Boys Worldng Reserve.. 


5 


1 
1 


2 




3 






2 
2 
6 
10 








2 
4 
11 
2 
2 
2 
3 
6 
2 
1 
5 
1 
3 
5 
6 
8 
1 
1 




1 
5 
3 














1 




















































1 




1 


































9 
1 
2 




1 














































Federation of Neighborhood Associa- 




1 






Offlce of Chief of Staff 


1 
1 
3 


















Bastile Day 






i4 





42 



EEPOET COMMITTEE ON I TBLIC INFORMATION. 







X 










^ar,bus. 
Poster and 
designs, window 
cards. 


News- 
paper and 
other ad- 
vertising. 


Cartoons. 


Seals, 
button's, 
banners, 

etc. 


Ma.riTifi Corps 


5 
2 
2 










Fifth Avenue Association 










American Poets Committee 










Federal Food Board 




3 
2 






Rehabilitating Wounded Soldiers 






2 


1 


Dewey Recreation Committee 


1 






Italian War Work ... 






1 




Mayor's Committee 


1 
1 
3 
1 








Official Bulletin 








Phonograph Recruiting Records 






25 




Connecticut Defense Council 












1 


1 





United War AVork Campaign 


5 















RECAPITULATION. 
Departments and committees requesting work 



58 



Poster designs submitted 700 

Cards requested 122 

Newspaper and other advertistug 310 

Cartoons submitted 287 

Seals, buttons, etc., executed 19 

Total material (drawmgs, designs, etc.) 1, 438 



In addition to the above, Lieut. Henry Keuterdahl and 
N. C. Wyeth worked on a painting 90 feet long, 25 feet high, 
which was placed at the Subtreasury Building for the third 
Liberty loan. Lieut. Keuterdahl made also three paintings, 
each over 20 feet, for the publicity of the fourth Liberty loan 
in Washington, D. C. 

During the United War Work Campaign the same plan 
was followed, seven artists painting on days assigned, in 
front of the Public Library, two others assigned in front of 
the Metropolitan Museum. This work was carried on by 
a committee of this division. These artists were : 

P. D. Steele, Young Men's Christian Association. 

Micldleton Chambers, Knights of Columbus. 

C. B. Falls, Salvation Army. 

I. Olinsky, Jewish Welfare. 

Denman Fink, Library Association. 

Jean McLane, Young Woman's Christian Association. 

Howard Giles, War Camp Community Service. 

Charles Chapman and Luis Mora, Metropolitan Museum. 

An Allied War Salon, under the direction of Mr. Albert 
Eugene Gallatin, appointed by Mr. Charles Dana Gibson, 
to further the cause of pictorial propaganda and to acquaint 



EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 43 

our people with the extent of our nlitary and naval prepara- 
tions, was held at the American Art Galleries from December 
9 to 24. A feature of this salon was the 200 drawings by 
the artists officially attached to our armies in France. 

All of the above mentioned work was gratuitously offered 
by and through the Division of Pictorial Publicity. 

Too great credit can not be given to Mr. Gibson and to 
Mr. Casey for inspired leadership and tireless enthusiasm. 

When Gen. Pershing cabled for the services of eight 
artists, the question of picking the proper men was placed 
in the hands of the Division of Pictorial Publicity. 

Besides the work of procuring drawings, this division 
has also arranged complete exhibitions of American posters 
in such places as the Corcoran Art Gallery, in Washington; 
the Academy of Fine Arts, of Philadelphia; the Art Insti- 
tute, of Chicago; the Brooklyn Academy, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; 
Aeolin Hall, Brooklyn; the Woman's Committee, East 
Orange, N. J. ; the National Arts Club, oi New York City ; 
Taft Hotel, New Haven, Conn.; the Graphic Arts Society, 
New York City; and the Philadelphia Sketch Club, Phila- 
delphia. 

THE DIVISION OF ADVERTISING. 

I hereby create, under the jurisdiction of the Committee on Public 
Information, heretofore establislied by Executive order of April 14, 
1917, a Division of Advertising for the purpose of receiving and di- 
recting through the proper channels the generous offers of the adver- 
tising forces of the Nation to support the effort of the Government to 
inform public opinion properly and adequately. 

WooDEow Wilson. 

By virtue of this authority, the advertising forces of the 
United States were mobilized, and the great organizations, 
by request, named these men to serve as a board of control : 
Mr. William H. Johns, chairman, president of the Ameri- 
can Association of Advertising Agencies, representing 115 
leading firms of this kind in the country; Mr. Thomas Cu- 
sack, the acknowledged head of the poster and painted bul- 
letin industry; Mr. W. C. D'Arcy, president of the Associ- 
ated Advertising Clubs of the World, representing 180 ad- 
vertising clubs with a combined membership of 17,000 ; Mr. 
O. C. Harn, chairman of the National Commission of the 



44 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION". 



Associated Advertising Clubs of the World; Mr. Herbert 
S. Houston, formerly president of the Associated Advertis- 
ing Clubs of the World; Mr. Lewis B. Jones, president of 
the Association of National Advertisers; and Mr. Jesse H. 
Neal, executive secretary of the Associated Business Papers, 
consisting of 500 leading trade and technical publications. 

Over 800 publishers of monthly and weekly periodicals 
gave space, worth $159,275.64 per month, for the duration of 
the war and this was being increased monthly when the arm- 
istice terminated the arrangement. In addition, advertisers 
of merchandise purchased $340,981.21 vforth of space in va- 
rious nationally-circulated periodicals and turned this space 
over to the Division of Advertising to use for Government 
purposes. These were definite purchases for 1918, but indi- 
cations had already been given that renewals would follow 
in 1919. Figuring on a yearly basis, the donation of space 
only has totaled approximately $2,250,000. Of this, only 
about $1,594,000 was used, owing to the sudden cessation of 
activities. 

Following summarizes in total all space with which the 
Division of Advertising has dealt — all contributed by pa- 
triotic advertisers and publishers for the winning of the war : 



Insertions. 


1, 512 

1,443 

4,353 

831 


653 
377 
llfi 


10 


9, 367 



Circulation. 



Amount. 



General ma<ra?ines 

F'arm papers 

Trade and miscellaneous publications 

House organs 

Outdoor display 

Newspapers 

College papers 

Book jackets 

Theater curtains 

Total 



351, 409, 159 

134,279,895 

41,377,554 

14,386,475 



6, 272, 636 
1, 107, 429 



S895, 

361, 

238, 

52, 

S, 

17, 

12, 

' 7, 

1, 



108. 29 
221. 84 
102. 47 
727. 50 
550.00 
567. 60 
337. 01 
700. 00 
500.00 



548,833,148 1,594,814.71 



' Estimated. 



Also much space in advertisers' own publications was de- 
voted to Go^^ernment work in a similar manner, but as such 
space is not sold, a market value can not be put upon it. 
Miscellaneous donations of space included space in mer- 
chants' local newspaper advertising and local advertising 
through syndicated advertising service. We are unable to 
include in our reported figures, though it has been of great 
value, outdoor advertising in both poster and painted signs. 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 45 

totaling many thousands of dollars. Nor do these figures 
indicate the advertising values contributed by window dis- 
plays. This feature was made possible by the intelligent co- 
operation of the International Association of Display Men. 
This organization appointed a National War Service Com- 
mittee on Window Displays, the chairman of which, Mr. 
C. J. Potter, took a desk in the New York offices of the 
Division of Advertising and not only turned over to the 
division the entire window display resources of the associa- 
tion in 600 cities, but directed the entire work of creating 
patriotic window displays throughout the country so that, 
timed to the minute, they supplemented our campaigns in 
the periodicals. The window display committee was instru- 
mental in the building of 60,000 reported displays on various 
Government subjects, and probably hundreds more un- 
reported. 

At the very top of the list of those who gave freely of their 
time and of the services of their expert employees stand the 
advertising agents of the country. Their services were of- 
ferred Avithout reserve and without charge, even much of 
the finished work being furnished free of cost. 

The Division of Advertising planned and handled cam- 
paigns for the following agencies of the Government : Ship- 
ping Board, War Savings, Food Commission, the Liberty 
Loans, War Department, Training Camp Activities, De- 
partment of Agriculture, Council of National Defense, De- 
partment of Labor, Fuel Commission, United War Work 
Drive, and the Ked Cross. It was this division that con- 
ceived the idea and prepared the drawing and copy for " The 
Greatest Mother in the World," since used as the Eed Cross 
symbol. As an illustration of the manner in which this di- 
vision handled a campaign, the case of the selective draft 
may be described in detail. Gen. Crowder laid his problem 
before the experts, explaining the need of a concentrated 
drive in obtaining registration on September 12 of 13,000,000 
men, 18 to 45 years of age. The Advertising Service Bulletin 
and the ^elective Service Register, folders containing ad- 
vertisements, were prepared by the Division of Advertising 
through the cooperation of its committees. The Advertising 
Bulletin furnished newspapers and advertisers with officially 
approved copy in both editorial and advertising form ready 



46 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION". 

to run. This material was extensively used throughout the 
country by newspapers and by advertisers in their local ad- 
vertising. The Selective Service Register contained offi- 
cially signed messages as to the duty of registration from 
President Wilson, Secretary Baker, Gen. Crowder, Secretary 
Daniels, and Gen. March, and was published to help 135000,000 
men to know how, when, and where to register. It contained 
poster of notification of registration and explicit directions 
of how to answer questions on registration card. Also in- 
structions for registrars. Special mailings of these publica- 
tions were produced and distributed through the Division 
of Distribution to the extent of some 20,000,000 copies, in- 
cluding 18,000 newspapers, 11,000 national advertisers and 
agencies, 10,000 chambers of commerce and their members, 
30,000 manufacturers' associations, 22,000 labor unions, 
10,000 public libraries, 32,000 banks, 58,000 general stores, 
3,500 Young Mens' Christian Association branches, 10,000 
mem.bers of the Council of National Defense, 1,000 advertis- 
ing cliibs, 56,000 post offices, 55,000 railroad station agents, 
5,000 draft boards, 100,000 Red Cross organizations, 12,000 
manufacturers' agents. Also there was a special mailing 
card sent out to a list of 43,000 Rural Free Delivery routes. 

Also there was planned a street-car campaign which ran 
throughout the country, including space in the Subway Sun 
and Elevated Express in all cars of the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Co., of New York City. A poster and painted-sign 
campaign was also planned and displayed throughout the 
country. 

Through the services of the National War Service Com- 
mittee on Window Displays approximately 37,000 posters or 
notices to register were displayed in the windows of promi- 
nent stores in over 600 cities. 

A full-page advertisement of the Selective Registration 
Day appeared in publications of general circulation, includ- 
ing leading farm publications, practically all of the trade 
and technical journals. 

This excerpt from an appreciation by Gen. Crowder is an 
example of the many that were sent to the division by heads 
of the Government : 

Now that the I'ush of registration preparation lias abated, I take 
the first available moment to express to you and your division my 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATION. 47 

gratitude for your hearty cooperation in the task of securing publicity 
for tlae Registration Day. 

Over and above the fine organization of tlie committee's staff as a 
whole, what has impressed me particularly in your division is the thor- 
oughness with which you have organized the patriotic assistance of 
private citizens in contributing to the public service rendered by the 
committee. It is genuinely American in its method — this voluntary 
union of individual citizens to accomplish these results which in some 
Continental countries are left to the vast army of Government officials. 
Yours faithfully, 

E. H. Crowder, 
Provost Marfihal General. 

FILM DIVISION. 

At the very outset the Committee on Public Information 
made the decision that the three great agencies of appeal in 
the fight for public opinion were: The Written Word, the 
Spoken Word, and the Motion Picture. Even as the speak- 
ing forces and the writers of the Nation were mobilized, so 
were stej)s taken in the very first days to utilize every resource 
of the camera. 

In the beginning the Film Division contented itself with 
taking the war material made by the Signal Corps, at home 
and abroad, and distributing it fairly, and at a nominal 
price, to the weekly film services for distribution. Expert 
camera men were also employed with the production of fea- 
ture pictures to be distributed by the various patriotic socie- 
ties, and State councils of defense, in such manner as to avoid 
competition with the commercial motion picture industry. 
Among the early pictures thus produced were : 

The 1917 Recruit, 2 editions (training of the' National Army). 

The Second Liberty Loan. 

Ready for the Fight (Artillery and Cavalry maneuvers). 

Soldiers of the Sea (Marine Corps in training). 

Torpedo Boat Destroyers (naval maneuvers). 

Submarines. 

Army and Navy Sports. 

The Spirit of 1917 ( the largest maneuver staged in America ; an 
attack by the Jackies at Lake Bluff upon Fort Sheridan, 111. ) . 

In a Southern Camp (general Army maneuvers). 

The Lumber Jack (showing the growth of the Lumber Jack Regi- 
ment for reconstruction work in Europe). 



48 EEPORT COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC IISTFORMATION. 

The Medical Officers' Reserve Corps in Action (sliowing the develop- 
ment of the Medical Corps and training)., 

Fire and Gas (showing maneuvers of the new Thirtieth Engineer 
Regiment ) . 

American Ambulances (complete display of ambulance work). 

Labor's Part in Democracy's War (labor-union activities in the 
war). 

Annapolis (naval officers in the making). 

Ship Building (construction of all types of ships). 

Making of Big Guns. 

Making of Small Arms. 

Making of Uniforms for the Soldiers. 

Activities of the Engineers. 

Woman's Part in the War. 

Men Who Are Doing Things (portraying upon the screen, as far as 
possible, every person who is mentioned in public print as being active 
in war preparations). 

The Conquest of the Air (airplane and balloon maneuvers). 

These pictures were not put in motion-picture theaters, 
except when especially engaged for the purposes of some war 
benefit; they were shown free, except when used for such 
benefits. As time went on, however, it was seen that this 
method of distribution not only put an unnecessary burden 
of expense upon the Government, but that it was failing abso- 
lutely to place the pictorial record of America's war progress 
before more than a small percentage of the motion-picture 
audiences of the world. The growth of the Signal Corps' 
great photographic section was producing an enormous 
amount of material, both in the United States and France, 
possessed of the very highest propaganda value, and for 
purposes of 100 per cent utilization, the policies of the Film 
Division were subjected to a radical reorganization under 
Mr. Charles S. Hart. Great feature films, like Pershing's 
Crusaders, America's Answer, and Under Four Flags, were 
made, given impressive showings under governmental aus- 
pices in the larger cities, and then distributed under an equi- 
table commercial arrangement that returned to the Govern- 
ment the full cost of production. 

' England, France, and Italy were drawn into partnership 
with us, and an Official War Eeview, issued weekly, carried 
to every part of the world a weekly presentation of the fight- 
ing on every front, and the story of each nation's efforts and 
determinations. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON" fUBLIC iKFORMATION. 49 

The congressional appropriation for the work of the Film 
Division was $205,000, given June 30, 1918. By March, 1919, 
over $400,000 had been turned into the Treasury of the United 
States by the Film Division. In addition to this showing 
of profit, receipts were generous enough to meet much of the 
cost of the free distribution of these films in the neutral 
countries of the world, as well as enabling the educational 
department to furnish free service to training camps and base 
hospitals, as well as to a great number of patriotic organiza- 
tions and institutions. 

In June, 1918, the Bureau of Allied War Expositions was 
organized as a bureau in the Division of Films, and on 
September 1, 1918, the division absorbed the Bureau of War 
Photographs. 

The Bureau of War Photographs is the only department 
of this division which does not show a profit. This has been 
due to the fact that we have made every effort to furnish a 
service to the families of the boys overseas who were in- 
terested in securing official pictures at an extremely low rate. 

DIVISION OF FILMS, COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

Gross income report for the period ended May 31, 1919. 

Income from Division of Films : 

Pershing's Crusaders $181, 741. 69 

America's Answer 185, 144. 30 

Under Four Flags 63, 946. 48 

Official War Review 334, 622. 3-5 

Our Bridge of Ships 992. 41 

U. S. A. Series 13, 864. 98 

Our Colored Fighters 640.60 

News Weekly 15, 150. 00 

Miscellaneous sales -^ 56, 641. 58 

Total sales from films 852, 744. 39 

Sale of property -.— 2, 685. 45 

Interest and discount-: 4,564.51 

859, 994. 35 
121033—20 4 



50 KEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

Income from Expositions : 

S'an Francisco $54, 274. 80 

Los Angeles 65, 375. 75 

Cliicago 583, 731. 24 

Cleveland 167, 355. 51 

Waco • 16, 904. 70 

Pittsburgh 147, 804. 16 

Kansas City 28, 646. 20 

Cincinnati 66,541.20 

Bufealo 60, 354. 27 

St. Louis ^ 23, 570. 40 

New Orleans 14,439.20 

Toledo 50, 003. 02 

Detroit 63, 470. 74 

Houston 22, 684. 05 

Milwaukee ., 49, 372. 02 

St. Paul (small exhibit) 9, 065. 34 

Jackson (small exhibit) 5,169.29 

Little Rock (small exhibit) 2,458.72 

Oklahoma (smtai exhibit) 4,664.71 

Great Falls (small exhibit) 996.07 

Waterloo (small exhibit) 1,122.85 

Total income, Expositions 1, 438, 004. 24 

Income from Bureau of War Photographs : 

Sales of photographs and slides 68, 857. 38 

Sales of property 1, 196. 56 

Interest and discount 546. 16 

Total income, Bureau of War Photographs 70, 600. 10 

Receipts from Foreign Section : 

Archangel 1 3, 928. 00 

Argentina . 3, 293. 49 

China 2, 055. 88 

Holland 58, 698. 93 

Italy 29, 729. 49 

Mexico 25, 423. 29 

Spain 14, 000. 00 

Sweden 6, 441. 38 

Switzerland 11, 196. 69 

Miscellaneous 24, 287. 86 

179, 155. 01 

Interest 284. 69 

179, 439. 70 

Total income 2, 548, 038. 39 

(Vladivostok and Harbin reports not yet received.) 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 51 

PERSONNEL OF THE DIVISION OF FILMS. 

Director. — Charles S. Hart. 
Domestic Distribution. — Denis J. Sullivan. 
Educational Bureau. — Miss Clare de Lissa Berg. 
Bureau of War Expositions. — Chester I. Campbell, William Ganson 
Rose, Dean C. Mathews, directors. 

Bureau of War Photographs. — William A. Grant. 

Department of Scenarios and Doinestic Production. — Rufus Steele^ 

Aiiditing Department. — T. S. Barrett. 

Foreign Film Distribution. — Marcus A. Beeman, E. M. Anderson. 

Distribution feature pictures. — George Bowles. 

Laboratory. — Robert Rinehart. 

BUREAU OF DISTRIBUTION OF TPIE DIVISION OF FILMS. 

Film distribution was handled (outside of the States of 
California, North Dakota, and Michigan, in which States 
the distribution of Government films w^as in charge of the 
councils of defense of those respective States) by contract 
with established film^distributing organizations on a per- 
centage basis, in accordance with the established custom in 
the motion-picture industry. 

The respective Government films were distributed by the 
follow^ing distributing organizations : 

Ofiicial War Review, Pathe Exchange (Inc). 

Pershing's Crusaders, First National Exhibitors' Circuit (Inc.). 

America's Answer, World Film Corporation. 

Under Four Flags, World Film Corporation. 

U. S. A. Series, World Film Corporation. 

Our Colored Fighters, Downing Films Co. (colored). 

Divisional representatives. — From September 15 to De- 
cember 15 the Domestic Distribution Department had in the 
field 17 sales representatives stationed in the various centers 
of distribution, such as New York, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, 
Indianapolis, St. Louis, Seattle, Salt Lake City, New Orleans, 
and Atlanta, which representatives supervised the sales 
e^'orts of the distributor and made direct governmental 
appeal to exhibitors on behalf of the Government films, and 
also adjusted and regulated the problems resulting from the 
close and noncompetitive booking of these films. 

The aim of this department was to secure the widest pos- 
sible distribution of the Government films in the shortest 



52 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 



possible time. To this end every effort was made to elimi- 
nate the competitive idea from the minds of exhibitors and 
to, wherever possible, secure simultaneous showings in 
houses which ordinarily competed for pictures. 

Proportionate selling flan. — There was also inaugurated 
a proportionate selling plan whereby the rental charged 
every house was based on the average income derived from 
that particular house. By this method the small house as 
well as the large one could afford to run the Government 
films. The result of these efforts to obtain thq widest possible 
showing for Government films is tabulated below, and it 
may be mentioned that the showing of America's Answer 
breaks all records for range of distribution of any feature 
of any description ever marketed. 



Title of production. 



Reels 
(each). 



Number 
of prints 
circu- 
lated. 



Total 
bookings 

of 
record. 



Number 

of 
theaters 
played. 



Con- 
tracted 
theaters 
still to 

play. 



Official War Review (1 every week for 

31 weeks) 

Pershing's Crusaders 

America's Answer 

Under Four Flags 

U. S. A. Series (4 subjects) 



1145 
112 
103 
73 
25 



6,950 
4,189 
4, 548 
1,820 
212 



6,950 

3, 352 

3,026 

716 



837 
1,522 
1,104 



> Of each issue. 



Additional contracts on all features are still being received. 
(This report as noted above does not include the States of 
North Dakota, California, and Michigan.) 

On the basis of a total of 12,000 motion-picture theaters in 
the United States, over one-half the total number of theaters 
in the country exhibited the Official War Eeview and nearly 
that portion America's Answer. (Bearing in mind that three 
States are not included in the figures on the Government 
distribution.) 

In the film industry a booking of 40 per cent of the theaters 
is considered as 100 per cent distribution because of the close 
proximity of a great number of theaters, rendering them 
dependent on the same patronage — that is, theaters are plotted 
as available in zones rather than as individual theaters, thus 
three theaters in one zone present but one possible booking 
because of the identity of clientele. Taking this into con- 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 53 

sideration, the distribution of Government features approxi- 
mated 80 per cent and 90 per cent rather than 50 per cent 
distribution, although on America's Answer in certain terri- 
tories such as New York and Seattle the percentage of total 
theaters booked reached over 60 per cent and 54 per cent, 
respectively, which on the above basis would equal 100 per 
cent distribution. 

A^eios weeklies. — In addition to the above activities this 
department furnished to each of the four film news week- 
lies — Gaumont, Pathe, Universal, and Mutual — a weekly 
quota of 500 feet of topical war film to be incorporated into 
their respective film news weeklies. 

Theater adTnissions. — Beginning with America's Answer 
a clause was inserted in the feature contract with the ex- 
hibitor expressly providing that no advance in admission 
prices should be made during the showing of the Government 
films; this was made practical by the proportionate selling 
plan in effect, and it also made it possible for the public to 
see these features at the same price paid to see any film at 
the particular theater, small or large. 

Publicity. — Publicity matter was furnished to newspapers 
and periodicals of all description throughout the country, 
which was used generously by those publications, which also 
cooperated splendidly with local theaters on these features 
by timing the publication of this matter just preceding and 
concurrently with the local play dates of the Government 
features. 

This department also prepared and distributed to every 
exhibitor in the United States press sheets on the several 
Government films, which stimulated bookings, especially in 
the remote communities not reached by the general publicity. 

Govermnent presentations. — In order to lend a certain dig- 
nity to the Government features which would be sufficiently 
impressive to take them out of the class of ordinary motion- 
picture productions in the minds of the general public, and 
to stimulate interest in them on the part of officials and in- 
fluential citizens whose expressed opinions were worth much 
in securing showings of these pictures, there were given 
governmental presentations of each of the three big features 
as follows: 



54 EEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 



Pershing's Crusaders was shown in the following 24 princi- 
pal cities of the United States : 



Boston, Mass. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Chicago, 111. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Denver, Colo. 
Detroit, Mich. 

America's Answer 

Albany, N. Y. 
Atlanta, Ga. 
Atlantic City, N. J. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Boston, Mass. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, 111. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 



Kansas City, Mo. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Minneapolis, Minn 
New York, N. Y. 
Omaha, Nebr. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Portland, Oreg. 



St. Louis, Mo. 
St. Paul, Minn. 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 
San Francisco, Calif. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Spokane, Wash. 
Toledo, Ohio. 
Washington, D. C. 

in the 34 following cities : 



Columbus, Ohio. 
Dayton, Ohio. 
Denver, Colo. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Macon, Ga. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Nashville, Tenn. 
New Haven, Conn. 
New York, N. Y. 



Omaha, Nebr. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Providence, R. I. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
St. Paul, Minn. 
Tacoma, Wash. 
Washington, D. C. 
Worcester, Mass. 



Under Four Flags in the following nine cities : 



New York, N. Y. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Dayton, Ohio. 



Indianapolis, Ind. 
Chicago, 111. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Kansas City, Mo. 



Each of these so-called official showings extended over the 
period of a week or more and were presented at municipal 
halls, well-known legitimate or motion-picture theaters cen- 
trally located in the respective cities. Wide and intensive 
publicity and advertising campaigns were conducted by rep- 
resentatives on the spot by means of department-store win- 
dow and hotel-lobby displays, street-car cards and banners 
and newspaper space donated by local advertisers, etc. This 
campaign also included circularization' and personal inter- 
views with representatives, officials, and leading citizens, 
clubs, societies, and organizations, including large industrial 
plants and firms. Churches, schools, chambers of commerce, 
political and social clubs. Young Men's Christian Associa' 



REPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 55 

tion, Red Cross, Liberty loan and fraternal organizations 
were among those included in the lists. 

In many instances portions of the house or the entire 
house on certain evenings were sold en bloc to organizations 
which attended en masse. These showings and the local 
notables attending were given publicity in the local press, 
thereby stimulating attendance at the regular showingig in 
the local motion-picture houses in the respective territories 
which followed. 

Taking for example the official presentations in New York 
City — Pershing's Crusaders was shown at the Lyric Theater ; 
America's Answer was shown at the George M. Cohan The- 
ater; Under Four Flags was shown simultaneously at the 
Eivoli and Rialto Theaters on Broadway — each of these 
showings was preceded by a press campaign of about two 
weeks, several hundred 24sheet, 3-sheet, and 1-sheet posters 
were posted, and thousands of window cards displayed, invi- 
tations were sent to all local dignitaries, and the showings 
were attended by representatives of the French, British, and 
Italian High Commissions. In Washington, members of 
Congress, the President, his Cabinet, and many other officials 
attended, all of which facts were used extensively in adver- 
tising the features for general distribution. 

Screen pledge. — All theaters which played one or more 
■Government films were supplied with a certificate of service 
rendered the Government by the dedication of their screen 
to the support of its work. 

EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT OF THE DIVISION OF FILMS. 

This department has had a stock of reels comprising Persh- 
ing's Crusaders, America's Answer, Under Four Flags, Our 
Colored Fighters, Our Bridge of Ships, the early issues of 
the J Official War Review, and several short pictures having 
to do with naval and military training. 

This was one of the first departments created in the Divi- 
sion of Films for the purpose of furnishing material free of 
charge to various patriotic organizations. It entailed con- 
siderable expense in cost of material and organization over- 
head, which expense was carried by other departments of 
this division. 



56 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

The films were loaned to Army and Navy stations, educa- 
tional and patriotic institutions, without charge except trans- 
portation. Other organizations and individuals were usually 
charged $1 per reel for each day used. When it is considered 
that the average reel costs $40 for raw stock and printing, and 
that the average life of a reel is about 200 runs, it can be 
readily seen that this charge of $1 per reel barely covers cost. 
For the purpose of comparison the leading motion picture 
houses in New York pay as high as $3,000 for the use of one 
picture for one week's run. 

SCENARIO DEPARTMENT OF THE DIVISION OF FILMS. 

This department began operations on June 1, 1918. Its 
undertakings were based on a theory until then untried. 
The departments at Washington had been in the habit of 
contracting for the production of films on propaganda sub- 
jects and then making additional contracts to secure a more 
or less limited circulation of the pictures when produced. 
The general attitude of motion-picture exhibitors was that 
propaganda pictures were uninteresting to audiences and 
could have no regular place in their theaters. The theory 
of the Division of Films was that the fault lay in the fact 
that propaganda pictures had never been properly made, 
and that if skill and care were employed in the preparation 
of the scenarios the resultant pictures could secure place in 
regular motion-picture programs. Producers were at first 
skeptical, but in the end they agreed to undertake the pro- 
duction of one-reel pictures for which the Division was 
to supply the scenario, the list of locations and permits for 
filming the same, and to give every possible cooperation, all, 
without charge. The finished picture became the sole prop- 
erty of the producer, who obligated himself merely to give 
it the widest possible circulation after it had been approved 
by the Division of Films. Mr. Rufus Steele was given 
charge of the new venture, and while many difficulties had 
to be overcome, the theory proved sound. 

The following one-reel pictures were produced: 

By the Paramount-Bray Pictograph: 

Says Uncle Sam : Keep 'Em Singing and Nothing Can Lick 'Em — 
the purpose and method of the vocal training of the Army and 

the Navy. 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 57 

Says Uncle Sam : I Run the Biggest Life Insurance Company on 
Earth — the story of the War Risk Insurance Bureau. 

Says Uncle Sam : A Girl's a Man for A' That — the story of women 
in war work. 

Says Uncle Sam : I'll Help Every Willing Worker Find a Job — 
the story of the United States Employment Service. 
By the Pathe Co. : 

Solving the Farm Problem of the Nation — the story of the United 
States Boys' Working Reserve. 

Feeding the Fighter — the story of how the Army was supplied 
with food. 
By the Universal Co. : 

Reclaiming the Soldiers' Duds — the story of the salvage work 
of the War Department. 

The American Indian Gets into the War Game — how the Indian 
took his place, both in the military forces and in food pro- 
duction. 
By C. L. Chester: 

Schooling Our Fighting Mechanics — the work of the Committee 
on Education and Special Training of the War Department. 

There Shall Be No Cripples — the rehabilitation work of the Sur- 
geon General's Office. 

Colored Americans — the activities of the negroes, both in the 
military forces and in war activities at home. 

It's an Engineer's War — the work of the Engineers' training 
camps of the War Department. 

Finding and Fixing the Enemy — certain work of the Engineer 
Corps of the War Department. 

Waging War in Washington — the method of Government opera- 
tion. 

All the Comforts of Home — the methods of War Department in 
providing necessities and conveniences for the soldiers. 

Masters for the Merchant Marine — the development of both of- 
ficers and men for the new merchant navy. 

The College for Camp Cooks — the thorough training given men 
who were to prepare the food for the soldiers. 

Railless Railroads— the work of the Highway Transport Com- 
mittee. 

The following pictures, of more than one reel in length, 
were made by private producers from our scenarios and 
under our supervision: 

By. C. L. Chester: 

The Miracle of the Ships, a six-reel picture covering in detail 
the construction of the carrier ships at Hog Island and other 
yards, and showing every detail of construction, following the 
iron from the mine to the steel mills, following the wood from 
the forests to the shipyard, and the concrete through its several 
stages to the molds. 



58 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

By The W. W. Hodkinson Corporation: 

Made in America, an eight-reel picture telling the full story of 
the Liberty Army. It follows the soldier through every stage 
of the draft and through every step of his military, physical, 
and social development and into the actual combat overseas. 
This picture may be regarded as a particularly interesting 
achievement of the Division of Films. Such a picture was 
greatly desired by Gen. Munson, head of the Morale Branch of 
the War Department, for circulation in the Army and among 
the people of the United States, as well as abroad. As this 
picture was to show the relation of the home life to the soldier, 
professional actors and actresses and much studio work would 
be required. The Morale Branch had no funds to pay for 
such a picture, and the Division of Films was able to work out 
a scenario of such promise that the Hodkinson Corporation 
agreed to produce the picture at their own expense, which 
they did at a cost exceeding $40,000. This picture was only 
half completed when the armistice was signed, but because an 
effort was being made to make it something of a classic that 
would record for all time how the great army was raised 
and developed, the producers felt that the interest in it would 
continue as strong as before. In February, 1919, it was shown 
in Washington to the War College, then to Secretary Baker 
and the staff:, and also in a large theater which was crowded 
with Government officials. The production won the highest 
praise from the Secretary and officers. Upon learning of the 
picture. Gen. Pershing immediately cabled a request for it and 
copies went forward for his use. 

Numerous other pictures had been arranged for and 
would no doubt have been made by various producers had 
not the armistice brought these undertakings to a termina- 
tion. 

Late in the summer of 1918, our system of production 
through outside concerns having worked out satisfactorily, 
it was decided to undertake production on our own account. 
Accordingly, scenarios were written and the following six 
two-reel pictures were produced by the division: 

If Your Soldier's Hit, showing the operation of the regimental de- 
tachment and field hospital unit in getting wounded men off the 
front line, giving them first aid and conveying them safely to re- 
cuperation bases. This picture was made in conjunction with the 
Surgeon General's Office at the training camp at Fort Riley, Kans., 
and the scenes were supplemented by scenes from overseas. 

Our Wings of Victory, showing the complete processes of the manu- 
facture and operation of airplanes for war purposes. The construe- 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOIST. 59 

tion scenes were taken in the chief plane factories and were sup- 
plemented by extraordinary scenes of flying. 

Our Horses ©f War, showing how the remount depots of the Army 
obtain and train tlie horses and mules for Cavalry and Artillery 
purposes, and the feats performed by the animals so trained under 
the manipulation of the soldiers. 

Making the Nation Fit, showing how new recruits for the great 
Army and the great Navy were developed to a stage of physical 
fitness. 

The Storm of Steel, showing how twelve billions of the Liberty 
loan money was being expended in the construction of guns and 
munitions. These scenes were taken in half a dozen of the chief 
gun plants of the country and on the proving grounds and are the 
most complete record in the Government's possession of this under- 
taking. 

The Bath of Bullets, showing the development and use of machine 
guns in this war. 

Beginning on December 23, 1918, the first four of these 
two-reel pictures were released at intervals of two weeks 
through the division's own exchanges. The last two men- 
tioned pictures were not sent out, because they were purely 
" war pictures " and also because there was no way in the 
few weeks remaining of the division's existence to handle 
properly their national circulation. 

A second series of six two-reel pictures had been laid out 
and the filming was about to proceed when the armistice 
caused the division to suspend all new undertakings. 

BUREAU OF WAR EXPOSITIONS OF THE DIVISION OF FILMS, 

The Bureau of Expositions was organized in May, 1918. 
It was the result of a desire on the part of the public to see 
the actual machinery of war, as well as the trophies which 
were brought here by the representatives of the Allied Na- 
tions, 

The bureau combined into one group the trophies of Eng- 
land, France, Belgium, Italy, Canada, and the United States. 

It opened on the Pacific coast the first week in July at San 
Francisco, going from there to Los Angeles in August and in 
September to Chicago, where the Lake Front had been taken 
for the exhibition. Nearly 2,000,000 people visited the ex- 
position in Chicago in two weeks, the average daily attend- 
ance being in excess of that of the Chicago World's Fair. In 



60 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

this city alone the receipts were over $500,000 and the bureau 
turned in to the United States Treasury a net profit of 
$300,000. 

Its financial success was not the result of a high admission 
price, but due to the appeal of the exposition itself. , On the 
Pacific coast tickets were sold for 50 cents and were redeem- 
able at the gate for a 25-cent war saving stamp in addition to 
an admission ticket. This plan was followed for the purpose 
of creating the war saving stamp habit in that territory. 

In Chicago and the other cities listed below the tickets were 
sold in advance for 25 cents ; children 2| cents. 

The popularity of the exposition in the larger cities was 
due to the cooperation of the War and Navy Departments, 
which made possible the staging of sham battles which had 
a tremendous appeal besides illustrating the modern methods 
of trench warfare. 

The War Exposition had the attraction of a circus and the 
effect of a sermon. It brought home to the people the serious- 
ness of war and the effect was immediately noticed in the 
sales of Liberty bonds, war saying stamps. Red Cross benefits, 
and other agencies. 

The cities where the War Exposition was shown are listed 
below : 

Receipts. 

Chicago $583. 731. 24 

San Francisco 54,274.80 

Los Angeles 65, 875. 75 

Cleveland 167, 355. 51 

Waco-' ; ; 16, 904. 70 

Pittsburgh 147, 804. 16 

Kansas City 28, 646. 20 

Cincinnati : 66, 541. 10 

Buffalo 60, 354. 27 

St. Louis 23,570.40 

St. Paul 8,986.65 

Jackson, Mich 2,946.48 

Little Rock, Ark 1. 595. 14" 

Oklahoma City, Okla 4, 236. 43 

Great Falls, Mont 977. 53 

Waterloo, Iowa 983.93 

New Orleans 14,439.20 

Toledo— ; 50, 003. 02 

Detroit 63,470.74 

Houston 22, 684. 05 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 61 

BUREAU OF WAR PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE DIVISION OF FILMS. 

The first purpose of this bureau was to open up tlie war 
activities of the Nation to the exploitation of the camera. 
Military authorities were naturally interested only in guard- 
ing military secrets, but an agreement was finally reached by 
which the Committee on Public Information agreed to inves- 
tigate all applicants for camera permits, and also to pass 
upon the pictures when taken. This system of investigation 
and this method of voluntary censorship was a success from 
the start. It is a tribute to the patriotism of the photo- 
graphic and motion-picture industries that the bureau, with- 
out a law of any kind behind it, enforced a censorship more 
effective than that in any other belligerent country. No 
request was ever ignored; also, while thousands of permits 
were issued, none was ever abused. 

A second step in the progress of this bureau was the dis- 
tribution of photographs made by the Signal Corps. Not 
alone was it the case that these pictures had a distinct com- 
mercial value, but what was even more important, they had 
high educational values. 

To secure the most efficient distribution a plan was evolved 
which utilized the Photographic Association, which associa- 
tion had members that syndicated their photographs interna- 
tionally as well as nationally, namely. Underwood & Under- 
wood, International Film Service, Brown Bros., Paul Thomp- 
son, Kadel & Herbert, Harris & Ewing, Western Newspaper 
Union, News Enterprise Association, and others, which 
afforded a widespread distribution system. Through organ- 
ized effort these syndicate members placed these photographs 
in daily newspapers, weekly and monthly magazines, techni- 
cal publications, and other media. To expedite production 
and delivery a laboratory was secured in New York City 
which was operated by the Signal Corps Photographic Divi- 
sion in conjunction with Columbia University. The prices 
fixed were nominal, designed only to cover expenses. 

This department also furnished quantities of photographs 
each week to the Foreign Service Section of the committee 
for use in propaganda media in the Allied and neutral na- 
tions, same being used in the making of posters, circular 
matter, and in foreign newspapers and other publications. 



62 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

Photographs were also furnished for publicity purposes 
for motion-picture features and were reproduced in hundreds 
of newspapers reaching millions of circulation. 

Another means of distribution of war photographs was to 
private collections, which comprised the universities, histori- 
cal societies, State and municipal libraries, and any organiza- 
tion that could make use of pictures for future reference. 
Also, individuals who were interested in getting pictures of 
war activities, more especially those who had members of 
their families or friends directly connected with the war. 

The Department of Slides was next added to the activities 
of the bureau and supplied a long-felt need for official and 
authentic photographs in stereopticon form for the use of 
ministers, lecturers, school teachers, and others. We suc- 
ceeded in putting out standard size black and white slides of 
the finest workmanship at 15 cents each, which price saved 
the user from 50 to 80 per cent. 

At first the production of slides was entirely dependent on 
the laboratory of the Signal Corps in Washington, which, as 
the orders increased in volume, proved inadequate to turn 
out sufficient quantity. The Committee on Public Informa- 
tion then built its own laboratory, which had ample produc- 
tion facilities. 

The first few months we confined our work solely to pro- 
ducing and distributing miscellaneous slides made from the 
pictures released daily for the newspapers. Catalogues were 
prepared listing all slides and were furnished to individuals 
and organizations upon request. 

There was a demand for illustrated lectures on the war. 
Destruction of the churches in France by the Germans was 
our first production, as a complete set of 50 slides. This 
I lecture was written by Prof. Tatlock. 

Immediately after the release of the " Ruined Churches " set, 
the following were prepared : Our Boys in France, 100 slides; 
Building a Bridge of Ships to Pershing, 50 slides ; To Berlin 
Via the Air Route, 50 slides ; Making the American Army, 50 
slides. About 700 of these sets were ordered by patriotic 
organizations and individuals, as well as churches and 
schools. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOKMATION. 63 

The next illustrated lectures to be distributed were as fol- 
lows: The Call to Arms, 58 slides; Trenches and Trench 
Warfare, 73 slides; Airplanes and How Made, 61 slides; 
Flying for America, 54 slides; The American Navy, 51 , 
slides; The Navy at Work, 36 slides; Building a Bridge of \ 
Ships, 63 slides ; Transporting the Army to France, 63 slides ; 
Carrying the Home to the Camp, 61 slides. These sets were 
prepared by George F. Zook, professor of modern European 
history in Pennsylvania State College. A total of 900 were 
ordered. While the greater number of orders came from 
various parts of this country, many were received from for- 
eign countries. 

In the year of existence the Department of Slides distrib- 
uted a total of 200,000 shdes. 

The entire stocks of this bureau, its files, and equipment 
have been turned over to the War and Navy for continued 
use. 

OFFICIAL U. S. BULLETIN. 

The Official Bulletin was established under order of the 
President of the United States as a war-emergency institu- 
tion, and printed daily by the Committee on' Public Informa- 
tion. During the war period it performed a function the 
importance of which is attested by the directing heads, not 
only of this Government, but by the leaders of all the world 
powers. It was a history— formal, official, without color 
or bias. 

The fundamental object in its establishment was: 

That there might be some official source to which tlie public could 
look for authoritative information as to the acts and proceedings 
vitally affecting their legal rights and obligations; that there might 
be put in print for all time a faithful record of the part played by the 
Government of the United States in the World War; and that the 
Government departments might be relieved of the very considerable 
correspondence with persons desiring the character of information 
which properly should be published from day to day ; and that this 
information should be disseminated throughout the Nation in an 
effective manner. 

The Official Bulletin performed all of these functions to 
the last detail. It was an immediate means of Government 



64 KEPOET COMMITTEE OlST PUBLIC INFORMATIOIS'. 

communication with the business interests with which the 
Government has been in contractual relations; with the 
offices of foreign Governments here and abroad, with the 
consular service, and with the public desirous of information 
of a specific character. Its monetary value to the Govern- 
ment in the clerical labor and supplies it has conserved by 
anticipating nation-wide inquiries in its daily record of the 
facts represent an amount in excess of the cost of issuing 
the Bulletin. 

The Bulletin printed all issued records to date of every 
casualty among our Army and Navy forces abroad and in the 
camps and cantonments in the United States, the name of 
every man taken prisoner, cited for bravery, or wounded on 
the field of battle, every communique issued by Gen. Pershing, 
every State paper, proclamation, executive order, and all 
statements and pronouncements and addresses by the Presi- 
dent since the entry of this Government into the war. There 
has also been printed every order, pronouncement, and regula- 
tion issued by the heads of the great permanent Government 
departments ; the Food, Fuel, and Eailroad Administrations, 
the War Industries Board, War Trade Board, Alien Property 
Custodian, War Labor Board, the Postmaster General as 
Director General of the Telephone, Telegraph, and Cable 
Systems, and all other independent agencies of the Govern- 
ment. Important contracts awarded, texts of important laws, 
proceedings of the United States Supreme Court, daily 
resume of important actions of Congress, Treasury state- 
ments, etc., have been printed from day to day. 

The Official U. S. Bulletin was the chain of intelligence 
which linked the executive branch of the Government, its 
departments, bureaus, and all of its war ramifications directly 
with their related interests, to wit : Diplomatic Corps, distant 
Government offices and agencies. Government contractors 
and industries, Red Cross and kindred organizations, and 
business associations. 

Congress made practical use of the Official U. S. Bulletin. 
There were innumerable calls for complete files from mem- 
bers of the Senate and House. At the request of individual 
Members of Congress, we admitted to the free lists thousands 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOH. 65 

of constituents who sought information of the character that 
the Bulletin printed. 

The Bulletin went also to every camp library, here and 
abroad. Gen. Pershing received an allotment each day for 
the use of his general staff, and Admiral Sims likewise had 
available a supply for his immediate staff. 

To the War and Navy Departments the Bulletin performed 
a remarkable service when it is understood that it would 
have been an almost impossible task to supply the individual 
requirements for information so essential to all officers of the 
military arms of the Government. The Secretary of War, 
early in the life of the Bulletin, directed the commanding 
officers of all military posts and stations to display the Bul- 
letin in conspicuous places for the information of all con- 
cerned. 

In the Navy the Bulletin played a conspicuous part in 
keeping the entire personnel advised formally and officially 
of every order of the Secretary and all Government bodies. 
Secretary Daniels directed that the Bulletin be forwarded 
immediately after publication each evening to every depart- 
mental bureau and ship and shore station of the Navy. All 
commandants and commanding officers were instructed to 
have it placed in a conspicuous place and to notify the officers 
and men under their command of its existence and purpose. 

The Post Office Department, supplementing its own publi- 
cation, the Postal Bulletin, which goes daily to all offices of 
the first and second classes, and when occasion requires, to 
those of the third class, but which does not go to 46,000 offices 
of the fourth class, availed itself of the use of the Bulletin 
as a Government medium through which pronouncements and 
orders affecting the great postal service might daily be pub- 
lished, thus enabling the Government, through the two publi- 
cations, to keep daily in touch with postmasters and other 
authorized agents of the department in 54,000 post offices 
throughout the country. 

The Food Administration had no official organ, but through 
the Official U. S. Bulletin every State, city, and county ad- 
ministrator in the United States was kept accurately and 
officially advised concerning every order and pronouncement 
emanating from the national administration. From the date 

121033—20 5 



66 



KEPOKT COMMITTEE OlsT PUBLIC II^FORMATION. 



of the creation of the Food Administration, every order and 
decree issued by Mr. Hoover appeared in the Official Bulletin. 

The Fuel Administration likewise had no official organ, 
and it was through the Official Bulletin that the army of fuel 
administrators from coast to coast Were kept regularly in- 
formed as to the progress made by the Fuel Administration 
in handling the vast problem confronting the Nation. 

The War Trade Board and the War Industries Board relied 
to a large extent upon the Official Bulletin to keep the com- 
mercial and industrial world promptly and officially advised 
of all rulings. 

The Council of National Defense in a great measure also 
reached its thousands of cooperating agencies through the 
instrumentality of the Bulletin. 

When the Government assumed control of the railroads of 
the country, the Director General of Railroads had no other 
official medium than the Bulletin through which to reach the 
nearly two million employees of the great railroad systems, 
copies of all orders, of course, were sent to the central railroad 
offices, but, as in the case of the Food and Fuel Administra- 
tions, there was no permanent printed record of such orders, 
except as they appeared in the Official Bulletin ; and in all 
railroad offices of the country this publication was preserved 
religiously so that it might be referred to whenever matter of 
importance developed. 

Monthly circulation. 



1917. 
Daily average: 

May 60, 000 

June 67, 000 

July 70,000 

August 77, 500 

September 82, 000 

October 89, 081 

November 90, 341 

December 94, 912 

1918. 

January 99, 000 

February 102, 603 

March 106, 233 

April 109, 513 



1918— Continued. 
Daily average — Continued. 

May 111, 870 

June 113, 782 

July 115, 639 

August lis, 008 

September 113, 136 

October 115, 031 

November 108, 477 

December 97, 074 

1919. 

January 90, 269 

February 89, 886 

March 33, 454 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INEOEMATIO]^. 



67 



A prohibitive subscription price of $5 a year was fixed for 
the general public so that the Bulletin might not be accused 
of competing with the private enterprise of newspaper pub- 
lications. Nevertheless, the amount received from subscrip- 
tions increased from $1,644.20 in the month of May, 1917, to 
$3,821.10 in the month of January, 1919, as shown by the 
following table of receipts : 



1917. 

May $1, 644. 20 

June 1, 213. 52 

July 2, 076. 00 

August 1, 722. 00 

September 1, 978. 05 

October 2, 177. 50 

November 2, 549. 65 

December 3, 373. 65 

1918. 

January 2, 591. 75 

February 2, 462. 50 

March . 2, 566. 15 

April __i 2,898.85 



1918— Continued. 
-May $3,739. 85 

June 4, 356. 85 

July ^ 5, 502. 15 

August 6, 574. 50 

September 7, 333. 75 

October 8, 768. 99 

November 10, 143. 80 

December 6, 023. 43 

1919. 

January 3, 821. 10 

Febriiary 1, 863. 00 

March 69. 00 



The Official Bulletin ceased publication April 1, 1919. 
The full credit for its success and achievement is due to Mr, 
E. S. Rochester, its editor from the first day to the last. 

THE SERVICE BUREAU. 

During the early months of the war it became apparent 
that delay and confusion in the transactions of the public 
business resulted from lack of knowledge of the organization 
of the executive departments, of the distribution of the duties 
of each among its bureaus and divisions, of the personnel 
in charge, of the location of the many offices in which they 
were established, and of ready means of intercommunication. 
To minimize and avoid such delays and to facilitate the trans- 
actions of public business as much as possible, by directing 
persons to the offices which they were seeking, the Service 
Bureau was created on March 19, 1918, by the following 
Executive order of the President : 



I hereby create under the direction of the Committee on Public 
Information, created by Executive order of April 14, 1917, a Service 



68 EEPOET COMMITTEE OE" PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

Bureau, for the purpose of establishing a central office in the city 
of Washington where complete information records may be available 
as to the function, location, and personnel of all Government agencies. 
I hereby ask the several departments of Government, when so re- 
quested by the chairman of the- Committee on Public Information, to 
detail such person or persons as may be necessary in gathering the 
information needed and carrying on the work of the bureau so far as 
it relates to such departments ; to give opportunity to the director of 
the bureau, or such person as he may designate, to secure information 
from time to time for the purpose of keeping the records up to date ; to 
supply the director of the bureau on form cards, furnished by him, 
With information as to personnel, function, and location. 

WooDRow Wilson. 

In April, it moved into permanent quarters at Fifteenth 
and G Streets, and on May 1 opened its doors to the public. 
During its existence the bureau answered 86,000 inquiries. 

Appropriate advertising was distributed in all of the hotels 
of the city, and cards were placed on the information desks 
of the various departments and hotels and at the Union Sta- 
tion. In May, the information booths at the Union Station, 
conducted by the Ordnance and Quartermaster Bureaus of 
the War Department and Navy Department, were taken over. 
During September, when the Allied War Exposition was held 
in Chicago, a branch of the Service Bureau was established 
there, and the reports show that much information was given 
to the thousands of people who applied at the booth. 

Records were compiled that showed : 

(1) Complete organizations of the executive departments 
of the Government, in bureaus, divisions, committees, com- 
missions, and all other subdivisions. 

(2) The general character of the business or duties assigned 
to each subdivision, 

(3) The names in full and titles, if any, of the persons in 
charge of such divisions, including chief clerks, with the room 
number, location of building, and telephone number in each 
case. 

(4) Similar information covering the various councils, 
commissions, and other bodies not included under any Gov- 
ernment department. 

The sources for this information were official, and in most 
instances were furnished on the inclosed forms by heads of 



, KEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOI^. 69 

departments. As the changes in organization, personnel, or 
function occurred within the departments they were reported 
on the forms provided by the bureau. During the period of 
the greatest expansion of the Government these changes oc- 
curred at the rate of 300 to 500 daily. 

In addition to this directory of the Government it was nec- 
essary to keep a personnel file of all persons engaged in any 
kind of war work in Washington, also the names, locations, 
functions, and officers of all charitable and relief organiza- 
tions, or war agencies of any kind. The sources for this infor- 
mation were the daily press, city and telephone directories, 
and personal investigations bj?^ members of the staff of any 
new trail which opened. 

The work of the bureau fell into two distinct sections : (1) 
The directory and information compiling division ; (2) the in- 
formation dispensing service, which included handling the 
mail as well as the personal and telephone requests. 

The directory was compiled by a group of 10 cataloguers 
and as many typists detailed to the bureau from the various 
Government departments. They worked out the directory 
along the plan outlined above, and it proved to be a practical 
and efficient arrangement. 

The organization files were copied by two different Gov- 
ernment departments who wanted them for their own offices, 
viz, the Central Bureau of Planning and Statistics, and the 
Information Division of The Adjutant General's Office of the 
War Department. 

The chief sources for general information were the library, 
the files of the Official Bulletin, and our clippings from the 
daily press. The library consisted of a small collection of 
well-chosen reference books, the annual reports of all Govern- 
ment departments, and a large collection of pamphlets on 
subjects connected with the prosecution of the war, published 
by numerous patriotic and educational organizations, as well 
as by the Government. 

Our most authoritative source of information was the 
Official Bulletin, which we carefully indexed. It proved 
invaluable in answering requests for information by letter. 
Many times we were able to furnish the exact and authori- 
tative information by sending a copy of the Official Bulletin. 



70 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC HvTFORMATION. 

Another valuable accumulation of information was in our 
clipping files. This was particularly helpful in answering 
questions of current interest. 

The questions in the letters received covered every imag- 
inable field of human thought and endeavor. In all cases 
in which we had the available information at hand, or, if it 
was of such a nature that it could be procured readily by 
telephone, we answered the letters direct. If the question 
was such that came well within the province of one of the 
Government departments, we referred the letter to that de- 
partment, keeping a record of all -such references. In many 
instances when the request for information indicated that the 
writer was not seeking anything specific, we sent a selection 
of pamphlets, or a few numbers of the Official Bulletin. 

It was at the information desks, however, where the bureau 
did its best and most telling work, and this includes the in- 
formation desk which we established in the Union Station. 
The number of inquiries increased month by month, reach- 
ing a maximum in the month before the armistice was signed, 
during which time we answered 12,176 questions asked by 
10,697 persons, and answered 2,773 letters. 

Following is a list of the members of the staff who had 
charge of definite lines of work : 

Director, Frederick W. McReynolds, from March 1, 1918, 
to February 1, 1919, when he resigned to become a special 
agent of the Bureau of Internal Revenue. He was succeeded 
by Martin A. Morrison, who was in charge of the bureau 
until March 12, when he was appointed as a Civil Service 
Commissioner by the President. Miss Mary E. Schick, office 
manager from the beginning, was then promoted to be di- 
rector of the bureau. 

Mr. Frank E. Hackett gave his services to the bureau dur- 
ing the first month of its activities, and together with Mr. 
Arthur J. Klein made the initial survey of all of the depart- 
ments. Mr. Klein remained with the bureau until October 
16, when he resigned and his place was taken by Mr. G. K. 
Richards, who served without compensation until April 1, 
1919. 

Miss Emily A. Spilman, assistant librarian, Depart- 
ment of Justice, supervised the compiling of the directory, 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INEOKMATION. 71 

being detailed to the bureau by her department for two 
months. 

The Service Bureau was disbanded and the activities were 
distributed as follows on April 1, 1919 : 

The files were taken over by the Division of Education and 
Information of the Department of Labor, the publications 
were sent to the Government Printing Office for distribution 
through regular Government channels, and the library was 
divided among the United States Military Academy at West 
Point, N. Y., the Historical Section, United States Navy 
Department, and the Army War College. 

DIVISION OF EXHIBIT AT STATE FAIRS. 

This division was created on March 11, 1918, for the 
establishment of a war exhibition to be used by State fairs 
throughout the country. Several meetings were held with a 
committee representing the American Association of State 
Fairs and Expositions with a view to ascertaining the course 
to be pursued. Kepresentatives of the Departments of the 
Navy, Agriculture, Commerce, the Interior, and of the Food 
Administration cooperated with the Committee on Public 
Information, and formed a joint committee to prepare plans 
and adopt the ways and means for this Government exhibit. 

An itinerary was arranged, covering approximately 60 
State fairs and expositions, for which was required three 
carloads of material. It was arranged that each fair asso- 
ciation should provide suitable space in an inclosed building, 
paying transportation for the material on their respective 
circuits, also the cost of transportation and subsistence of a 
motion-picture operator, and such other men as were not 
otherwise provided for, have proper facilities and men for 
unloading, setting up and taking down the exhibits, and for 
cleaning and guarding the exposition building. All other 
expenses to be borne by the Committee on Public Information. 

In carrying out the exhibit program the Government sent 
its lessons to the very doors of about seven million people 
throughout the country, telling by well-selected objects what 
the great departments in Washington were doing to bring 
victory to the armies that were fighting for truth and justice. 



72 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INTORMATIOlSr. 

The plan of exhibition, as finally arranged, divided the 
country into the following six circuits: 

Circuit No. 1: 

Sedalia, Mo., August 10-17, Missouri State Fair. 

Des Moines, Iowa, August 23-31, Iowa State Fair. 

Hamlin (St. Paul), Minn., September 2-7, Minnesota State Fair. 

Milwaukee, Wis., September 9-14, Wisconsin State Fair. 

Oklahoma City, Okla., September 21-28, Oklahoma State Fair. 

Wichita, Kans., October 7-12, Wichita Fair. 

Dallas, Tex., October 15-27, Texas State Fair. 

Waco, Tex., November 2-14, Texas Cotton Palace Association. 
Circuit No. 2: 

Springfield, 111., August 9-24, Illinois State Fair. 

Detroit, Mich., August 30-September 8, Michigan State Agri 
cultural Society. 

Nashville, Tenn., September 16-21, Tennessee State Fair. 

Memphis, Tenn., September 21-28, Memphis Tri-State Fair. 

Knoxville, Tenn., October 7-12, East Tennessee Fair. 

Atlanta, Ga., October 14—19, Southeastern Fair Association. 

Valdosta, Ga., October 30-November 9, Georgia State Fair. 

Jacksonville, Fla., November 27-December 6, Florida State Fair 
and Exposition. 
Circuit No. 4: 

Columbus, Ohio, August 26-31, Ohio State Fair. 

Indianapolis, Ind., September 3-7, Indiana State Fair. 

Topeka, Kans., September 9-14, Kansas Free Fair. 

Hutchinson, Kans., September 16-21, Kansas State Fair. 

Muskogee, Okla., September 30-October 5, Oklahoma Free Fair. 

Kansas City, Mo., October 16-26, International Soil Products 
Exposition. 

Shreveport, La., October 30-November 4, Louisiana State Fair. 
Circuit No. 5 : 

Lincoln, Nebr., September 1-6, Nebraska State Fair. 

Douglas, Wyo., September 10-14, Wyoming State Fair. 

Pueblo, Colo., September 23-28, Colorado State Fair. 

Salt Lake City, Utah, September 28-October 5, Utah State Fair. 

Los Angeles, Calif., October 12-26, California Liberty Fair. 
. Phoenix, Ariz., November 11-16, Arizona State Fair. 
Circuit No. 6: 

Huron, S. Dak., September 9-14, South Dakota State Fair. 

The combined Government exhibit for each circuit con- 
sisted of the following material : 

From the War Department: 

Ordnance Department : Machine guns, rifles, mountain guns, hand 
grenades, trench helmets, and Infantry equipment. 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOIT. 73 

Signal Corps : Eight live carrier pigeons, various kinds of hand- 
signaling apparatus, portable field-wireless outfit, aviators' clothing, 
and an aerial bomb. 

Medical Depaitment : Gas masks, emergency first-aid kits, field- 
hospital chests, model of a base hospital, electric magnet for extracting 
steel, and a complete outfit of splints for use on wounded men. 

Quartermaster Corps: Four lay figui'es, showing different types of 
uniform, models of the various kinds of tents, collection of campaign 
badges, display board showing various chevrons of rank of noncom- 
missioned officers, silk colors, and bunting flags. 

Corps of Engineers : Chests showing the various tools and appliances 
used by this corps. 

Commission on Training Camp Activities: Photographs showing 
some of the activities of the commission. 

Committee on Public Information : A series of enlarged photographs 
showing the part taken by our country in the winning of the war. 

Navy Department: The exhibits from this department consisted of 
Marine Corps equipment, Lewis gun, also projectiles, depth bomb, 
naval mine and anchor, destroyer and submarine winter clothing, 
insignia and chevrons of commissioned and noncommissioned officers. 

Department of Agriculture: Consisted of materials from the follow- 
ing branches of the department : Bureau of Forest Service, Bureau of 
Plant Industry, Bureau of Animal Industry, Bureau of Chemistry, 
Bureau of Markets, Bureau of Entomology, and the Biological Survey. 
This exhibit consisted of photographs and photographic enlargements, 
transparencies, charts, diagrams, maps, samples or specimens, and 
models of special pieces of apparatus and instruments of various kinds 
used in the investigations carried on by the different bureaus. 

Department of Commerce: Exhibit from this department consisted 
of a display of its work in connection with the propagation and dis- 
tribution of edible fish and the experiments being made in the use of 
fishskin as a substitute for leather. 

Food Administration: The Food Administration exhibit consisted 
of 12 decorative panels illustrating the history of the Food Adminis- 
tration, charts showing propaganda material of the Educational 
Division, and display cases containing samples of the work done by 
the Home Conservation Division. 

Department of the Interior: This department placed its specially 
fitted mine rescue cars at the disposal of those fairs that had track- 
age facilities on their grounds. The cars were accompanied by their 
regular crews, who gave demonstrations of the mine rescue apparatus. 
This exhibit Avas made without expense to the fair associations that 
were able to avail themselves of same.- 

There was also prepared a motion-picture exhibit for cir- 
cuits 1 to 5, and a large collection of jfilms was gathered for 
this purpose, and the Government furnished its own machine 



74 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORM ATIOIsT. 

and a motion-picture operator, the Committee on Public 
Information paying the salaries of two of these men and the 
Department of Agriculture providing for the other three. 

Owing to the epidemic of Spanish influenza, it was found 
necessary to call off the Government exhibits at the following 
places : 

Circuit No. 1 : Dallas, Tex. 

Circuit No. 2 : Richmond, Va. ; Petersburg, Va. 

Circuit No. 3 : Knoxville, Tenn. ; Macon, Ga, 

Circuit No. 4 : Kansas City, Mo. ; Shreveport, La. 

Circuit No. 5 : Phoenix, Ariz. 

And the exhibit at the California Liberty Fair Association, 
Los Angeles, Calif., was not held until December 4 to 15. 

Upon request, the War Department detailed five enlisted 
men from the Ordnance Department, the Medical Depart- 
ment, and the Signal Corps, which enabled the assignment 
of one man from each of these departments to each of the 
circuits, and the Navy Department likewise sent a marine 
and a sailor on each circuit. 

As the combined exhibit was operated under the executive 
direction of the Office of Exhibits of the Department of 
Agriculture, that office designated an official of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in charge of each circuit and two as- 
sistants. 

Capt. Joseph H. Hittinger, assigned to duty with the Com- 
mittee on Public Information by the War Department, de- 
serves the entire credit for the conduct of this division, di- 
recting it throughout, and driving it to complete success by 
his ability and energy. 

DIVISION OF SYNDICATE FEATURES. 

This division enlisted the volunteer services of the leading 
novelists, essayists and short-story writers of America. 
Some 50 men and women writers, and as many college presi- 
dents and professors, constituted a virtual staff that worked 
faithfully week after week. Among the number were 
Samuel Hopkins Adams, Ellis Parker Butler, Booth Tark- 
ington, Meredith Nicholson, Harvey O'Higgins, Herbert 
Quick, John Spargo, William English Walling, Mary 



REPOET COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC IlsTPORMATION. 75 

Roberts Rinehart, Wallace Irwin, Richard Washburn Child, 
Samuel Merwin, Roland G. Usher, Ralph D. Paine, Martha 
Bensley Bruere, Edward Mott Wooley, John Reed Scott, 
Prof. John Erskine, Prof. Eugene Davenport, Crittenden 
Marriott, James Collins, Rex Beach, Virginia Frazer Boyle, 
and many others. 

At first a good many personal pronouncements were used 
to make clear why we are at war, to explain the ideals for 
which we are fighting. Opinions of prominent people were 
in demand, though stories of our war activities were also 
used. But the character of the matter sent out changed as 
the war progressed. Our object was, in the newspaper 
phrase, to " sell the war," and we tried to furnish, dressed 
in acceptable newspaper style, the story of the war ma- 
chine in its thousands of phases, the story of our boys over 
there and over here, and the spirit that is back of the whole 
great adventure. 

The Division of Syndicate Features did not confine itself 
wholly to fact stories and human interest stuff about army 
and navy workers. It dealt also with the larger aspects that 
were behind the immediate facts. It covered the racial, the 
social, the moral, and the financial aspects of the war, 
written by specialists in these lines. 

The stories were used from Florida to Alaska, from 
New York to California, reaching a circulation of about 
12,000,000 a month. Assuming that each paper was read 
by two people, it meant that one-fourth of the people in this 
country had access to our syndicate stories. 

We established also a semimonthly service for trade jour- 
nals, labor papers, and house organs. 

The success of the division owed much to the brilliant 
direction of "William MacLeod Raine, who was assisted by 
Mr. Arthur MacFarlane. 

DIVISION OF WOMEN'S WAR WORK. 

This division was established November 1, 1917, under the 
direction of Clara Sears Taylor, for the purpose of informing 
and energizing the women of the country, keeping in touch 
with the various women's groups, sending out material, and 
giving impetus to all movements connected with the work 



76 REPORT COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

of American women in the war. During its existence about 
1,000 news stories and feature articles concerning the work of 
women were sent out to 19,471 newspapers and organization 
publications. These releases included a wire and mail service 
and were made up of news stories and feature articles. They 
were sent daily to 2,861 papers in columns containing from 
12 to 20 stories each. These stories were short and were 
used by the papers on their editorial pages, in the magazine 
sections, and by many women column writers. The absorp- 
tion was remarkable, the material being used by publications 
in every section of the country. 

Two hundred and fifty pictures were furnished, showing 
women actively engaged in war work. 

Attempt was also made to cover every phase of women's 
work through seven daily columns : 

First, work being done in national organizations. 

Second, in Government departments. 

Third, decentralized organizations of women's work 
througout the United States. 

Fourth, schools and colleges. 

Fifth, churches. This column has been widely copied. 

Sixth, foreign column. 

Seventh, work being done by organizations of colored 
women. 

Two college brochures were issued. It is impossible to 
estimate the number of these pamphlets which were dis- 
tributed, because in a number of cases they were reprinted 
locally. The colleges cooperated with the Women's Division 
in response to these brochures in a remarkable manner. 

Among the special feature releases sent out by the depart- 
ment a four-column clip sheet on wage-earning woman in 
winning the war, a munition workers' uniform release, and 
one telling how Uncle Sam cares for the families of his 
soldiers met with unusual response. 

THE BUREAU OF CARTOONS. 

The Bureau of Cartoons was officially established as a part 
of the Committee on Public Information on May 28, 1918, 
its purpose being to mobilize and direct the scattered cartoon 
power of the country for constructive war work. 



EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOlSr. 77 

The principal activity of the bureau was the weekly pub- 
lication of the Bulletin for Cartoonists. Every week the 
bureau obtained from all the chief departments of the Gov- 
ernment the announcements which they particularly wanted 
to transmit to the public, wrote them up in the Bulletin and 
sent them out to over 750 cartoonists. As general sugges- 
tions and advance news "tips" were published rather than 
specific subjects for cartoons there was no danger of car- 
toonists losing their individuality or originality. Cartoon- 
ists all over the Nation followed out these suggestions. This 
made for timeliness and unity of cartoon power, which de- 
veloped into a stimulating and actively constructive force for 
shaping, public opinion and winning the war. 

Relations were established with 37 Government agencies, 
which regularly furnished material for transmission to the 
cartoonists. 

The Bureau of Cartoons gave service in two ways : 

1. By devoting issues of the Bulletin to giving special facts 
and sidelights on the various campaigns. 

2. By obtaining from cartoonists original cartoons to be 
syndicated during the campaign. 

Special numbers of the Bulletin have been published on 
the September Draft, Liberty Loan, Merchant Marine, United 
War Work Campaign, and the December Food Conserva- 
tion Drive, etc. It has also secured cartoons for advance 
publicity for some of these drives. 

When original cartoons were received unrequested they 
were turned over to the department interested. When asked 
for original cartoons by Government departments, the bu- 
reau transmitted the requests to a few of the many cartoonists 
who had volunteered to supply drawings. Cartoons were 
thus turned over to the Food Administration, the Fuel Ad- 
ministration, the Boys' Working Eeserve, the Women's Com- 
mittee of the Council of National Defense, the Reclamation 
Service of the Interior Department, the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation, the Young Men's Christian Association, the Red 
Cross, etc. In several cases the Bureau of Cartoons sup- 
plied rush orders for cartoons for special campaigns. 

Mr. Alfred M. Saperston was the first manager of the 
bureau. After he enlisted in August in Marine Aviation, the 



78 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC lETORMATIOir. 

work of the bureau was conducted by Miss Gretchen Leicht. 
Mr. George J. Hecht, who established the bureau, maintained 
an unofficial supervision throughout its period of existence. 

DIVISION OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT. 

This division had custody of all funds of the committee and 
the disbursing of the same. These comprised the Treasury 
allotments and the special bank accounts authorized by Ex- 
ecutive order for the handling of the financial affairs of such 
divisions as are engaged in business enterprises. All dis- 
bursements were subject to the approval of the directors of 
divisions and the chairman of the committee. 

The most approved methods of bookkeeping and auditing 
were installed and monthly reports of all financial trans- 
actions were rendered to the chairman and to the directors 
of divisions. 

The purchase of furniture, supplies, and - equipment, to- 
gether with supervision of offices and custody of the property 
of the committee, was a part of the duties of this division. It 
also had charge of the reception and distribution of all 
incoming and outgoing mail matter for the whole committee, 
and the mimeographing, addressing, wrapping, and mailing 
of all circulars, pamphlets,, and publications of the several 
divisions; the placing and delivering of orders for printing 
and stationery, and it met the general requirements of the 
committee for stenographic work and the handling and filing 
of correspondence. The highest praise is deserved by Mr. 
C. D. Lee, the business head of the committee. 

DIVISION OF WORK WITH THE FOREIGN BORN. 

Nothing is more true than that people do not live by 
bread alone. The majority live on catch-phrases. For years 
the average American has discharged his duty to the alien 
by glib references to the " melting pot," with never a thought 
to see whether the pot was really melting. Hopeful thou- 
sands, coming to this land of promise with their hearts in 
their hands, have been treated with every neglect and indif- 
ference, and only in the most haphazard way have they 
been brought into touch with the richer opportunities of 
American life. 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC Il^FORMATIOE". 79 

When America went to war, however, these unregarded 
millions took on a new importance, for our unity, our strik- 
ing force, our front to the enemy, depended in large meas- 
ure upon the attitude of Americans of foreign birth or 
descent. Let it be stated at the very outset that this attitude 
was indeed that " 100 per cent Americanism " of which 
politicians talk, expressing itself from first to last in volun- 
teering and every form of service and sacrifice. Harassed 
by so-called " patriotic societies," instinct with the spirit of 
Chauvinism, hounded by laws conceived in intolerance, and 
with their notable contributions to the common cause per- 
mitted to go unnoticed, the foreign-language groups estab- 
lished records of patriotism not outshone by those of native 
stock. 

The Committee on Public Information at the very outset 
realized the importance of bringing the truths about the 
war home to the foreign born of carrying straight to the 
heart of every alien, enemy and neutral, the tremendous 
idealism of America. We felt strongly that this work, if 
attempted by the usual type of " Americanizers," would fail 
just as it had always failed, and our effort was to find group 
leaders able and willing to undertake this virtual evangeli- 
zation, to develop " loyalty leagues " within the groups them- 
selves that would discharge the task. 

The first success was in the formation of the Friends of 
German Democracy, a name derided at the time. Franz 
Sigel, worthy son of a great father, accepted the presidency ; 
Mr; Julius Koettgen became the secretary, and about them 
they rallied such patriots as Eudolph Blankenburg, Dr. 
Abraham Jacobi, Dr. Karl Mathie, Frederick Hoffman, 
and many other true Americans of German descent. 

Mr. Alexander Konta then organized the Hungarian- 
American Loyalty League, and despite the attacks of those 
who believed in "hate," he rallied his race to the banner 
of America until the war record of the Hungarians stands 
equal to any. 

Mr. Edwin Bjorkman, the writer, was chosen to form the 
John Ericsson League for work among the Swedish, and 
when this was well under way, he drew to himself such men 
as Judge Harry Olson, Dr. Max Henius, and Mr. Magnus 



80 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC UsTEORMATION. 

Svenson, and instituted similar activities among the Norse 
and Danish. 

With respect to the other foreign language groups, close 
relations were established with Paderewski, Dr. Masaryk, 
the Serbian Legation, the Italian Embassy, and the Japanese 
Embassy. As time went on, however, it was seen that more 
direct methods were necessary, and in May, 1918, the Division 
of Work Among the Foreign Born, Miss Josephine Roche, 
in virtual charge of all thfese various activities from the first, 
was made director of the new division, and it is to her faith, 
vision, and rare devotions that the amazing results are due. 
Under Miss Roche, the Government frankly established direct 
and continuous contact with 14 racial groups through the 
following bureaus : The Italian, Hungarian, Lithuanian, Rus- 
sian, Jugoslav, Czechoslovak, Polish, German (American 
friends of German Democracy), Ukrainian, Danish, Swed- 
ish, Norwegian, Finnish, Dutch, and the Foreign Information 
Service Bureau. 

The report of Miss Roche is such that I beg to submit it 
as presented : 

EEPORT or THE DIRECTOR. 

Started as a war activity this division's purpose was 
directed toward meeting certain long-existing needs which 
war emergencies emphasized and forced into recognition. It 
was not only that we had to meet and conquer the bitternesses 
bred by years of neglect and even injustice, but there was 
also the need of giving European countries an immediate 
and convincing realization of America's aims and ideals in 
the war. Bringing their former countrymen, now American 
residents, into closer cooperation with this country's activities 
meant that our message would reach these people abroad from 
the source they most trusted. 

Plan of Organization. 

It was realized that the work could receive unreserved con- 
fidence and support from the foreign born only if conducted 
on a thoroughly democratic plan. Therefore, cooperation 
and suggestions of their leaders of the foreign language press 



EEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATION. 81 

and organizations were sought. Representatives were ap- 
pointed from the foreign language groups to act as managers 
of the Foreign Language Bureaus of the division. They 
were given the responsibility for the development of this 
work among their people ; for sending them official informa- 
tion in their language through their press, their organiza- 
tions, and through wide correspondence and personal work; 
for endeavoring to rectify wrong conditions affecting the 
foreign born; and for making available to the native born 
important facts about their groups. 

Fourth of July Demonstration. 

The eagerness for real partnership and complete service 
on the part of the foreign born in America was made evident 
at the outset of the work of this division. The Fourth of 
July demonstration, and events leading up to it, gave a 
nation-wide and enduring vision of what these new Ameri- 
cans feel and do for this country. 

On May 21 the following petition asking that the Fourth 
of July be specially recognized in 1918 as a day for the for- 
eign born to demonstrate their loyalty to their adopted 
country was presented to President Wilson by representa- 
tives of all the foreign-language groups : 

To the President of the United States: 

On the Fourth of July, 1776, the founders of this Republic began the 
movement for human liberty and the rights of nations to govern them- 
selves. One hundred and forty-two years later we find the world 
democracy, of which this Nation was a pioneer, formidably assailed 
by the powers of reaction and autocracy. 

We represent these peoples whose sons and daughters came to this 
land later than the founders of the Republic, but drawn by the same 
ideals. The nations and races and peoples which we represent are 
taking their part, in one way or another, in the struggle. Some, hap- 
pily, enjoying a political entity, are fighting openly and with arms 
against the enemies of progress. Others, unhappily, submerged, can 
give but a passive opposition. Others have been forced against their 
will into the armies of the common enemy. Finally, a few still remain 
outside, hard pressed, threatened by the mailed fist, dreading alike to 
be drawn in and to be found apart from the rest when the hour of 
settlement comes. But all, through infinite suffering, struggle, either 
blindly or open-eyed, toward the same end, the right of peoples to govern 
themselves as they themselves see fit, and a just and lasting peace. 
121033—20 6 



82 REPORT COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC USTFORMATION. 

The higher interests of the races which we left behind have be- 
come identical, in this significant year, with the higher interests of 
the United States. We regard ourselves not only as members of an 
American commonwealth, one and indivisible, but of the world com- 
monwealth, equally indivisible. United for the principles of that 
democratic world-state which is fighting now for its being on the battle 
fields of Europe, we intend, on July 4, 1918, to manifest, by special 
celebrations, our loyalty to this country and to the cause for which we 
fight ; and we respectfully request that you call attention of your fellow 
citizens to this fact, in order that they may join with us in commemo- 
rating this, the anniversary not only of national freedom, but of uni- 
versal freedom. 

From President Wilson came the sympathetic and favor- 
able reply: 

To our citizens of foreign extraction: 

I have read with great sympathy the petition addressed to me by 
your representative bodies regarding your proposed celebration of 
Independence Day ; and I wish to convey to you, in reply, my heart- 
felt appreciation for its expression of loyalty and good will. Nothing 
in this war has been more gratifying than the manner in which our 
foreign-born fellow citizens, and the sons and daughters of the foreign 
born, have risen to this greatest of all national emergencies. You have 
shown where you stand not only by your frequent professions of 
loyalty to the cause for which we fight, but by your eager response 
to calls to patriotic service, including the supreme sacrifice of offering 
life itself in battle for justice, freedom, and democracy. Before such 
devotion as you have shown all distinctions of race vanish ; and we 
feel ourselves citizens in a Republic of free spirits. 

I, therefore, take pleasure in calling your petition, with my hearty 
commendation, to the attention of all my fellow countrymen, and I 
ask that they unite with you in making the Independence Day of this, 
the year when all the principles to which we stand pledged are on 
trial, the most significant in our national history. 

As July 4, 1776, was the dawn of democracy for this Nation, let us 
on July 4, 1918, celebrate the birth of a new and greater spirit of 
democracy by whose influence we hope and believe, what the signers 
of the Declaration of Independence dreamed of for themselves and 
their fellow countrymen, shall be fulfilled for all mankind. 

I have asked the Committee on Public Information to cooperate 
with you in any arrangements you may wish to make for this cele- 
bration. 

WooDEOW Wilson. 

Following this pronouncement of President Wilson the 
governors of the various States and mayors of cities issued 
similar proclamations regarding the Fourth of July. As a 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON" PUBLIC INFORMATION". 83 

result of President Wilson calling upon the Committee on 
Public Information to cooperate with the citizens of foreign 
extraction in making arrangements for the Fourth of July, 
this division of the committee, under the direction of Mr. 
Will Irwin, was afforded a rare opportunity for intimate 
acquaintance with these people. 

The division bureaus reported on what their people did 
throughout the entire United States. Similar material, 
though not in such detail, was obtained for those groups for 
which the committee had no bureaus through the generous 
cooperation of their leaders, organizations, and newspapers. 

Demonstrations of the 33 nationalities took place not only 
in all the cities and towns, but in practically every community 
where any of these people dwelt. For weeks prior to the day 
their national and local organizations were working on plans 
that would insure their peoples' complete participation in the 
Fourth of July demonstration. No pains were spared to 
make the day all they longed to have it. Probably never were 
there such gigantic preparations throughout the entire coun- 
try for Independence Day ; and certainly never was there 
such an outpouring of the Nation's millions of new citizens 
and citizens to be, as on July 4, 1918. Reports of parades, 
pageants, and mass meetings, resolutions, declarations, and 
inscriptions on banners could be enumerated for everj^ 
foreigii-born group and for each ssparate community, but it 
would only be a repetition of the story of their devotion. 

The Mount Vernon Pilgrimage. 

While Albanians, Armenians, Assyrians, Belgians, Bul- 
garians, Chinese, Czecho-Slovaks, Costa Ricans, Danes, 
Dutch, Ecuadorians, Finns, French, French-Canadians, 
Germans, Greeks, Hungarians, Italians, Japanese, Lithua- 
nians, Mexicans, Norwegians, Poles, Filipinos, Russians, 
Venezuelans, Roumanians, Spaniards, Jugo-Slavs, Swedes, 
Swiss, Syrians, and Ukrainians were thus acclaiming America 
as their country, representatives of each of these 33 groups, as 
the guests of President Wilson, were making a pilgrimage 
with him to the tomb of Washington. In response to Presi- 
dent Wilson's Mount Vernon speech to this delegation, the 
delegate present there for Americans of Belgian descent 



84 EEPOPvT COMMITTEE OlST PUBLIC INFOKMATION". 

delivered the message bearing the signatures of all the 33 
representatives and expressing the feelings of the great 
masses of new Americans : 

One hundred and forty-two years ago to-day a group of men ani- 
mated with the same spirit as that of tlie man who lies here, founded 
the United States of America on the theory of free government with 
the consent of the governed. That was the beginning of America. 
As the years went on, and one century blended with another, men and 
women came from even the uttermost ends of the earth to join them. 
We have called them alien ; but they were never alien. Though they 
spoke not a word of the language of this country, though they groped 
only dimly toward its institutions, they were already Americans in 
soul or they would never have come. We are the latest manifesta- 
tion of that American soul. ... 

We, who make this pilgrimage, are the offspring of 33 different 
nations — and Americans all. We come not alone. Behind us are 
millions of our people united to-day in pledging themselves to the 
cause of this country and of the free nations with which she is 
joined. From coast to coast, in city, town, and hamlet our citizens will 
be demonstrating that the oath which they took upon their naturali- 
zation was not an empty form of words. Yes, more than that. 
When, to-morrow, the casualty list brings heaviness to some homes 
and a firm sense of resolution to all, we shall read upon the roll of 
honor Slavic names, Teutonic names, Latin names. Oriental names, 
to show that we have sealed our faith with the blood of our best 
youth. To this beloved shade we come to-day with the hopes of our 
races garnered in our hands. 

Significance of the Day to the Native Boen, 

Great as were the meaning and hope which the spirit of 
1918's Fourth of July brought the foreign born, of equal im- 
portance were the foundations it laid for an understanding 
by our "Americans for generations back " that these "Ameri- 
cans by choice " came here with the same hopes as did our 
pilgrim ancestors, and willing, as they were, to make the 
supreme sacrifice for their nation's safe continuance, and 
knowing, as they did, the cost of freedom. 

In " The Solemn Declaration of the Czechoslovak People 
to the Republic of the United States of America and its 
Great President, Woodrow Wilson," the Czechoslovaks gave 
fine expression of this spirit of America in the hearts of the 
newcomers. 

We came here from the land of suffering and oppression. It is on 
this account that we hailed America like a rising sun after the dark 
night of humiliation. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATION. 85 

We learned to love America for we are the sons of the land which 
in the twilight of history was the first in the world to rise and fight 
the battle of democracy and self-determination of her people. We 
are the sons of the land which shone like a great beacon light of truth 
and faith in the life of the fifteenth century. When the whole world 
slept, we were awake. 

We love this land— for the ideals of July 4, 1776, incorporated by 
her great leaders into the law of life — and written indelibly into the 
hearts of the nation by the blood and sacrifices of her sons; the 
ideals of democracy which Lincoln set before his united country 
cleansed of the stain of slavery ; these are the heritages of the glori- 
ous past and present of the Czechoslovak people as well. In our 
blood and in the beating of our hearts we bore the sacred law of 
freedom, democracy, and brotherhood. This is our country. We are 
and will remain to be true to her in laboring for her, true to her in 
her struggle, in her sufferings, true to the grave. 

What the Fourth revealed in the way of courageous herit- 
ages and ideals among the recently arrived races in America 
was brought out repeatedly in the ensuing work and relation 
of this division and its bureaus with the foreign-spealdng 
groups. 

A summary of the reports of the 14 foreign-language 
bureaus follows : 

Scandinavian Bueeau. 

The Scandinavian Bureau, under the direction of Mr. Ed- 
win Bjorkman, included not only the Swedish, Norwegian, 
and Danish but also the Finnish ; and later, by reason of Mr. 
Bjorkman's knowledge and sympathy, he took over the work 
among the Dutch. His first work was the formation of the 
John Ericsson league for patriotic service among the Swedish 
born in America. Other organizations, the Jacob A. Eiis 
and the Lincoln Loyalty League, were afterwards formed to 
do similar work among persons of Danish and Finnish de- 
scent. 

NEWS SERVICE. 

A major activity was the news service to the Scandinavian 
press, and later to the Dutch and Finnish, through weekly 
bulletins. For the five groups 998 articles, based on material 
from Government departments, have been released. During 
the draft many special releases were sent, and full explana- 
tions made of the draft questionnaires. The majority of the 



86 REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

papers made extensive use of the articles, many using prac- 
tically every one. 

Stvedish service. — This service, first in charge of Mr. Olaf 
P. Zethelius, and after his death in charge of Mr. H. Gude 
Grinndal, sent out 309 releases to the Swedish language 
press. Over two-thirds of the 50 papers printed very exten- 
sively or to a fair degree these releases. No paper failed to 
use some, and the use and appreciation of the material 
steadily increased among the editors. 

Norwegian service. — Similar cooperation came from the 40 
Norwegian language newspapers in their use of the 257 re- 
leases sent out by the manager of the Norwegian service, Mr. 
H. Sundby-Hansen. Many personal requests for information 
through calls and correspondence were attended to. 

Dmiish service. — Mr. Viggo C. Eberlin, in charge of the 
Danish service, released to their 24 papers 212 articles, which 
with few exceptions were given wide distribution. 

Finnish service. — Mr. Charles H. Hirsimaki, in charge of 
this service, sent out 107 articles to his 24 papers with very 
gratifying results, considering the fact that three-fourths 
of the Finnish papers are highly religious or devoted largely 
to socialistic propaganda. Of the nine papers not using the 
releases eight belong in these two groups. 

Dutch service.- — The Dutch service, under Mr. James J. 
Van Pernis, sent 108 releases to 14 Dutch papers, and all but 
2 of these made extensive and appreciative use of the ma- 
terial. 

Polish Bureau. 

Until November, 1918, the work among the Poles was 
done by Mr. John Wedcla. Extensive contacts with local 
and national Polish Committees were established, originally 
in connection with the Fourth of July preparations. The 
Polish press gave splendid publicity to these plans, and 
proclamations on the subject were issued by the largest 
organizations. Splendid work on the draft was also done; 
full information was sent out through the organizations and 
press, and on the Sunday before registration the Polish 
clergy devoted their sermons to the subject of registration. 

In November, 1919, the work was reorganized under the 
direction of Miss K. Wanda Wojcieszak. A regular and ex- 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INEORMATION. 87 

tensive press service was started. Since November the 
bureau has sent out to the 56 Polish papers 159 releases giv- 
ing Government information. Every paper used many of 
these and most papers used the majority of them. 

Numerous meetings have been attended. Trips made to 10 
cities where there are the largest settlement of Polish people. 
Conferences with their leaders, editors, and officers of or- 
ganizations brought out a splendid point of view and desire 
to cooperate with the bureau. Many letters asking informa- 
tion of Government laws and material from Government 
departments have been attended to. 

As a result of demands following the publication of 
releases based on material from the Surgeon General's Of- 
fice, " Venereal Diseases and How to Prevent Them," a 
pamphlet was issued using the material more extensively. 
Fifteen thousand copies, given out only to organizations, 
committees, and individuals asking for them, were immedi- 
ately placed. 

Help has been given Government departments in trans- 
lating letters, in giving information desired on the Poles and 
in explaining through personal efforts as well as news re- 
leases Government laws and activities, such as the income 
tax, the Federal Employment Service, and Department of 
State rulings on passports. 

Ukeainian Bubeau. 

The Ukrainian Bureau has been under the direction of Mr. 
Nicholas Ceglinsky. 

Seventy-two articles on Government material were sent 
out to the eight papers, all of which carried some of the 
articles. Not a single paper used less than 25 per cent of the 
material, most of them used • 75 per cent ; one paper used 
every article. 

Important conferences and conventions were attended by 
the manager, and several thousand Ukrainians were reached 
through the meetings addressed by him on his trips to six 
of the largest Ukrainian centers. 

Material regarding Ukrainians in America and Europe 
has been furnished Government departments requesting it. 
Much information and personal assistance has been given 



88 REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

to Ukrainians on Government laws and regulations. The 
Bureau published to meet a general demand a pamphlet, 
"America in War and Peace." 

Lithuanian Bureau. 

The Lithuanian Bureau started its work under the direc- 
tion of Lieut. Mostowski and Mr. Julius Kaupas, the latter 
assuming the management entirely in August, 1918. 

An excellent press service on Government information re- 
leased 149 articles to the 16 Lithuanian papers. Not a paper 
failed to use the bureau's material, most of them printing 
a majority of the articles. 

The press among the Lithuanians was the most effective 
and sure way of reaching all the people with the information. 
" The Lithuanian press has played a more important part 
in the lives of the Lithuanians than any other group of im- 
migrants. The reasons are obvious. For over 40 years 
Russia forbade the printing of anything in the Lithuanian 
language, and, due to the hard fight for printed literature 
in their own language, these people have held their press as 
something almost sacred." 

Besides the releasing of articles, close relations were main- 
tained with leading organizations which sent out numerous 
circular letters drawn up by this bureau enlisting the Lithua- 
nians in War-Savings Stamps and the Liberty Loan cam- 
paigns. Constant cooperation came from the Lithuanian 
organizations. Letters to the various organization leaders 
regarding the Fourth of July brought overwhelming re- 
sponse from all Lithuanians throughout the country on that 
day. 

Practically all large conventions and mass meetings were 
attended and information given on Government activities 
and need for patriotic service, with splendid results. Lithua- 
nian settlements in 25 cities and communities were visited 
once or more. Reports on Lithuanians here and in the old 
country were furnished several Government departments. 

Czechoslovak Bureau. 

The Czechoslovak Bureau, under the management of Mrs. 
Anna Tvrzicka, did extensive work in reaching all Czecho- 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOIT. 89 

Slovak organizations regarding the Fourth of July prepara- 
tions. Many hundred telegrams were received telling of the 
demonstrations held in every Czechoslovak community on 
that day. Word even came from the boys in the Czecho- 
slovak army in France of their celebration. 

Czechoslovak newspapers number about 100 and reach 
practically every Czechoslovak family in the United States. 
To these papers 96 news releases were sent out, 40 papers 
using every one of them and the balance giving an extensive 
space. Particular attention was paid to releases on the draft 
and income tax, some 15 articles being released on these two 
subjects. 

Considerable translation was done for various Government 
departments, such as the Eed Cross, the Fuel and Food Ad- 
ministrations, etc. During the fourth Liberty loan a per- 
sonal letter to the Czechoslovaks was written by Prof. 
Masaryk, at the request of the bureau, which released it to 
all the Czechoslovak papers. The bureau manager visited 
the leading Czechoslovak communities and conferred with 
their leaders, their editors, and their organization officers. 

German Bueeau. 

In October, 1917, the American Friends of German De- 
mocracy was organized to aid in holding the German born 
loyal to America and " to encourage the cause of democracy 
by aiding the German nation to establish a government re- 
sponsible to the people." This organization functioned as 
the German Bureau of this division. Mr. Julius Koettgen 
has acted as executive secretary of the organization and as 
manager of the German Bureau from the first. Branches of 
the American Friends of German Democracy carried on 
local tvrork in the 12 main German- American centers. 

The main work of the organization was done through the 
press and through pamphlets. There was issued each week 
a bulletin up to November, 1918, and after that weekly news 
releases were sent out containing important Government in- 
formation and specialized material on the war and condi- 
tions in Europe which would have wide influence on persons 
of German descent. Much German propaganda was over- 
come in this way. Nearly 150 articles of this sort were sent 



90 REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC inSTFOEMATION. 

to the 200 most important German-language papers, to about 
400 American papers reaching persons of German descent, 
and to 200 special individuals. About 2,000,000 readers were 
reached through these articles. A million copies of the fol- 
lowing 20 pamphlets were distributed : 

The Root of the Evil; Democracy, the Heritage of All; German 
Militarism and Its German Accusers ; The American Friends of Ger- 
man Democracy ; The Spirit of America ; Lieber and Schnrz, Two 
Loyal Americans of. German Birth ; A Call Issued by .the Friends of 
German Democracy ; No Qualified Americanism ; A Plea to German- 
Americans for Unity of Purpose; What President Wilson Thinks of 
the Friends of German Democracy ; On Americanism ; The Poison 
Growth of Prussianism ; The Government of Germany ; On Loyalty, 
Liberty, and Democracy ; The Democratic Rising of the German People 
in the Years 1848 and 1849 ; Germany's Confession ; Meine Londener 
Mission, 1912-1914 ; America's War Aims and Peace Program ; Ameri- 
kas Kriegsziele und Friendensprogramm ; Editions of Freie Zeitung, 
of Berne, Switzerland. 

Four organizers were in the field constantly until the first 
of the year 1919 visiting the German- American colonies, ar- 
ranging and addressing meetings and establishing close per- 
sonal contacts. One organizer spoke at 50 meetings, reaching 
32,000 people. In the draft, Liberty loan, and war savings 
stamp campaigns and in all other war activities this organiza- 
tion was one of the chief instruments for reaching those of 
German descent. 

An important achievement of the American Friends of 
German Democracy was the sending of frequent letters and 
appeals, which told the truth about America in the war, to 
certain groups in Switzerland who were able to get many 
of them into Germany, also the generous support given to 
the Freie Zeitung, the German paper in Berne that preached 
against Prussianism with such tremendous effect. 

Trips by the bureau manager to communities having num- 
bers of persons of German descent revealed many possibilities 
for bringing a fuller understanding of America to these 
groups. A spirit of cooperation was found among many of 
the organizations and societies. 

The German Bureau has collected valuable information 
on the various German groups in this country, their organiza- 
tion, their press, the methods by which German propaganda 
made headway and the successful methods of overcoming it. 



KEPORT COMMITTEE OlSr PUBLIC INFORMATION. 91 

Many reports have been furnished various Government de- 
partments on matters pertaining to this group, and it can 
be stated that the Bureau has a very thorough grasp on the 
German- American situation as it exists at present. 

Hungarian Bureau. 

This bureau, under the management of Mr. Markus, re- 
ceived whole-hearted support from the Hungarian language 
press. From November, 1918, to April 15, 1919, 54 articles 
based on Government material were released by the bureau 
and published in practically all the 28 Hungarian papers 
extensively. 

As a result of many inquiries coming to the Hungarian 
Bureau a pamphlet was compiled, "A Message to American 
Hungarians," in Hungarian and English, containing much 
practical and official information; 25,000 of these were dis- 
tributed to organizations and individuals, employers, boards 
of education, and libraries. All were given on request only. 
An additional 10,000 copies had to be printed almost im- 
mediately. 

Several circular letters containing Government informa- 
tion were sent to 600 or more organizations and societies. 
Close contacts with these latter were also maintained through 
two questionnaires sent out to learn of their activities and 
information that they desired. 

Besides the extensive dissemination of information on 
Government activities through the press, the Hungarian 
Bureau also aided the Labor Department by furnishing the 
employment service with a complete list of Hungarian organi- 
zations and societies in the United States and by making an 
interesting study, through one of its questionnaires, of the 
help Hungarians were receiving from the employment serv- 
ice's local offices. The Liberty loan committees were sup- 
plied with 25,000 names of Hungarians. For the Red Cross 
numerous letters were translated. 

The manager of the bureau visited six important Hun- 
garian communities and attended several mass meetings and 
conferences. 



92 EEPOET COMMITTEE OlST PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

Italian Bueeau. 

The Italian Bureau was organized under the name of the 
Eoman Legion of America in April, 1918, with Dr. Antonio 
Stella as president and Dr. Albert C. Bonaschi as executive 
secretary. After the armistice the name, " Eoman Legion," 
was dropped and the organization's work was continued by 
the Italian Bureau under the management of Dr. Bonaschi. 
Divisions of the Roman Legion of America were established 
in every State and their members rendered splendid service 
throughout the war period. Particular aid was given in all 
Liberty loan and war-savings stamps campaigns, in patriotic 
celebrations, in the distribution of official pamphlets, and in 
rendering any service any Government department aske,d. 
Much aid was given the authorities during the draft. Fol- 
lowing the disbanding of the Eoman Legion of America its 
members continued to give this same cooperation to the 
Italian Bureau. 

Four hundred and eighty-eight articles based on Govern- 
ment material and on foreign information had been released 
to the 256 Italian newspapers. Practically the entire Italian 
population is reached through their press. Its unanimous 
cooperation with the It^-lian Bureau therefore gained for 
our material the widest possible attention. Every Italian 
paper used the bureau's releases. 

One trip covering all the large Italian centers was made 
by the Italian Bureau's manager and the heartiest relations 
with the various Italian organizations and leaders were 
established. 

For the month previous to registration a large part of the 
bureau's activities were devoted to seeing that full informa- 
tion reached every Italian on the provisions of the law. 
Close connections were maintained with the Provost Marshal 
General's Office and practically all their material was trans- 
lated and released by the bureau. 

Following the armistice the Italian Bureau cooperated with 
the Internal Revenue Department in not only releasing 
numerous articles giving full explanation of the income tax 
law, but also gave personal assistance to hundreds of cases 
referred to it. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INEORMATION. 93 

Russian Bureau. 

The Kussian Bureau started its activities in November, 
1918, under the management of Mr. Joseph Polonsky. Its 
work has been carried on through its press releases; trips 
by the manager and assistant to the principal Russian cen- 
ters ; cooperation with Russian societies ; pamphlets ; and 
lectures. 

The bureau has released 97 articles to the 19 Russian 
papers. All but two have used these releases; an excellent 
degree of support has come from all but these two. 

Close contacts with Russian groups have been established 
through the visits made on one or more occasions to the 
chief Russian colonies. 

Russian societies have assisted the bureau in giving much 
information as to the kind of bureau activities most needed 
and acceptable among Russian speaking people, and in help- 
ing arrange for the three lecture tours made by Prof. 
Galatsky and Dr. Krinkin. 

These lectures were on " Abraham Lincoln and the Ameri- 
can Democracy," " What we Russians can learn from 
America," and the " League of Nations," and were followed 
by most favorable results. 

Pamphlets on Abraham Lincoln and the League of Na- 
tions were published in response to requests, and 35,000 
were distributed to organizations, societies, libraries, and 
individuals. Many hearty endorsements of the pamphlets 
and lectures have been received. 

Besides giving wide circulation to the information from 
the various Government departments, the bureau has given 
much assistance to individuals, through letters and calls, on 
matters such as the income tax, war risk insurance, and agri- 
cultural and land reclamation matters. 

The bureau has had a most difficult task owing to the 
situation in Russia, and the many misunderstandings preva- 
lent, but nevertheless it has steadily gained and its work has 
been shown not only to be necessary but increasingly ap- 
preciated. 

Jugoslav Bureau. 

The Jugoslav Bureau was organized with Mr. Peter Mladi- 
neo in charge. Its work has been along the equally im- 



94 REPORT COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

portant lines of work with the press, with Jugoslav organi- 
zations and societies, and through trips and meetings at- 
tended by the manager. 

Through the press work about 65 Government information 
articles were released to 26 papers. All but 2 used extensively 
the bureau's material. These releases all had to be written in 
two lang-uages — the Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian. 

While the Jugoslav press influence is very important, it 
does not reach the people so universally as that of other 
groups. 

Of equal importance, therefore, was the information sent 
and relations maintained with the organizations and societies 
which are exceedingly numerous and representative in their 
membership. 

Ten circulars were sent to about 2,500 societies, on such 
important matters as the draft, income tax, and relief for 
Jugoslavs in Europe. 

Several trips by the manager were made to Jugoslav set- 
tlements, including the very important ones in Texas and 
Louisiana, Chicago and other points in Illinois, Kansas City, 
St. Louis, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh. The most helpful 
understanding was thus established between all the Jugo- 
slav groups and the bureau, and the latter was enabled to 
learn what information and work were most necessary among 
its people. 

Considerable aid was given the Jugoslav relief, through 
press notices and through personal counsel of the manager. 

Much data has been filed by the manager on the Jugo- 
slavs, their European history, their immigration to America, 
and their present status here. Great help was given in the 
draft by seeing that all Jugoslavs were fully informed on 
the questionnaires. The Internal Revenue Department was 
greatly assisted by the news releases sent the press and organi- 
zations giving the provisions of the law, and, further, by the 
numerous individual cases aided by the bureau. Translation 
work was done for several Government departments. 

The above summaries are no more than suggestions of the 
work of the 14 bureaus. A full report is on file from each 
one, together with detailed information on their newspapers. 
A brief statement of the important aspects of the work as a 
whole follows. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INEOEMATIOE". 95 

Method. — Along its first general line of giving Govern- 
ment information to the foreign born and cooperating with 
Government departments, the division's activities fall under 
the five heads of work through the foreign-language press; 
work through the foreign-language organizations; field 
work ; pamphlets; While the bureaus all had the same aim 
for their work, and all employed certain similar methods, 
each group presented problems entirely its own and de- 
manded specialized attention. The press and the organiza- 
tions, national and local, were the nucleus of the work of all 
the bureaus. For some they assured a hearing for the bu- 
.reau's message among practically all the members of that 
group. Chief among this class are the Italian, the Czecho- 
slovak, and the Scandinavian groups. 

These bureau managers devoted practically their efforts 
to the press work and to circular letters to organizations, 
although they established contacts with their people through 
trips made to their largest colonies during the initial stages 
-of their work. 

For other foreign-language groups, such as the Russian, 
Polish, Jugoslav, and Ukrainian, the press alone was not a 
sufficient means of contact. The publication of pamphlets 
and considerable work through trips was therefore under- 
taken by these bureau managers. 

The Polish, Lithuanian, Hungarian, and Ukrainian Bu- 
reaus did about an equal amount of their work through 
press and organization contacts and through field work. 

Press work. — For these 14 foreign language groups there 
are approximately 865 foreign language newspapers. About 
745 of this number are issued regularly and were received by 
the bureaus. One-third of the remaining 150 not received 
by the bureaus were published at very irregular intervals. 

The news service was not started by five bureaus until 
November, 1918. By these five bureaus, together with the 
other nine, whose news releases started during the spring of 
1918, there were sent out an approximate total of 2,318 news 
releases to these 745 foreign language newspapers. Only 32 
papers did not use the material, all but three of these being 
small papers of a highly specialized character ; 96 per cent of 
the papers availed themselves extensively of the material. 
Very many papers used all but a few releases. It was a fre- 



96 REPORT COMMITTEE ON" PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

quent occurrence to have foreign language papers come in 
carrying on their front page two or three columns of the 
bureaus' material. These 2,318 releases were based on ma- 
terial from the following Government sources: 

State Department (Bureau of Passport Control) ; Depart- 
ments of War and Navy; Military Intelligence; Provost 
Marshal General's Office; Department of Labor (United 
States Employment Service, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
Naturalization Bureau, Immigration Bureau) ; Fuel Admin- 
istration; Food Administration; Treasury Department 
(Internal Revenue, Public Health, Foreign Language Divi- 
sion) ; Department of The Interior (Bureau of Mines, Rec-» 
lamation Service, Bureau of Education) ; Department of 
Agriculture; Railroad Administration; Shipping Board; 
War Trade Board; Department of Commerce; Council df 
National Defense; Post Office; War Labor Policies Board; 
Red Cross. 

The Departments of Labor, War, Internal Revenue, and 
Agriculture are those whose material was most extensively 
used and most desired. 

Work with organizations. — National and local organiza- 
tions, fraternal, educational, religious, beneficial, and social 
in type, are a powerful factor among the foreign speaking 
groups. Their conventions bring together hundreds of dele- 
ates from all the various centers of the foreign-language 
groups, and their activities and influence are far-reaching. 

The information on Government activities prepared in the 
form of bulletins or circular letters by the bureaus and sent 
these organizations was insured a complete hearing by their 
members. Draft and registration circulars, regulations issued 
by the Passport Control Division of the Department of State, 
income-tax provisions, were carefully and thoroughly dis- 
tributed by them. They also gave most valuable and sug- 
gestive advice as to the needs and desires of their groups for 
instruction and. understanding. 

Pamphlets. — While there was no need to issue pamphlets in 
any large quantity because of the facilities offered us for 
reaching foreign-language groups by their press organiza- 
tions, the following (in addition to the German pamphlets) 
were printed as a result of a desire and need found to exist 
for them and had a distribution of about 120,000 : "America 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORM ATIOHST. 97 

in War and Peace," in Ul^:rainian ; " Venereal Diseases and 
How to Prevent Them," in Polish ; " A Message to Ameri- 
can-Hungarians," in Hungarian ; " Abraham Lincoln," in 
Russian ; " League of Nations," in Russian. 

Field work. — -All bureau managers, either when initiating 
the work or at frequent intervals during its continuance, 
learned through personal conference the situation among 
their groups and gained complete confidence from their peo- 
ple in their work. A total of 124: trips was made to 53 dif- 
ferent cities and towns, all but 10 of these being visited by 
the majority of the managers. 

The lectures arranged by the Russian Bureau as a re- 
sult of the manager's trips proved so successful that one 
of the largest Russian settlements wanted the lecturer to 
come and live there. The following is quoted from the 
letter extending him the invitation : 

You have done very much for the Russian colony of the city 

of . You even made our Bolslievicks thlnlj and spealv about 

education. I often tliink now that if we had in several 

people like you, many of the Russian workmen would have been 
saved from the Utopian Bolshevism, would not believe its idle promises, 
and would learn to govern themselves independently. Several of 
our members were present at the lecture and all were very much 
pleased and grateful to you. Our group has authorized me to ask 

you to come to live in . You are a man of science, and we 

have no educated people among us. You know that the mind of 
the Russian workmen has been moved from its former standpoint; 
It wants to go somewhere, but it does not know the way. If you, 
the intelligent people, will not help it to find the way, other un- 
scrupulous people will take advantage of the occasion. 

The never-failing response to the bureaus' work and pur- 
pose was the best proof of the attitude of the foreign-speak- 
ing people toward it. Many other indorsements were given 
in editorials and news columns and in letters to the bureaus. 

What the work has revealed about the foreign-language 
groups. — Of equal importance with this work of reaching the 
foreign-speaking groups with information as described has 
been what this work has revealed about these groups. The 
war gave a chance for a dramatic and striking manifestation 
of their services and loyalty to the country. After the 
armistice their interest and devotion Avas just as great in 

121033—20 7 



98 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

helping in the difficult transition and reconstruction prob- 
lems. The same unreserved spirit with which they had en- 
listed in the Army, and in the Liberty loaa and war-savings 
stamp campaigns, marked their efforts in peace, in encourag- 
ing all their people to become citizens, to learn English, to 
carr}^ out any suggestions coming from Government sources. 
Numerous printing concerns have offered to print and dis- 
tribute among their people books on American history, civics, 
and the Constitution. Editors of several groups have been 
running serials on citizenship and wish to carry translations 
of the best American stories in their papers. They have 
asked us to suggest these and to get translation rights for 
them. 

While it is true that large numbers of these foreign-born 
people are at the present moment returning to the old country, 
it is the consensus of opinion among the best informed 
among them that very few of them expect to remain, or in 
going cease to consider America their home. It is a most 
understandable desire to find out what has happened to their 
families, their little property, after four years of war suf- 
ferings, and complete lack of communication with them. 

A remark in the Czecho-Slovak manager's report, equally 
applicable to the other groups, sums up the situation. She 
had been talking with many editors and leaders among 
Czecho-Slovaks, particularly on various Americanization 
projects. 

The reception was everywhere favorable, although some men felt 
that they were asked to do what they have been doing all along. 

Foreign Information Service. — To bring to the attention 
of the public some of these significant facts we started in 
August, 1918, the Foreign Information Service, directed 
by Mr. Donald Breed, until November, and after that by 
Mr. Barett Clark. To quote from Mr. Clark's report : 

It has been the policy of this service to encourage the foreign- 
language groups of America by releasing stories telling of their co- 
operation with the Government in such matters as the Liberty loan, 
the Red Cross, etc., and to assist the foreign-language press not only 
in securing prompt and efficient cooperation with the Government 
departments, but by informing the American people through the 
native-language press of the work that had been done and was now 
being done by the foreign-language press in helping the foreigner to 
become a better American. 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON" PUBLIC INEORMATIOISr. 99 

Over 50 such stories were released to 3,300 American 
papers and from clippings kept until the first of the year 
showed a wide and interested use. Typical among them are : 
" The Jugo-Slav Club," " Greek- American Boys Are Genu- 
ine Patriots," " Lithuanians Support Fourth Liberty Loan," 
" The Czecho-Slovaks in America," " Ukrainians in America 
Eager for Education," and " Russian- Americans Aid Amer- 
ica in Bond Sales." Fourteen "News Bulletins," giving a 
number of very brief accounts on the activities of the foreign 
born, were also sent out. 

The Foreign Information Service acted also as the chief 
liaison between the Foreign Language Bureaus and the Gov- 
ernment departments in getting the former the official infor- 
mation for their releases and also for the individual cases 
appealing to them. Also Mr. Clark had charge of transla- 
tion rights for textbooks, stories, and plays for the foreign- 
language groups. 

Cooperation icith Government dejxirtments. — In addition 
to information service through press organizations, all bu- 
reaus did considerable translating of letters and articles for 
several Government departments and furnished them numer- 
ous reports concerning their group. Among these depart- 
ments are especially the Fuel and Food Administrations, De- 
partments of War, Labor, Interior, Internal Revenue, and 
Liberty loan committees. 

Draft and registration tvork. — Highly intensive as well as 
extensive work Avas done in cooperation with the office of the 
Provost Marshal General. All the bureaus released for days 
before registration the fullest and clearest instructions which 
received columns of space daily in the press. Three enor- 
mous packages of the clippings and marked copies of one 
day's papers from the various bureaus were collected as an 
exhibit. Provost Marshal- General Crowder wrote us the 
following letter in regard to the bureau's achievements: 

I have already expressed to Mr. Creel my appreciation of the 
invaluable work done by all members of his staff in contributing to 
publicity on Registration Day. But I have an especial sentiment of 
gratitude to yourself, because the task of reaching the foreign born, 
who are unfamiliar with our language, seemed to me to be one of the 
most difficult, an 1 perhaps beyond power of achievement. 



100 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC USTFORMATIOl^. 

But as I read your report of the methods employed, I am convinced 
that the task was fully accomplished. The daily arrivals of news- 
papers in foreign languages show how widespread are the ramifica- 
tions of influence of your office, and have revealed to me what a 
powerful and effective agency the Government possesses. Your tact, 
energy, and ingenuity in utilizing this agency to its fullest, command 
my admiration, and I offer my personal thanks. 

Income-tax work. — Far more exhaustive was the work 
clone in cooperation with the Internal Revenue Department 
in explaining and helping work out the provisions of the 
revenue bill affecting aliens. A most critical situation was 
created among the foreign-speaking people by the law's fail- 
ure to sufficiently define the terms " resident " and '' non- 
resident " aliens, and by its provision that employers shall 
Avithhold 8 per cent from the wages of their nonresident em- 
ployees, their total tax being 12 per cent as against the 6 
per cent paid by citizens and resident aliens. The matter 
came to the attention of our bureau managers through let- 
ters and personal appeals from their people all over the 
country. Altogether nearly 3,000 of these appeals came in, 
showing a state of complete bewilderment and wretchedness. 

It is almost impossible to choose from among these letters 
the most representative as all give a vivid picture of the con- 
ditions, but the following four from different language 
groups will give some idea of the situation : 

Gentlemen : Please send me information as to income tax. How 
toreigners have to pay * * * to whom. 

The people that belong to my parish have paid more than they 
sliould — many married men who did not make to $2,000 paid income 
tax more than $35. 

Please let me know to whom I am to appeal, 
^'nily yours, 



Russian Bueeau: I, , beg the Russian Bureau to help me. 

The Russian immigrants are not able to pay the war (probably in- 
come) taxes. Some time ago I read in the papers that only those who 
earned more than $1,000 a year have to pay the tax and only on what 
they earned over $1,000; and I have paid $12.07. But now in tlie 
factory they withhold more, and teU that I myself must pay $145 for 
last year, and if I have to pay for this year also, I will have to pay 
more than $300. And so I have to work, but do not get money to live 
on. And please explain me why they force us to take the American 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 101 

papers. Those who do not want to take the papers are put out of 
work. And if I take the papers will I be able to go back to Russia? 
And why did they put the Russian people in such helpless position? 
They do not allow us to return to Russia, and here it is now impossible 
to live. 

And I beg the Russian Bureau to answer to my prayer, and to tell 
me what is going to become of the Russian immigrants. 



Deae Sie : Allow me to ask your advice concerning the income tax. 

I am working for the , Pittsburgh, Pa. The company withholds 

the tax from the Avages. In 1918 I earned $920. I paid $18.40 income 
tax. That means two cents for each dollar. Now they make me pay 
10 per cent more for 1918 — that means 12 per cent altogether, and 
more over 8 per cent for 1919, and do not give any receipts. I can 
not understand how it is. There is nobody here Avho could explain it 
to me, for I do not speak English. I believe Avhatever anybody tells 
me and I pay. 

Of course, I am willing to pay according to the laAV, because I know 
that the GoAernment needs the tax, but I am afraid of being mislead 
too often. I am a poor man, married, and have five children in Europe. 
So please let me know whether I have paid right. Answer soon. 
Respectfully, yours. 



Gentlemen : I wish to send my complaint against the , in 

St. Joseph, Mo. I am a poor man, and Avorking very hard for my living. 
I do not know Avho is Avronging me, either United States Government 
or the company. In the office they asked me Avhether I Avill go back to 
Europe ; I answered yes. Then they told me that I have to pay the 
tax. I asked them Avhat kind of a tax? For the year 1918. I said, 
all right, hoAV much I have to pay? $25, they told me. I said, never 
mind ! Then they Avithhold my one Aveek and half Avages. I thought 
that I Avould get the third Aveek pay, so I could pay to the grocer and 
the storekeeper. But nevertheless they Avithheld the third pay. I was 
supposed to get $19.58, and they gave me only $3.80. What Avill I do ; 
poor unfortunate man? I Avent to the superintendent and asked him 
for receipt. He refused. Noav, Avhom shall I ask for it? I asked 
him Avhether I Avill get full pay for the fourth Aveek? He said, no ! 
To tell you the truth, I cried after I left the office. I really do not 
knoAv hoAv I can make a living. 

Please accept my request, and help me in my grievance. Is it the 
same proceeding for everybody, or only for me? Does America alloAV 
the companies to exploit the poor people in such Avay ? 
Respectfully, yours, 



Extensive overpayment of the income tax was shown in 
these complaints. Resident aliens were denied their exemp- 
tion rights by being wrongly classed as nonresidents; and 
nonresident aliens legally alloAved certain exemptions did not 



102 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC IFFORMATIOlsr. 

receive them. Instead -of withholding the tax on each pay 
day, many employers were taking it in a lump sum, fre- 
quently amounting to an entire week's wages, or more. Many 
aliens in the resident class were being considered nonresidents 
because of their refusal to sign a " blue sMp " stating inten- 
tion of residence (see attached Form 1078 A) , which they be- 
lieved meant they could never go back to Europe for a visit, 
and was some sort of an enforced citizenship paper. An 
additional grievance was that receipts for wages thus with- 
held were rarely given. 

In attempting to alleviate the various grave injustices thus 
resulting, the Internal Eevenue Department in Washington 
showed most unusual sympathy and breadth of vision. Treas- 
ury decisions were extensively revised and any number of 
regulations drawn up with the intent of bettering matters. 
Form 1078 A, certificate of residence, was changed to Form 
1078 B, which was a material improvement. Each of our 
bureaus released from 10 to 20 explanatory articles and gave 
their attention and answers to all the individual inquiries. 

HoAvever, few employers have been informed throughly on 
the regulations and the situation is far from satisfactory. In 
our opinion it never can be as long as emplo3'ers are made 
withholding agents. A complete report on the income tax as 
it has affected our groups with'an analysis and translations of 
typical letters of complaints and with our suggestions is being 
submitted to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. 

More detailed information on all aspects of the work, rec- 
ords of newspapers, clippings, and special bureau reports are 
on file. 

For years national unity and progress have demanded the 
release of the neglected potentialities of our millions of new 
Americans into a fuller participation in our country's life. 
For this there is necessary a mutual process of education of 
native and foreign born. Full information on American life, 
opportunities, customs, and laws must reach the men and 
women coming here from foreign lands immediately upon 
their arrival. Necessarily it must be in their own language. 
The more they learn in this way of our fundamental de- 
mocracy and the possibilities for them and their children in 
this country, the keener becomes their desire and efforts to 
learn "America's language." To withhold this information 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATION. 103 

or delay it until, according to theoretic calculation, these 
immigrants have had time to acquire English, is to delib- 
erately create a period of cruel bewilderment and false im- 
pressions for them which dampens whatever enthusiasm they 
had originally to study English. The numerous un-Ameri- 
can conditions and injustices to which so many immigrants 
have fallen victims must be wiped out. Explanations and 
instruction about America given to the fullest extent carry 
little weight when individuals have been wronged. 

The ignorance of many native-born Americans about Euro- 
pean peoples and their contemptuous attitude toward per- 
sons with different customs from their own are just as serious 
obstacles to assimilation and unity as the tendency of some 
immigrants to cling to Old World ways ; understanding must 
come, on our part, of the heritages of these newcomers, their 
suffering and struggles in Europe, and the contributions they 
bring us if we will only receive them. 

GUARDING America's reputation abroad. 

By action of Congress motion-picture film could not be 
exported except under license from the War Trade Board. 
This provision was used by the Committee on Public In- 
formation of getting helpful pictures into foreign countries 
even while keeping out the hurtful kind. By courtesy of 
the War Trade Board all applications for export licenses 
were referred to the committee and were granted or refused 
as the report was favorable or unfavorable. 

Wliat we wanted to get into foreign countries were pic- 
tures that presented the wholesome life of America, giving 
fair ideas of our people and our institutions. What we 
wanted to keep out of world circulation were the " thrillers " 
that gave entirely false impressions of American life and 
morals. Film dramas portraying the exploits of " Gyp the 
Blood," or reproducing the lawless life of the old western 
frontier, were bound to prejudice our fight for the good 
opinion of neutral nations. 

Offices were opened in New York and when applications 
for export licenses were made the pictures themselves were 
examined by competent committees in which the Army, the 
Navy, and the customs were equally represented. As the 



104 EEPOET COMMITTEE OlSJ^ PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

motion-picture industry commenced to understand our pur- 
pose and realized that we stood ready to expedite all proper 
licenses, as well as to make the fight for shipping space, the 
cooperation became enthusiastic. Not only was it the case 
that all harmful film was barred from export, but producers 
became more and more willing to incorporate a large per- 
centage of " educational pictures " in their shipments. " Edu- 
cational" in our sense of the word meant film that showed 
our schools, our industrial life, our war preparations, our 
natural resources, and our social progress. 

The spirit of cooperation reduced the element of friction 
to a minimum. Oftentimes it was the case that a picture 
could be made helpful by a change in title, or the elimina- 
tion of a scene, and in no instance did a producer fail to 
make the alterations suggested. During its existence, ac- 
cording to the report of Lieut. John Tuerk, loaned to the 
committee b}^ the Army, over 8,000 motion pictures were 
reviewed, the greater percentage of which went forward 
into foreign countries with the true message from America. 
The Secretary of War has been informed of the splendid 
service rendered by Lieut. Tuerk in the conduct of this im- 
portant division. 

SHOWING AMERICA TO THE FOREIGN PRESS. 

In many respects, one of the most effective ideas of the 
Committee on Public Information was the bringing to the 
United States, from time to time, of delegations of foreign 
newspaper men in order that they might " see with their own 
eyes, hear with their own ears," and upon their return be able 
to report fullj'- on America's morale and effort. 

Mr. Robert H. Murray, our commissioner in Mexico, as- 
sembled the first of these visitors, inviting representatives of 
the following papers : El Universal, El Excelsior, El Na- 
cional, A. B. C, El Economista, El Revistas de Eevistas, all 
of Mexico City ; El Dictamen, Vera Cruz ; La Prensa, Puebla ; 
El Inf ormador, Saltillo ; El Liberal, Saltillo ; El Progresso, 
El Liberal, and Nuevo Patria, all of Monterey; La Prensa, 
Tampico. 

Lieut. P. S. O'Reilly, borrowed from the Cable Censorship 
by reason of a long association with Spanish-speaking j)eo- 



REPORT COMMITTEE OIST PUBLIC INFORMATION. 105 

pies, took the p^i'ty in charge for the committee, and a tour 
Avas arranged that covered the United States. 

Their itinerar}^ included the following cities and points of 
interest : New Orleans, La. ; Atlanta, Ga. ; Washington, D. C, 
where the delegation was received and addressed by President 
• Wilson and where the Pan American Bureau entertained it and 
the Mexicans were afforded an opportunity of seeing many 
governmental works; Annapolis, Md., for inspection of the 
United States Naval Academy ; Camp Meade, Md., for inspec- 
tion of a typical United States cantonment ; Philadelphia, Pa., 
for view of the Hog Island Shipbuilding Yard ; South Bethle- 
hem. Pa., for inspection of the Bethlehem Steel Works; New 
York City, for inspection of the United States Military Acad- 
emy, at West Point, and numerous Avar factories in and 
around Ncav York; Boston, Mass., for inspection of ship- 
building plants; Schenectady, N. Y., for inspection of the 
plant of the General Electric Co. ; Buffalo, N. Y., for inspec- 
tion of the Curtiss Aviation Co. ; Detroit, Mich., for vieAv of 
A^arious plants making Liberty motors and planes; Chicago, 
111., for vieAV of A^arious steel plants, pacldng houses, etc. ; St. 
Paul and Minneapolis, Minn., for stud}^ of the milling cen- 
ters; Yakima, Wash., for a vicAV of a United States reclama- 
tion project; Seattle, Wash., for study of Avest coast ship- 
building; Portland, Oreg., for study of Avest coast shipbuild- 
ing, and San Francisco for the same purpose; Los Angeles; 
and back to Mexico A^a San Antonio and Laredo. 

Chambers of commerce, boards of trade, various other civic 
and business organizations and business firms and individuals 
throughout the country aided splendidly in making the Mexi- 
cans feel at home and in impressing them Avith the good will 
and friendship Avhich the people of the United States felt for 
the people south of the Eio Grande. Many business firms and 
individuals entertained these Mexican guests of the American 
Nation and contributed not a little to making them, on their re- 
turn to their native country, enthusiastic " boosters " for the 
United States. The speech which President Wilson made to 
the delegation in Washington — and which was distributed 
throughout Central and South America by the Foreign Press 
Cable Service — was a very effective Aveapon against the sort 
of German propaganda then being spread over Latin- 
America. 



106 EEPORT COMMITTEE OIST PUBLIC INFOEMATION. 

Six of the most distinguished journalists of Switzerland, 
invited by Mrs. Whitehouse, and their acceptances approved 
by the Swiss Government, were received and toured in the 
same manner. Likewise a delegation of the leading news- 
paper men of Italy, and also the leaders of the Scandinavian 
press. Other visits, under way, had to be canceled by reason 
of the armistice. 

There can be no question as to the signal success of these 
visits, for the effect of them was instant and lasting. The 
very fact that we were willing to let our war progress be 
seen and judged was impressive at the outset; the visitors, 
while in the United States, sent daily and enthusiastic letters, 
supplemented by cables, and upon their return, each wrote 
pages, while many even gave a series of lectures on the Ameri- 
can effort. Particularly was this true in the case of the 
Swiss. 

In line with this policy the foreign correspondents on duty 
in the United States, having been formed into an association, 
were taken over the United States as guests of the Committee 
on Public Information, and given unusual privileges of ob- 
servation. Our first effort was to answer the German lie that 
America's shipbuilding was a " bluff." 

Permission for the unprecedented step of showing the 
secret processes of certain American shipbuilding yards was 
finally obtained from the Government departments con- 
cerned, and about 20 foreign journalists were taken on a tour 
which embraced the yards of the New York Shipbuilding 
Co., at Camden, N. J. ; the American International plant, 
at Hog Island, Pa. ; the Squantum and Quincy plants of 
the Fore Eiver Shipbuilding Co., outside of Boston, Mass. ; 
the Brooklyn Navy Yard, and the Newark plant of the Sub- 
marine Boat Corporation. Each correspondent who made 
the trip was under no pledge as to the character of the matter 
he was to write, and the only pledges asked were with respect 
to certain secrets of construction. 

Judging from the publicity to the American shipbuilding 
program which resulted, the trip was an immense success. 
All of the foreign correspondents were more than anxious to 
present America's viewpoint and more than enthusiastic over 
America's accomplishments. Matter written by these cor- 
respondents was published all over England, France, Italy, 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC IISTFORMATION. 107 

and South America, and reproduced in countries still more 
distant. 

Necessary permission having been secured, the foreign 
. correspondents were next sent on a tour of the Middle West 
to study aviation progre^. At Detroit the plant of the 
Packard Motor Co. — engaged in making Liberty motors — 
was thoroughly inspected, the first time that such a permis- 
sion had been granted. The Army authorities, thoroughly 
awake to the propaganda value of the plan, relaxed their 
stern rule against civilians and granted the correspondents 
fullest freedom at the special testing field outside of Detroit. 
The plant of Henry Ford, making cylinders for the Liberty 
motors, was inspected. 

The correspondents then traveled to Chicago. They were 
greatly interested in the Great Lakes Naval Training Sta- 
tion, where America's new Navy was partly in the making. 
They were made to realize something of the gigantic responsi- 
bilities which the United States had shouldered in its self- 
assumed task of feeding the world by a detailed view of the 
Union Stock Yards and the great packing plants of Chicago. 
One day was also spent in investigating the making of muni- 
tions at the plant of the International Harvester Co. An- 
other day was spent visiting the great war plant of the Rock 
Island Arsenal. 

The third trip undertaken was in response to earnest pleas 
from the correspondents that they be permitted to visit 
briefly with President Wilson himself. The President con- 
sented to receive the correspondents at the White House, and 
in a remarkable interview, laid bare his own thought as well 
as his conception of the ideals of America. The corre- 
spondents were then taken to Old Point Comfort where they 
saw the plant of the Newport NeAvs Shipbuilding Co., in- 
spected the heavy artillery school at Fortress Monroe, saw 
the training of naval aviators at Langley Field, Hampton 
Roads, and the vast embarkation works in and around that 
harbor. 

The fourth trip was a corollary to the Detroit-Chicago- 
Rock Island inspection. It was designed to show the corre- 
spondents certain American aviation plants in operation. 
The correspondents were taken to Dayton, where they went 
over the plant of the Dayton-Wright Co., and as many as 



\y 



108 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATION. 

desired were afforded the opportunity of going aloft in a 
Liberty plane. The. same inspection and the same oppor- 
tunity was afforded them at Buffalo, where they went through 
the great plant of the Curtiss Co. 

These trips were of incalculable.value in American propa- 
ganda work. The articles were written on the basis of what 
had been seen by the eyes of foreigners with the indiAddual 
correspondent's own realization of the facts which would 
most appeal to his OAvn reading public. It should be added 
that "Mr. Perry Arnold, who conducted these correspondents 
on each trip, himself prepared numerous articles covering 
what had been seen which were extensively circulated in 
Europe and South America. 

The newspaper men of Spain, some from the Scandinavian 
countries, from England and from Holland, were also taken 
to the firing line in France by representatives of the Com- 
mittee on Public Information, and as in the case of the 
American tours, the results were remarkably good. 

PART XL 

Work of the Foreign Section of the Committee on Public 
Information. 

As chairman of the committee, keenly aware that many of 
its activities were new and even alien to the American proc- 
ess, I exercised personal direction of all foreign work until 
January, 1918, when Mr. Will Irwin, returning from Europe, 
volunteered his services to the national cause. He was made 
director of the Foreign Section, discharging the duties with 
devotion and rare intelligence, and upon Mr. Irwin's resig- 
nation after carrying through the great Fourth of July cele- 
bration, Mr. Edgar Sisson, back from Russia, was given the 
post, bringing to the work the same organizing genius that 
marked his conduct of the Russian mission. 

The Foreign Section had three divisions: The Wireless 
and Cable Service; the Mail Feature Service; Motion Pic- 
tures. In each capital, in neutral and friendly belligerent 
countries, a fully manned office Avas maintained for the dis- 
tribution of news and articles and film, for the handling of 
speakers, arrangement of window displays, and the general 
spread of the truth about America by every possible means. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE OjST PUBLIC INFORMATION. 109 
WIRELESS AND CABLE SERVICE. 

" COMPUB,"asits cable code address, has come to advertise 
it throughout the world, was organized in September, 1917, to 
meet a pressing need. Enemy propaganda, always exceed- 
ingly active, concentrated almost immediately upon America 
when we entered the war, seeking clearly and persistently to 
attribute selfish motives to us or persistently belittling the 
war effort which America might hope to make. 

The United States, alone of the great nations of the world, 
had never conducted a propaganda movement. For years 
preceding the war Germany had been secretly building a 
vast publicity machine in every corner of the earth, designed 
to overwhelm all foreign peoples with pictures of Germany's 
vast power, her overwhelming preeminence in industry, com- 
merce, and the arts. German agents, carefully selected from 
among her journalists and authors, neglected no opportu- 
nities for presenting Germany's case to readers of every 
language. Her commercial firms linked a propaganda of 
liberal credits with this newspaper campaign throughout the 
world. 

Great Britain, through Reuters, likewise conducted a gov- 
ernmental propaganda. France had official connection Avith 
the Havas agency. Both England and France, through 
ownership or liberal subsidy of certain great cable arteries, 
could direct currents of public opinion in channels favor- 
able to themselves. Other nations had publicity machines 
of varying types. 

America controlled no cables; manipulated no press asso- 
ciations; operated no propaganda machinery of any type. 
America was therefore an easy target for the perfected ma- 
chinery of the German propaganda system. Even the news 
which was sent day by day from America was for the greater 
part by far transmitted over cables controlled by for- 
eign governments; more than that, it was almost entirely 
written and prepared by foreigners. True, these writers 
were at the time of America's entrance into the war, in- 
tensel}^ sympathetic, but not fully acquainted with America 
or the Americans. Even the firmest friends of America 
could not know the nation's heart and soul as a native Ameri- 
can could. Germany herself, with all her expensive propa- 



110 REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

ganda organization in the United States from 1914 to 1917^ 
did not read the heart of America aright. But that German 
publicit}^ organization, with customary German thorough- 
ness, devoted much time during its stay in the United States 
to mapping out future campaigns in which the United States 
should be attacked by that most insidious weapon of modern 
warfare — the press of the world. How to meet the attack 
presented many problems. 

The cables, practically all foreign owned, were at that 
time so clogged as to endanger even vital war business with 
their delays. The mail was uncertain. Moreover the need 
was for day by day fresh news. In this emergency. Secre- 
tary Daniels placed at the disposal of the committee the 
wireless stations of the United States, all under control of 
the Navy Department. 

Mr. Walter S. Rogers, of Chicago, for years a close student 
of communication problems, was selected to be of the service, 
and Mr. Perry Arnold, cable editor of the United Press, was 
secured to serve as his associate. From the first it was deter- 
mined that our service should be news, not biased viewpoint 
articles or arguments. 

Through the active cooperation of Capt. D. W. Todd, Chief 
of the Naval Communications Service, arrangements were 
effected whereby the Navy undertook the sending of a lim- 
ited amount of daily matter, and our first service was from 
Tuckerton to the wireless station of the French Government 
at Lyons. The French governmental authorities entered 
heartily into our plans, as did the great French press asso- 
ciations — the Agence Havas and the Agence Radio. After 
translation and distribution to the press of France the Paris 
office relayed the American matter to the committee's repre- 
sentatives in Italy, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, and other 
near-by nations. 

The next step in the world dissemination of news came 
through arrangements heartily entered into by the British 
Government. The same wireless report sent to Lyons was 
intercepted by American Navy operators at the American 
naval base, and relayed to London, where the representatives 
of the committee received it, and distributed it to the Englisl) 
press. 



KEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. Ill 

Following the establishment of offices in Paris and London 
representatives were sent to open American publicity centers 
in Rome, Madrid, Berne, Petrograd, Moscow, The Hague, 
Copenhagen, Stockholm, and Christiania. 

South America had long been a fertile field for German 
propaganda, and through the courtesy of the Navy Censor- 
ship, Lieut, F. E. Ackerman, a journalist of wide experience, 
was sent on a tour of South America to study methods of 
news distribution, to organize Compub offices, and generally 
plan to get America's story before our Pan American friends. 
He visited Pernambuco and Eio de Janeiro, Santiago, Lima, 
Valparaiso, Buenos Aires, and numerous other South Ameri- 
can cities. Offices were opened at all focal points ; and, with 
the hearty cooperation of American diplomatic and consular 
officials, soon had an intensive publicity campaign on through- 
out South America. 

Another agent of the division, Mr. J. E. McConaughey, 
was sent to Central America. He performed a similar work 
of organization in that section. Mr. John Collins was " bor- 
rowed " from the Panama Canal Board, and organized an 
office in Panama City for the relay of dispatches from New 
York to Central American points. The Naval Communica- 
tions Office instituted a special sending circuit to Darien, 
Panama, to take care of a special service, which was turned 
over to Mr. Collins, translated and relayed by him to many 
cities in Central America, where no other news was received 
from any source. 

The trans-Pacific work had by this time so increased that 
organization of an office in San Francisco for preparation of 
propaganda matter was imperative. Mr. W. B. Clausen 
was " loaned " to the division by the Associated Press. He 
began the preparation of a report averaging 500 words daily, 
which was transmitted by the Navy wireless from San Fran- 
cisco to Pearl Harbor (Honolulu, Hawaii), thence relayed by 
Navy wireless to Manila, P. I., and intercepted at Guam by 
the Navy wireless system there. At Guam this report was 
sent by cable north and south — north into Japan and south 
into China. At China the matter was received by Mr. Carl 
Crow, a Compub agentj and by him distributed through a 
specially organized Chinese- American news service. Mr. 



112 KEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOIST. 

Crow also relayed matter to American soldiers in Siberia. In 
Japan the matter was received by both the Kokiisai and the 
Nippon Dempo agencies and used by them as they saw fit. 

As the importance of the work became apparent and its 
results showed, the service increased its output. The regular 
wireless " report " was increased in size, the Navy's splendid 
efficiency in radio transmission permitting this expansion. 
Utilization was also made of tl\e cables. Where some impor- 
tant official statement was released and publication desired 
abroad, this division, with the cooperation of the Foreign 
Press Association and correspondents, sent such statements 
for simultaneous delivery and release. 

DISSEMINATION OF PRESIDENT WILSON 's SPEECHES. 

Early in its history the committee recognized the impor- 
tance of distribution throughout the world of the speeches and 
message to Congress of President Wilson. The President 
of the United States was looked upon as the spokesman for 
the Allies. It was he who sounded the keynote of America's 
policy in the war. All foreign newspaper correspondents in 
the United States had always regarded the utterances of the 
President as most important. But because of the congestion 
on the cables, no less than the enormous expense of cable tolls, 
it was difficult to expect that President Wilson's messages 
and speeches would be printed in full in European news- 
jDapers. Not only this, but it was found that the crafty 
German propaganda machine had no scruples in issuing false 
translations of speeches by President Wilson nor suppressing 
great sections and circulating the incorrect text, not alone in 
Germany but in neutral nations. 

This division therefore undertook the work of distributing 
these keynote speeches textually, at first to England. France, 
Italy, and Russia, then, in response to a demand, to the 
four quarters of the civilized globe. 

The Foreign Press-Cable Service could not have under- 
taken this vast work except by the heartiest and fullest 
cooperation of the great world press agencies. The Foreign 
Press Division paid the cable and telegraph tolls on the 
speeches and messages, plus a small overhead charge, which 
only partially covered the immense expenditure of time and 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 113' 

energy in the distribution. The great Agence Havas and 
Agence Eadio were equally helpful. So was the Maison de 
la Presse, the official French Government propaganda agency. 
Renter's aided in handling messages to the Pacific and the 
Orient. The American press associations, the Associated 
Press and United Press, together with the Agence Havas, 
aided in distribution in South America. 

The following outline of how these speeches or messages 
of President Wilson were circulated throughout the world 
will illustrate how thorough a scheme of distribution was 
eventually devised : 

England. — Message sent (in one sending) with multiple address to 
Renter's, Exchange Telegraph, Central News (all three being the 
principal British news services), and to Compub (the code address 
of this division in London). Distributed throughout England, Scot- 
land, Ireland, and Wales by these news agencies. 

France. — Message sent (in one sending) with multiple address to 
Agence Havas, Agence Radio, Maison de la Presse, and Compub. Dis- 
tributed by these agencies to the whole of the French' press, trans- 
lation being made by each service. 

Italy. — Served through the Italian press associations and Compub 
in Rome, the Italian associations receiving text from the French 
associations with which they had arrangements for interchange of 
news. 

Spain.— Serwed through Spanish press associations and Compub 
in Madrid by cooperation of the French news agencies which dealt 
with branches in Spain and likewise through agents of the French 
propaganda service. 

8ivitzerland.—Sev\ed by telephone from Paris to Compub offices in 
Berne, where a representative of the Committee on Public Informa- 
tion had effected arrangements with several Swiss news agencies. 

Holland.— Sewed through Renter's agency and Compub's offices in 
The Hague. 

Scandinavia.— Served through Renter's subsidiary agencies and by 
Compub representatives in Stockholm, Christiania, and Copenhagen, 
and also through cooperation of American diplomatic and consular 
representatives. 

mcssia.-Sevyed through Compub representative in Archangel by 
cooperation of the British Government controDing the cable from 
England to Russia. 

Australasia.— Sewed through the Australian Press Association and 
branches of Renter's throughout Australia, New Zealand, and other 
South Sea Islands. 

Japfm.— Served through the Kokusai News Agency (a subsidiary 
of Renter's) and the Nippon Dempo, an independent news agency. 

1210.33—20 8 



114 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC USTFORMATION". 

Cliina. — Served through Shanghai and Pekin through cooperation 
of Renter's and with assistance from a Conipub representative in 
Sliangliai. 

Siberia. — Served by relay tlirough Vladivostok from Compub's rep- 
lesentative in Shanghai and also by wireless intercepted at Vladi- 
vostok and Omsk by Compub offices. 

South America. — Served through cooperation of American diplo- 
matic and consular officials, Compub's own representatives at Rio de 
Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Lima, and Santiago de Chile, and the Agence 
Havas, the Associated Press, and the United Press. 

Central 'America. — Served through special arrangements with the 
Central and South American Cable Co., which handled " drop " 
copies of all messages to scores of stations on both coasts, which were 
distributed through cooperation of American diplomatic and consular 
agents. The Compub Division also maintained an office at Panama, 
which aided in such distribution. 

Mexico. — Compub's own representative at Mexico City handled all 
such messages, aided by cooperation of the United Press. 

India^Sev\ec\ through branches of Reuter's Agency. 

South Africa. — Served through branches of Reuter's Agency. 

Greece. — SerAed through the French Government's cooperation by 
dt'livery of matter to Salonika. 

Egypt. — Served through Reuter's Agency. 

Miscellaneous. — Practically all messages were " broadcasted " from 
all American wireless stations of the United States Naval Communica- 
tions Service for information of ships at sea and for interception by 
whatever stations desired to listen in. 

Canadian press associations carried all presidential speeches, through 
their relationship with American press associations. 

Liberia received all speeches and messages by mail from the nearest 
point. 

Teheran, Persia, got all such matter textnally from Aden. 

Special effort was made by Compub's representatives in Switzer- 
land and Holland to secure publication of all such documents in news- 
papers which it was known circulated extensively in Germany. 

ENEMY PROPAGANDA STUDIED. 

Throughout its history, Compub, through cooperation with 
the Army and Navy intelligence offices, kept in the closest 
possible touch with the trend of enemy propaganda. Its 
agents abroad reported on conditions frequently and in the 
New York office certain employees were detailed regularly to 
read and analyze all German propaganda material received 
here — a great part of it being wireless matter sent by the 
great German wireless station at Nauen and intercepted by 
the United States Navy Communications station. 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 115 

By a cooperative arrangement with the publicity offices in 
America of our Allies, this office likewise distributed to the 
American press all of the official British propaganda wireless 
material (intercepted by the American wireless stations) and 
on occasion special announcements "broadcasted" by the 
stations of the French and Italian Governments. 

SPECIAL MEXICAN NEWS SERVICE. 

Mention has been made of the work of this division in giv- 
ino- news to Central American towns which had never before 
received a regular news report. In this work Compub was 
not departing from its rule never to compete with organized 
press agencies, for the simple reason that no press associations 
were entered in this field. The success of the experiment led 
to the establishment of a regular news service for afternoon 
newspapers in Mexico. Mr. Eobert H. Murray, the com- 
mittee's agent in Mexico City, reported that no private press 
agency served any afternoon newspapers in Mexico. He de- 
tailed how susceptible these newspapers were to subtle Ger- 
man propaganda and how their confidence might be gained 
for the United States if a brief world news summary were 
delivered to them. 

With due consideration to the fact that one great American 
press association — the Associated Press — was already serving 
morning newspapers in Mexico, and with its cooperation a 
300-word service was filed from 9 a. m. to noon each day 
except Sunday. The service embraced world news of every 
character. 

Of a similar character was the service inaugurated in 
February, 1918, and sent over the wires of the Haitian Cable 
Co. gratis. 1^ was a world-news report, covering " spot " 
news only, and the cable company sent it everywhere on its 
lines free of cost across the Caribbean into the Antilles and 
to the northern coast of South America. 

SUSTAINING soldiers' MORALE. 

Part of the work of Compub was to sustain Allied morale. 
Naturally, therefore, when means were under consideration 
to keep the morale of American soldiers at the highest pos- 



116 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

sible pitch of efficiency, Compub was aslred to assist. The 
great need of the American soldier overseas was felt to be 
news of home and of home folks. What news was printed 
was mostly of national affairs or of the war. There was no 
newspaper in Europe which could afford the expense of 
cabling items of purely local interest to the boy from Helena, 
Mont., or of Milwaukee, or San Francisco, or Cincinnati, or 
scores of other American cities. What was wanted was tiny 
bits of " hoTiiie news " for soldiers — little local items which 
would keep him in touch with conditions in his home town, 
just as a letter from his chum, or his mother, brother, sister, 
or sweetheart, or wife would do. 

The "home-news" department of the regTilar wireless 
report of the Foreign-Press-Cable Service was a development 
of this idea. The American press was combed by readers in 
the New York offices for " homy " news. A report of nearly 
1,500 words daily was prepared from these small items of 
news, none of which in themselves averaged more than 50 
words each. Every effort was made to cover the whole of 
the United States. 

In the distribution of this matter to the soldier overseas 
the Foreign-Press-Cable Service had the cooperation of all 
American welfare services — ^the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation, Eed Cross, Knights of Columbus, Young Men's 
Hebrew Association, Salvation Army, and others — as well 
as the Army authorities. The latter granted permission for 
transmission of these home-news items over Army wires from 
Paris to the front. The welfare organizations received copies 
in the huts close to the front and posted them for the benefit 
of the soldiers. Several welfare organizations in London and 
Paris printed a daily " newspaper " composed of these items 
and dispatched copies by mail to all recreatfon centers, hos- 
pitals, canteens, huts, etc., within reach. American sailors 
received them. Navy wireless operators copying them through- 
out the reach of the American wireless sending station. 

FRONT NEWS SERVICE ESTABLISHED. 

Early in the summer of 1918, when American troops 
entered in the "Great push," the division felt it desirable 
still further to extend its services of information. Mr. Perry 



REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC USTFORMATIOIST. 11 7 

Arnold was sent abroad to study methods of news distribution 
and to organize a " news from the American front " service^ 
He reorganized the committee's offices in London and Paris, 
visited the branch at Madrid and employed Maximilian Fos- 
ter, the well-known novelist and v/riter, as the committee's 
representative at the front with the American Army, after 
himself having started such a service. 

This service from the front was cabled and wirelessed 
throughout the world. It sought to give a day by day 
analysis of what American troops were doing in the great 
war. It was an amplification of the daily communique as 
issued by the Army authorities. The division found Gen. 
Pershing's staff at Chaumont — American headquarters — in 
full sympathy with its plan of telling the world exactly what 
American soldiers were doing and Compub's representative 
Avas accorded the fullest facility in visiting the front and in 
transmitting his dispatches via Army wires. 

COOPERATION WITH THE WORLD PRESS. 

From the inauguration of its services Compub impressed 
on all correspondents of foreign journals in this country that 
the division did not mean to compete with any existing news 
associations or newspapers; that there was no thought of 
setting up an exclusive news agency for transmission of 
American official statements and the like; that the division 
existed solely as a liaison between the United States Govern- 
ment and the peoples of the world. 

When the service was organized, it established headquarters 
at 20 Broad Street, New York City, in the same building 
with the Navy cable censorship. It was then felt that the divi- 
sion should be in the closest touch with the day by day dis- 
patches via the cables. It was part of the duty of the division 
to study the trend of thought exhibited in these dispatches and 
to aid in the development of certain lines of information no 
less than in the suppression of certain harmful tendencies. 
In this work the division grew to be in a measure, an advisory 
office in connection with the censorship. 

One of the most important achievements of Compub Avas 
the organization of the foreign correspondents, a group of 
more than a score of distinguished journalists representing 



118 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION". 

great foreign newspapers and press associations. The corre- 
sj)ondents readily appreciated the value of membership in 
an organization which was officially recognized by the Gov- 
ernment, and granted special previleges and their associa- 
tion adopted by-laws stringently limiting membership to 
bona fide correspondents of foreign journals. 

Mention of this particular phase of the division's work 
would not be complete without specific mention of the splen- 
did spirit of cooperation manifested by the foreign corre- 
spondents themeselves. All were journalists of high stand- 
ing — ^men of unique experience in world journalism. All en- 
tered heartily into the work of presenting to their readers — 
numbering millions throughout the world — the exact facts 
as to America. 

The cooperation of the foreign press, which was thus 
forcibly brought to the attention of the division, resulted 
in a new line of activity. By this time the division had 
establivShed its own offices in a great many foreign capitals. 
Through these offices and representatives, it now undertook 
to supply special articles covering specific inquiries of for- 
eign newspapers and periodicals. A great many foreign 
periodicals established " American Departments " and were 
supplied with special descriptive and feature articles by this 
division. Correspondents of foreign newspapers in America 
tiame to the division with requests for various matter or for 
permission to inspect certain American war activities. 

PERSONNEL OF THE DIVISION. 

At the time of the signing of the armistice, the personnel 
of the division had grown from two employees — Mr. Eogers 
and Mr. Arnold — to the following : 

New York office. — Walter S. Rogers (director), Perry 
Arnold, Herman Suter, R. R. Reilly, Frank S. Gardiner, 
Theodore Wallen, R. J. Rochon, Lieuts. F. E. Ackerman 
and P. S. O'Reilly, E. F. Wilson, Miss Smith and a staff 
of stenographers and typists. 

San Francisco office. — W. B. Clausen. 

Abroad. — Maximilian Foster, representative at the Amei-i 
can front; Paul V. Perry, in charge at London; A. M. 
Brace, in charge at Paris; John Collins, in charge nt 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 119 

Panama. In addition to these men, who devoted their en- 
tire time to handling the wireless and cable news, the com- 
missioners of the committee, in charge in every capital, used 
these reports exclusively in their publicity campaigns. 

POST-WAR WORK, 

Immediately upon the signing of the armistice, orders were 
given to close every di'^dsion of the Committee on Public In- 
formation with the exception of the wireless and cable serv- 
ice. It Avas not only the case that there still remained the 
necessity of putting true reports of the Peace Conference 
before the people of the world, but the press of America itself 
demanded aid in telling the story of Paris to' the people of 
the United States. 

The cables, already overburdened, became hopelessly 
jammed when an army of American newspapermen com- 
menced to file daily dispatches in Paris for quick transmission. 

Mr. Rogers proceeded to France at once, and after confer- 
ence with the Associated Press, the United Press, the Inter- 
national News Service, and the correspondents of metropoli- 
tan dailies, it was agreed that Compub should make one send- 
ing by wireless of all textual matter»official in its character. 
A " loop " wire in the Compub office at New York permitted 
simultaneous delivery to all three press associations in New 
York. 

At no time was " propaganda " attempted. Only the bare 
text was sent of official speeches, official statements and official 
routine, the matter used in common by all papers. Nor was 
censorship of any sort attempted. The one purpose was the 
relief of the cables in the interest of full and speedy trans- 
mission of Paris news to the United States. 

In time it was seen that an even larger measure of aid was 
necessary, and Compub secured from the Navy an additional 
allowance of 3,500 words daily, which was handed over to the 
correspondents' association to be used as the members decided. 
Even this matter was not censored or supervised, except as to 
length. The correspondents handed their "stories" in to 
Compub at Paris ; they were transmitted over American army 
wires to the French wireless station at Lyon, and from Lyon 
thev went bv radio to the American wireless station at Otter- 









120 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

cliffe, Me., manned by United States Navy Communications 
operators. Here the matter was copied and relayed by Navy 
wire to Compub in New Yorlc, and dispatched immediately to 
the addressee. GorresiDondents of newspapers throughout the 
United States made use of this service. It was generally 
speedier by two or three hours than the overcrowded cables. 
Moreover, no charge was made by the Navy or the Foreign 
Press-Cable Service for overseas transmission — the only cost 
to the addressee being the telegraph tolls from the New York 
office of the Compub to the newspaper. All matter was sent 
to the addressees without change of a letter. To handle it, 
the New York offices of Compub were put on a 24-hour basis, 
to make speediest relaj^ of press matter. 

The practice of Compub in forwarding President Wilson's 
speeches and messages throughout the world was continued 
when the Chief Executive of the Nation went to Europe. The 
President was held to be the spokesman of the American idea 
and as such his utterances were waited for and read through- 
out the civilized world. 

All of this informational work, as well as the relaying 
of dispatches to the American press, necessitated enlarge- 
ment. Lieut. F. E. Ackerman, who had been temporarily 
assigned to work in another department of the Committee 
on Public Information, was brought back to handle a mail 
clipping service in charge of several clerks. Lieut. George 
S. Wheat, U. S. N. R. F., was detached from sea duty and 
assigned by the Navy Censorship to handle the day by day 
news summary. W. C. Garner, just discharged after over- 
seas duty with the American Expeditionary Forces, was em- 
ployed as cable assistant, having had extensive newspaper 
experience. Murdock Pemberton, recently released from 
the Navy after duty in the censorship department at New 
York, was employed as news editor. He likewise brought 
long newspaper training to the job. Elbert Severance joined 
the staff as cable assistant, after several years' newspaper 
experience. Additional employees were required for the 
night shifts. 

On January 1 decision was made to discontinue the South 
V American service. 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC lE^FORMATIOF. 121 
SUMMARY. 

The total work accomplished by the Foreign Press-Cable 
Service may perhaps be best visualized by the following 
summary of actual wordage handled (estimated in part) : 

Circulation of messages and speeches of President Wilson and other 
official statements. 



Date. 



Nature of message. 



Point of origin. 



Number 
of words. 



Dec. 


4,1917 


Jan. 


S,191S 


Feb. 


11,1918 


Mar. 


19,1918 


Apr. 


6,1918 


June 


7,1918 


July 


4,1918 


July 


14,1918 


Aug. 


5, 1918 


Sept 


2,1918 


Sept 


16,1918 


Sept 


27,1918 


Oct. 


2, 1918 


Oct. 


12,1918 


Oct. 


8,1918 


Oct. 


14,1918 


Oct. 


19,1918 


Oct. 


23,1918 


Oct. 


25,1918 


Nov. 


5, 1918 


Nov. 


6, 1918 


Nov. 


11,1918 


Nov. 


13, 1918 


Nov. 


13. 1918 


Nov. 


16, 1918 


Nov. 


23, 1918 


Dec. 


2, 1918 


Dec. 


14, 1918 


Dec. 


16, 1918 


Deo. 


22, 1918 


Dec. 


25, 1918 


Dec. 


26, 1918 


Dec. 


27, 1918 


Dec. 


28, 1918 


Dec. 


28. 1918 


Dec. 


28, 1918 


Dec. 


29, 1918 


Dec. 


30, 1918 


Jan. 


3, 1919 


Jan. 


3, 1919 


Jan. 


4, 1919 


Jan. 


6, 1919 


Jan. 


7, 1919 


Jan. 


24, 1919 


Jan. 


25, 1919 


Jan. 


26, 1919 


Feb. 


14, 1919 


Feb. 


14, 1919 


Feb. 


24, 1919 


Mar. 


3, 1919 


Mar. 


4, 1919 


Mar. 


27, 1919 



Speech to Congerss 

Speech on fourteen points 

America's war aims 

Dutch shipping 

Anniveisary of America's entrance into 

the war. 

Address to Mexicans 

Independence Day speech 

Greetings to our Allies 

On San Salvador 

Re wheat prices 

Secretary Lansing's reply to A..ustria 

Speech on Liberty loan 

Women's suffrage 

Germany's peace acceptance (statement) . 
Statements regarding Germany's peace 

feelers. 

Reply to Germany's note 

Austria's peace note and reply 

Secretary Lansing's reply to Germany 

President's appeal for honpartisanship in 

war. 

Address to German Government 

Address to Rumanian Government 

Armistice terms 

Foodstuffs for G ermany 

Corrected armistice terms 

"ote to G ermany 

Presi'i'ent's message to Congress 

President's speecli 

President's speech to SociaUsts 

President's speech at Hotel de Ville 

President's speech, Sorbonne 

President's speecli, Christmas 

President's speech, Dover 

President's speech, Bucliingliam 

President's speech at 1*; vangelical Church. 
President's speech replying to Lord Mayor 

President's speech. Mansion House 

President's speech at Carlisle 

President's speech at Manchester 

President's speech in Itahan Parliament. . 

President's speech at Quirinal 

President's statement about Italian people 

President's speech at Palazzcone 

President's speech at Turin 

President's speech to 'War Council 

Resolutions of League of Nations 

President's speech to F"rench women 

President's speech on covenant of League 

of ,"ations. 

President's explanation of League 

President's Boston speech 

President's address to governors 

President's - "ew York speech 

President's statement re League 



Washington, D. C. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



-do. 
-do. 
.do. 
-do. 
.do. 
-do. 
.do. 
-do. 
-do. 
-do. 

.do. 
-do. 
-do. 
.do. 



do 

do.:... 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do .. 

Paris.. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

London 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Manchester , 

Rome 

do 

do 

do 

Turin 

Paris 

do 

do 



do 

Boston 

Washington. 
New i'orlc. . 
Paris 



3,831 
2,680 
2,476 
1,160 
1,727 

3,520 
1,514 
156 
169 
360 
100 
2,710 
700 
331 
430 

670 
407 
S50 
690 

480 
195 
349 
420 

1,825 
135 

4,428 

1,747 
273 

2,122 

1,093 

1,284 
717 
674 
152 

1,144 
636 
279 

2,764 
911 
335 
692 
760 

2,135 
234 

1,936 
809 

3,765 



3,162 
597 

4,175 
328 



Total number of speeches and messages broadcasted 54 

Total number of words broadcasted 69, 343 



m 



122 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON" PUBLIC INFORMATION". 
SUMMARY OF ALL SER^'ICES PREPARED AND SENT BY THE DIVISION. 

\^ " Regular lairelessy — Inaugurated October 1, 1917. Then 
intended mainly for interception by the French wireless sta- 
tion at Lyon. Contained originally only brief news propa- 

^ ganda articles, total service aggregating 1,000 words. Subse- 
quently intercepted by British wireless stations; then by 
American operators at American naval base and relayed to 
an agent of the division in London, who distributed it to the 

v^ress. Length increased July, 1918, to 2,000 words, of which 

^00 was " home news " prepared for dissemination to Ameri- 
can soldiers and sailors. Again increased in size November, 
1918, and a new department, that of editorial comment, added. 

^' Total length now, 3,500 words. 
V- Russian mformational service. — Started October 1, 1917, 

as a daily cabled news summary to " Conipub," Petrograd, 
where distributed by agents of the Committee on Public In- 

'' formation. Average daily length, 300 words. Later sent to 
Moscow ; then wirelessed by cooperation of French Govern- 
ment. Discontinued when committee withdrew its agents 
from Petrograd and Moscow. (See special Eussian service to 
Archangel. ) 

British sj)ecial service. — A cabled special service started in 
July, 1918 ; later changed to wireless. Carried special articles 
and news features of special utilization in British newspapers 
and periodicals. Sent biweekly. Averaged 300 words. Later 
increased to 700 words. 

Special sei-vice for Greece. — Inaugurated as a cable service, 

sent fortnightly or weekly to London for relay by Eeuter's to 

» Salonica and other Greek points. Later included in London 

daily special wireless, together with other specialized stories 

for Holland, Ireland, Spain, etc. 

S fecial service for Holland. — Inaugurated as a weekly or 
occasional service to Holland. First conceived as indirect 
service by cable to various Dutch newspapers, the special 
articles being prepared by Mr. Henry Van Loon, of Cornell 
University. Later superseded by various news of interest to 
Dutch people sent to London in the special wireless service 
and by London relayed to the agent of the Committee on 
Public Information at The Hague. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORM ATIOIST. 123 

Special service for Irish press. — Consisted of various arti- 
cles of news interest to Ireland cabled weeldy (oftener on 
occasion) to London, and by London customarily handled 
to the Irish press through various British agencies. Later 
incorporated into special wireless service. 

Special service for Archangel. — Took the place of the 
cabled service formerly sent to Petrograd and Moscow (see 
entry under Eussian information service). Was sent daily, 
or as often as desired, to London, being included in the special 
wireless, and by London relayed to the American consul at 
Archangel for his propaganda use and for his distribution to 
American soldiers at that front. 

Special wireless service. — This was a " localized " section 
of the regular wireless report. It was wirelessed to London 
for London's distribution. It included specialized news 
for England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Holland, Scandi- 
navia, and Greece, and other nations. Where the news was 
for London's relay to other countries, London customarily 
obtained its forwarding to those countries through coop- 
eration of Renter's, Limited. The special wireless was sent 
daily and averaged 600 words. 

Special cable service for " The Field.'''' — The Field, a 
British periodical of large circulation, was induced through 
representatives of the committee on duty in London, to ar- 
range for an " American Department." In this department 
the division furnished a great deal of American publicity 
matter, including, generally, a special cabled article weekly. 
Aside from the publicity obtained in this magazine, the edi- 
tor. Sir Theodore Cook, a great admirer of America and of 
Americans, took a keen interest in circulation of American 
news and through large personal acquaintance with British 
editors and journalists got them frequently to reprint arti- 
cles appearing in his periodical. 

Special cahle service for the National News. — The National 
News organization was a British propaganda agency oper- 
ating throughout the British Isles and particularly in Ire- 
land. Many special news articles were prepared for them 
and sent to the London offices of the Compub for distribution 
to them. The National News likewise rendered very valu- 
able cooperation in the printing of pamphlets containing 
news facts concerning America and America's war efforts. 



124 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

S,pecial service to Haiti. — This was a special cable service 
circulated gratis through cooperation of the Haiti Cable Co. 
It consisted of a summary of the da3^'s news, approximating 
400 words daily, which w*as prepared by this office and sent 
over cables of the Haitian Co. to all their offices. By these 
offices it v/as posted in various Central American and Carib- 
bean cities or sold by the cable company's agents to various 
newspapers, etc. In this way many cities and communities 
otherAvise totally cut off from news of the world received ade- 
quate news summaries of the day's happenings and included 
therein plenty of true news of America. 

Special service to Rome. — In May, 1918, the Committee on 
Public Information had established offices in Rome and was 
anxious to obtain matter prepared by this division for circu- 
lation in the Italian press. Cable delays were very irksome, 
and through cooperation of the Italian Government and the 
United States Navy Communications Service arrangements 
were finally effected for installation of adequate receiving 
equipment for wireless. A special wireless report of news of 
interest to Italians was inaugurated in the summer of 1918, 
but Avas temporarily discontinued, owing to mechanical diffi- 
culties in October, resuming in October. The average daily 
number of words was 500. 

Special service to Mexico. — Inaugurated April, 1918, Avhen 
the division obtained a representative in Mexico City. The 
service was sent by cable and consisted of a Avorld news sum- 
mary. Practically no attempt was made to insert propaganda 
matter into this report, since it was designed purely as a 
press association service for afternoon ncAVspapers, at that 
time not served by any private agency, and therefore very 
open to German propaganda " neAvs." Usually a copy of this 
special cabled service was cabled to the Texas-Mexican border 
(to American consular representatives, who made effective use 
of it). This matter averaged 300 words daily. 

Special Scandinavian service. — Originally inaugurated as 
a triweekly cabled service, consisting of American news of 
interest to the Scandinavian countries. Started August, 
1918. Later changed so that matter was included in the spe- 
cial wireless. 

Trans-Paci-flc wireless service. — Started in December, 1917, 
being prepared by a special representatiA^e in San Francisco 



EEPOKT COMMITTEE OE" PUBLIC INFORMATIOlvr. 125 

of " Compub." Was matter of particular interest to China, 
Japan, and the Philippines and Hawaii. Was sent by Navj; 
wireless from San Diego, received at Pearl Harbor (Hono- 
lulu) distributed to the press there; relayed from Pear] 
Harbor to Manila, distributed to the press there ; relayed by 
Manila on. The theory was that the Japanese Government 
stations would intercept it and distribute to the press, but 
mechanical difficulties always interfered. Later, through 
arrangement with the Navy Department, the Navy delivered 
a copy daily to the cable relay station at Guam, and this mat^ 
ter was thereafter filed from Guam by cable to Tokio (north- 
ward) and to Shanghai (southward). At Tokio it was re- 
ceived by the American Embassy and distributed to the press. 
At Shanghai, an agent of Compub received it and handled 
through a specially organized press association. He also 
forwarded the matter to Vladivostok. 

Special Siberian service. — American troops received news 
at Vladivostok via trans-Pacific wireless route explained 
above. In the early part of 1919 Mr. Kogers, with coopera- 
tion of the French authorities, inaugurated a special wireless 
service on American news, sent from Lyons, France, for 
interception by American wireless stations at Omsk and 
Vladivostok, Siberia, and such other receiving stations as 
could decipher it. Total, 500 words daily. 

South American daily special service. — Inaugurated in 
August, 1918. Sent by Central ai^ South American Cable 
Co. on what is known as the " drop copy " plan, viz, copy was 
taken at all stations between New York and Buenos Aires. 
Delivered to Compub offices in Buenos Aires, Lima, Santiago, 
and to American consular and diplomatic offices in all towns 
touched by the cable. Was a day by day news summary of 
matters of interest to South and Central Americans. Was 
received by a Compub agent in Panama, who relayed it to 
Central American points. Discontinued in January, 1919. 
Averaged 600 words daily. 

South American xoireless service. — Inaugurated in Jan- 
uary, 1919. Averaged 600 words daily, being news of 
specialized interest to Central and South America. Was sent 
by wireless and intercepted at Darien (Canal Zone) , and Eio 
de Janeiro (in fragmentary form, according to latest re- 
ports) . At Darien was turned over to Compub's agent, who 



12-6 REPOET COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

forwarded to Central American points. At Eio de Janeiro 
was handed to the American Embassy, which distributed it. 

Special service to Lima^ Peru. — A special service continued 
for one month (October-November) 1918, for specalized use 
in Peru. Was sent daily by cable, average 400 words, re- 
ceived by Compub's agent at Lima and distributed through 
his machinery. 

Special service to Spain. — News of interest to Spain was 
originally included in the special wireless to London ; London 
relaying special news items as well as stories from the regular 
wireless which it was deemed might be of interest. Later 
Paris was niade the relaying agent. During the summer of 
1918 it was found this was subject to great delays, so for one 
month a special cabled service was sent from New York, 
direct to Compub, Madrid, for special use by Compub's agent 
there. 

Special editorial service. — (a) General: Included as part 
of regular wireless report in November, 1918. Averaged 500 
words daily. Included extracts from editorials throughout 
the country on international topics. Mainly for advice of 
American peace mission. 

(6) Special: Embraced hostile editorial comment which 
from its nature w^as thought best not to be sent by wireless 
because the enemy might make use of it, was therefore sent 
daily by cable, mainly for information of American peace 
mission. Averaged 400 ,words daily. 

Special informational service for Araerican WASsion. — 
Sent occasionally when it was believed special currents of 
public thought might be of value to the American mission. 
Examples of this special service include: Full textual report 
of the Lodge-Lowell debate in Boston ; special editorial com- 
pendium on the League of Nations; special editorial sym- 
posium on the editorial as to Russia ; editorial comment on 
the Prinkipo Island conference, etc. 

Daily neics summary. — Inaugurated immediately after, 
.^jnerican peace mission arrived. Was designed to give 
these American representatives a bird's-eye view daily of 
the main news topics as printed in American newspapers: 
how they regarded happenings of the day, etc. Averaged 
1,000 words. Sent by wireless daily. During the time Presi- 
dent Wilson was en route to and from Europe was inter- 



EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC IIsTFORMATIOF. 127 

cepted by wireless aboard his ship and handed to the Presi- 
dent for his information. 

FOREIGN PRESS BUREAU. 

At the outset it was seen that wireless and the cables, even 
used to the utmost, could not meet our foreign needs. It 
was not enough to give the world the daily news of America's 
war effort, our military progress, and the official declara- 
tions and expositions with respect to our war aims and de- 
terminations. There were lies of long standing that had 
to be met and defeated — lies that attacked America as " dol- 
lar mad,'' that maligned' our free institutions, that denied 
our liberty and our justice. What was needed were short 
articles descriptive of our development as a Nation and a 
people; our social and industrial progress, our schools, our 
laws, our treatment of workers, women- and children ; a mail 
service, in fact, that could be taken by our foreign repre- 
sentatives, translated, rewritten if necessary, and pushed 
into the foreign press to the largest possible extent. 
' Mr. Ernest Poole, the author, one of the first men to vol- 
unteer his whole services to the committee, was given charge 
of this new undertaking, and, with the assistance of Mr. Paul 
Kennaday, he gathered about him a volunteer staff of the 
most brilliant men and women writers ever assembled in one 
group for a common service. 

One feature that would have justified the work had it 
stood alone was a series of weekly letters by such well-known 
authors as Owen Wister, Booth Tarkington, Gertrude Ather- 
ton, William Shepherd, Edward Plungerford, Ellis Parker 
Butler, Henry Kitchell Webster, Will Payne, Mary Shipman 
Andrews, Anne O'Hagan Shinn, Walter Prichard Eaton, 
and Ernest Poole. Other distinguished writers in constant 
service were William Dean Howells, Ida Tarbell, Wallace 
Irwin, Meredith Nicholson, Fannie Hurst, Edna Ferber, 
Samuel Merwin, and William Allen White. 

In describing war aims and national activities, we took 
material from several hundred daily newspapers and weekly 
and monthly magazines from all sections of the United 
States, giving all shades of opinion. Included in these were 
a large number of trade journals and special magazines cov- 



128 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOIST. 

ering the fields of finance, agriculture, labor, education, re- 
ligion, medicine, etc. We also drew largely from State and 
Federal Government bulletins and reports, and reports of 
private organizations. 

This part of our service was based on statements of the 
President, of the Secretary of State and of other Govern- 
ment officials, and the spoken and written comment from 
newspapers and magazines, also from prominent citizens 
and organizations throughout the country. 

About one-half of our service consisted of news and 
feature articles, Government bulletins, etc., describing the 
activities of the Army and Navy — war preparations of all 
kinds, the recruiting of volunteers, the method and opera- 
tion of the selective draft, the work in the cantonments, the 
going of our troops to France, and the many increasing ac- 
tivities there. Also the making of munitions, the building of 
ships, the vast work of the United States Navy, and the 
rapidly deepening spirit all over the United States of unity 
and determination in the prosecution of the war. 

In addition we dealt with various fields of activities, such 
as agriculture and food conservation, industry and finance, 
labor, education, religion and medicine, in relation to the 
work of the war and the growth of our democracy. These 
articles were a means of reaching a wider public abroad — 
for owing to the lack of paper the foreign newspapers were 
greatly diminished in size, and although a large amount of 
our material did succeed in gaining a place in their columns, 
we felt it urgent to go further, and by sending many special 
articles and getting them published in the special journals 
and magazines of each country we gradually widened our 
circle of readers. Following are brief reports of the work 
in each of these special fields : 

Food^ fuel^ and textiles. — In this field our aim was to em- 
phasize the position of the United States as the greatest 
source of the world's reserve supplies of food, fuel, and tex- 
tiles, and to show this country's determination to keep the 
allied fighting forces and civilian populations provided with 
the necessities of life. We emphasized throughout the 
patriotism, self-sacrifice, and good will toward allied nations 
among the people of the United States as expressed in food 
and fuel production and conservation. 



KJOPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 131 

especially written for us by well-known bankers and econo- 
mists in this country. 

Labor. — In this field it was our purpose to describe the 
warm support of the war by the labor elements in this coun 
try. We used largely the reports and statements of Govern- 
ment bodies dealing with labor, as Avell as those of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor and various State and municipal 
bodies belonging to the federation. We ran statements of 
prominent labor leaders, and published articles describing 
labor activities in shipyards and other centers where w^ar 
work was carried on. We gave the workers' and the employ- 
ers' side, and showed the new relations and mutual under- 
standings betW'Cen employer and employed, w^hich in many 
places were built up during the work of the war. 

Religion. — In this field we showed the churches of all de- 
nominations rallying to the support of the war. We made it 
a special point to answ^er in Catholic countries abroad the 
German false allegations that in this country the Catholic 
church was being persecuted by the Government and was hos- 
tile to the war. We ran statements by prominent men both 
in the Catholic and Protestant churches, and also by leaders 
of the Jewish religion. We described war activities of the 
churches, and ran largely extracts from sermons setting forth 
the ideals and war aims of this Nation. 

Department of medicine. — In this field we described both 
in popular and in more technical articles the activities of the 
medical profession in the war. We used largely the reports 
and statements from the Surgeon General's Office, also from 
the Red Cross, and from many non- Government bodies hav- 
ing to do not only with strictly military work, but also with 
the public health. In these ways we showed various ad- 
vances in medicine and surgery in this country during the 
w^ar, and also in the general movement of safeguarding and 
promoting public health as an essential part of our ever- 
growing democracy. 

Womeri's activities. — In this field we described the count- 
less varied activities of women in support of the war. We 
also described the changing status of women as a result of 
the war, laying stress on the success with which they re- 
placed men in industries. 



132 KEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

^fecial countries. — Also on the staff, or connected with the 
division as volunteer helpers from outside, were men with a 
special knowledge of England, France, Italy, Eussia, Hol- 
land, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Austria, Serbia, 
Spain, and Latin American countries. It was their work to 
write or edit supplementary material of special interest to 
each country. 

Our editor here for Italy could write colloquial Italian 
and had a good working knowledge of the principal news- 
papers in Italy. He wrote for such papers special news 
letters, which were sent by mail or cable, describing activities 
of Italians in this country, their support of the war, etc.; 
also editorial opinion here as it concerned our relations with 
Italy and the part that country played in the war ; messages 
from administration officials here on Italian operations and 
comment from United States public men on Italian problems 
and events; also statements by various well-known Italians 
who visited this country during the war. The various official 
missions from Italy were in constant touch with this office; 
we supplemented the official programs arranged by other 
organizations, bringing the visitors into touch with people 
they desired to meet, getting publicity for them in various 
ways, and furnishing them with special material for use after 
their return to Europe. In this connection we instituted the 
plan for having a ship christened the Piave and for making 
the event an occasion for the exchange of official and popular 
expressions of esteem between the Governments of Italy and 
of the United States. 

More or less along these lines special articles were also sent 
to England, France, and Spain in large numbers, being writ- 
ten or edited either here or by volunteer helpers from outside. 
Similar work was done for Russia whenever that was pos- 
sible, meeting Bolshevist and German statements against us 
by articles describing true conditions in this country, our 
democracy at home and our purpose in the war, as well as 
the widespread friendliness here at first toward the Russian 
revolution and the willingness to support any effort which 
gave, in our opinion, hope of a real and lasting practical 
democracy there. 

For Austria and Germany articles were obtained from 
prominent German- Americans here loyal to this country and 



EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 133 

making an appeal to the people of Germany and Austria to 
throw off their old rulers and begin to reestablish themselves 
in the good opinion of the Avorld. Such articles made it plain 
that the warfare conducted by the German and Austrian 
Governments had made these countries hated, not only by 
native Americans but by those of German birth. In this 
connection we also ran various articles exposing German 
methods of propaganda. 

For the Scandinavian countries and Holland Mr. Poole's 
service worked in close cooperation with Mr. Bjorkman. As 
a result it soon became impossible to pick up a Scandinavian 
publication of any kind without finding references to Amer- 
ica, indicating an eager desire to understand what this coun- 
try stands for and what it intends to do hereafter. 

It was through Sweden, among others, that some of our ma- 
terial directed to the Germans was sent after the signing of 
the armistice. We received from our representative there 
the following comment on this material. 

The appeal of Dr. Groszmann to his fellow countrymen in Germany 
was the best piece of propaganda work that has come over from the 
United States, in my opinion. Why can not we have more of the same 
kind of stuf¥? It was translated into Danish by us and distributed 
to the new.spapers. It was very long, but in a week that was crowded 
with the most important news that has yet taken place ; the Dagens 
Nybeder used It in full on two successive days. 

- The newspapers and magazines of the various countries 
were furnished with photographs, cuts, or mats, as their 
mechanical equipment demanded. In addition about 750 
wooden easels were made, each carrying 12 pictures. These 
easels were distributed by the resident commissioners and 
the pictures were changed weekly. 

The distribution of pamphlets was made by mail or direct 
delivery. Important utterances of the President and docu- 
ments prepared in each country with a view to answering 
local questions were printed locally in numbers running from 
five to thirty thousand. These were distributed through 
selected mediums obtained by cooperation with American, 
British, French, and Italian commercial and government 
organizations in each country. 

The American reading rooms opened by resident com- 
missioners received their supplies from the Foreign Press 



134 KEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOISr. 

Bureau. Lectures made in the different countries by nationals 
of those countries were also based on material furnished by 
the bureaus. Data regarding the United States, including 
standard magazines, books, and periodicals, were furnished 
to public and private bodies. Schools and public libraries 
were furnished with American news]iapers and periodicals 
and in some cases particularly desirable books relating to 
public questions. 

The Foreign Press Bureau, in conjunction with the Export 
Division, devoted itself to the preparation of particular 
pamphlet and news material for South America. It fur- 
nished the headquarters in the different countries with posters 
from all the branches of the Government devoted to war 
work and aided the bureaus in forwarding campaigns for 
war savings stamps, Liberty loan, and Red Cross, and other 
activities in each of their territories. It arranged for the 
publication in all- magazines in the United States having 
foreign circulation, for such articles and editorials indi- 
cating our attitude toward world questions, 
h „ Pictorial service. — This service grew up in response to 

increased demands from our agents in foreign countries. It 
provided each week photographs, cuts, and mats to illustrate 
our articles, photographs to the number of 1,500 per week for 
display upon easels in shop windows, and some 60,000 large 
news pictorials to be placed in the many thousands of shop 
windows in foreign countries which were available for our 
use. To a large extent, space in these windows was secured 
for the committee's representatives by the cooperation of 
American exporters through their agents abroad, especially 
in Latin- American countries. The pictorial service also dis- 
tributed widely the Avar posters of this country and millions 
of picture post-cards showing forth our war activities. The 
window hangers were sent out in sets of six each week with 
captions in various languages, such as English, French, 
Italian, Swedish, Portuguese, Spanish, Danish, Norwegian, 
and Dutch. l!Fnimprinted display sheets were sent to Russia, 
China, Japan, Korea, some parts of India, etc. For the 
Oriental countries a special version was printed, with a wide 
margin on the right hand side, thus allowing the space neces- 
sary for imprinting the languages of the country receiving 
them. With all unimprinted material either English printed 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOISr. 135 

samples or English captions were inclosed. The output was 
divided as follows : 

Photographs (specially captioned) : 

Average weekly shipment 1, 500 

Countries receivings 35 

Out and mat service (captions pasted on cuts and mats) : 
Average weekly shipment — - 

Cuts (coarse screen) 179 

Cuts (fine screen) 54 

Mats 307 

Countries receiving — 

Cuts (coarse screen) 16 

Cuts (fine screen) 11 

Mats 10 

Window display hangers (this covered service both for foreign 
agents and for export work, 42 per cent was charged to ex- 
port) : 

Weekly shipment (60,000 prints) — 

Subjects per week 6 

Languages 9 

Specially unimprinted (for Russia, China, Japan) 2 

Countries receiving 52 

The countries receiving photographs, mats, cuts, and win- 
dow hangers, and the number of such received in each case 
is shown in the following table : 

Weekly distribution of pictorial material. 



Countries. 


Photos. 


Cuts. 


Mats. 


Window- 
display 
sets of 6. 


Africa 








235 


Argentina 


SO 
50 
40 




30 


300 
277 
200 


Australasia 




Brazil 






Canada 






24 


Canary Islands 








5 


Chile 


50 
40 
50 
35 


12 


72 

12 

100 


300 
200 


China, Peking 


China, Shanghai 


6 


980 


Colombia 


158 


Cook Islands 






4 


Costa Rica 


25 


6 




15 


Cuba 




55 


Denmark 


50 


18 




114 


Dominican Republic 




15 


England 


50 
50 
35 
25 


3 
12 




570 


France 


6 


476 


French Indo-China 




Greece 






7 


Guam 






4 


British Guiana 








2 


Haiti 








g 


Holland 




12 




170 


Honduras 






15 


India 








70 


British East Indies 








4 



136 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION". 
Weekly distribution of pictorial material — Continued. 



Countries. 


Photos. 


Cuts. 


Mats. 


Window 
display 
sets of 6. 


British West Indies 








108 


Italy 


60 
40 


12 
6 




1,050 


Japan 




110 


Malta '. 




6 




90 


44 


25 


1,000 


Newfoundland 


8 




30 
25 
40 
30 
100 
35 
25 
35 

30 
30 
20 






110 


Nicaragua 






42 


Norway 






78 


Panama 


10 
30 
15 


20 
12 
10 


50 


Peru 


150 


Philippines 


1,730 


Porto Rico 


58 


Portugal 






24 


Russia: 

A 


9 




200 


V 




300 


Salvador 






41 


Santo D omingo 






2 


Samoa 






8 


Scotland 


t 




10 


Spain 


60 


23 




434 


Society Islands 




4 


Sweden 


45 
35 
20 
15 
6 
10 


12 
3 


20 


110 


Switzerland 


54 


United States i 




1,500 








65 


Cisneros 
























Total 


1,361 


233 


307 


11,536 







' For export houses. 

Export service. — Through various organizations of United 
States exporters to foreign countries we established a special 
service beginning with Latin America and finally taldng in 
the entire world. Our articles were printed regularly in 
several large export journals, together with our photographs. 
From our articles we also made, in various languages, brief 
inserts telling of war aims and activities, to be inclosed with 
business catalogues and also to be sent in tens of thousands 
of letters sent out Aveekly from the United States. In addi- 
tion, window displays were arranged with the pictorial serv- 
ice as mentioned above. By this meatus 6SD o 1 llie" 'I oi S|,« 
correspondents of American manufacturers and exporters 
were used for the display of our illustrated news pictorials. 
In obtaining distribution means, the confidential lists of all 
the great sociological, ethical, religious, and commercial in- 
terests were used. 

Besides the accredited commissioners, the Bureau of Latin 
American Affairs sent pamphlet and news material, pictures, 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 137 

cuts, mats, and the pictorial news service to a large number 
of volunteer distributors throughout Mexico and Central and 
South America. 

Thus the Committee on Public Information was conduct- 
ing throughout the world a telegraphic, wireless, cable, and 
mail news service of a most thorough character to practically 
every newspaper and periodical. It developed every medium 
possible for the distribution of literature and the display of 
motion and still photographs and pictorial matter. It be- 
came better known in foreign countries as an official infor- 
mation medium of the United States Government than it is 
known in the United States. Its news was gladly accepted y''^^J^ 
everywhere, and the entire attitude of the press and public '" 
toward this organization as the official mouthpiece of the 
United States Government was most sympathetic and kind. 
Extent of w^e.— The press material of the Poole bureau, 
beginning with a weekly service of about 30,000 words and ^ 
running as high as 80,000 in English and 20,000 in Spanish, 
was sent regularly to IT foreign commissioners of the com- 
mittee, to 22 diplomatic and consular representatives in 
countries where there weue no committee commissioners, to 
10 United States citizens abroad cooperating as agents of 
the committee, to the British ministry of labor, and to 18 
accredited correspondents in this country of foreign news- 
papers. Close touch was maintained with all these commis- 
sioners and ag'ents through letters sent out regularly once a I 
wee]^ and through frequent cables. Advised through such 
correspondence of the openings in each country for articles 
along various lines, the service to each country became more 
and more specialized as the work continued. We were thus 
enabled, also, to serve as a clearing house for methods of 
publicity that had been tried with success in each country, 
as the distribution of quantities of small American flags, 
buttons carrying the flags of the United States and those of 
our Allies, maps of Europe for window exhibition showing 
the location of the American forces on the western front, 
sets of American band music, American newspapers, maga- 
zines, and books for the equipment of small reading rooms in 
connection Avith our foreign offices. 

The extent to which our press material was printed in 
foreign newspapers and magazines week after week was re- 



138 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

markable, testifying at once to the new interest of the world 
in things American and to the ability with which this office 
was able to meet this demand w^ith newspaper and magazine 
material prepared by a corps of experienced writers on our 
staff and by a large number of volunteers who generously 
and repeatedly responded to our appeals for articles on 
special subjects. 

Reports coming to this office showed that in Spain and in 
parts of South America up to 90 per cent of our material 
was actually used. 

In Eussia, the Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, and 
China, much less of quv press material actually found its 
way into print. This was due in part to the time required 
for the delivering of mails to these distant parts and to the 
irregularity of mail service. But in Australia and New Zea- 
land our material, as it was sent to newspapers had the 
noticeable effect, it was reported to us, of supplying editors 
with the basis for favorable editorial comment and for a 
number of articles on this country's part in the war. The 
photographs and the window hangers were extensively used 
in China and Eussia. In the Philippines they were dis- 
tributed weekly from our headquarters in Manila to over 
700 towns. Upon request we also sent to China for exhibits 
in schools 15 complete sets of photographs of 53 of the uni- 
versities and colleges of the United States. 

Europe was, of course, our primary and our most im- 
portant field and here the committee had, in most of thb 
principal countries, its own offices and the machinery for 
making the best use of what was sent from this bureau. In 
England our material was used extensively. We, not only 
secured a large amount of space in the London and other 
big dailies but our material appeared regularly throughout 
Scotland and Ireland and in hundreds of the smaller Eng- 
lish papers due to arrangements made for syndicating by 
our representatives and to the splendid cooperation of the 
British Government. We also furnished numerous special 
articles each week to class publications. 

The illustrated weekly, the Field, maintained an American 
department of from three to four pages a week made up en- 
tirely of our press material and photogi'aphs furnished by 



EBPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 139 

US, and from these pages the English press copied extensively. 
One of our articles, Booth Tarkington's " American facts and 
German propaganda." was carried in the Field, was then 
copied by other papers, was sent in pamphlet form from our 
London office to some 50,000 individuals, and was then pub- 
lished and distributed in an edition of 850,000 copies by the 
British ministry of information. The Tarkington pamphlet 
was also used in several other connections. 

Throughout Spain several hundred windows were put at 
our disposal by American houses for the exhibition of our 
photographs and reprints. These exhibitions attracted much 
attention, the report of our representative on one typical 
case being that " a big store in Barcelona is filled with propa- 
ganda material and it is crowded all day long." The Spanish 
press carried more and more of our material as the war 
progressed and as American troops were rushed to the Euro- 
pean battle front. Toward the end we received a report, 
reading : 

We are simply loading the Spajiish papers with your material, and 
they are printing such a raft of it that others think we are spending 
millions in subsidizing — but not a cent have I spent. You are supply- 
ing the right kind of ammunition and I am shooting it. 

Switzerland: Switzerland was an important point, both 
because of its influence on neutral opinion and because of the 
leakage into Germany and Austria of Swiss publications. 
From our representative there we received reports from which 
the following are taken : - 

We are highly successful in placing your material * * * We can 
use practically all you send us * * * Many of these articles have 
appeared in not one paper but in a hundred or more. Those of 
which, for instance, have been taken by the Mittel Presse have been 
printed widely. In addition to this, we found many paragraphs which 
we have sent out with our daily service. * * * A number of your 
articles were translated and sent to all the papers, and they have used 
them in whole or in part. Weekly financial, trade, and agriculture 
letters are of great value. 

Italy : From Italj^ came reports that more than half of our 
service was being used. Our representative there wrote : 

We find practically all of your special service is useful for this pur- 
pose. Much of this service can be distributed by the Italian Press 
Association and so will find space in scores of Italian journals. 



140 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION". - 

To Italy, in addition to our material sent to all countries 
we sent 10 short articles a week on United States farming 
and country life for use by the Italian provincial press. All 
these articles were used regularly. 

Russia : In the case of Russia we supplemented our material 
with especially prepared articles on education, municipal 
government, political organization, child welfare, district 
nursing, etc. This our agent in Archangel reported was 
" splendid material for Russian work," and much of it w^as 
circulated in bulletins issued in Russian from the committee 
oifice there. 

ISfirit of the worh. — In concluding this report tribute 
should be paid to all those who worked in this bureau with 
Mr. Poole. Many worked as volunteers and others for sal- 
aries lower than those they had hitherto received. All 
showed a devotion to the work, a willingness to stay late, or 
give up holidays in time of emergency here, and in general a 
readiness to serve in every possible way. without which the 
success achieved would have been impossible. 

FOREIGN FILM ACTIVITIES. 

As has been pointed out, the Film Division, under the 
direction of Mr. Charles S. Hart, supplied not only the 
United States with a brilliant stream of motion pictures 
shqwing the war progress of the United States at home and 
abroad, but it sent its product also into every country in the 
world outside the Central Powers. In addition arrange- 
ments were made with the exporters of film that gave the 
Committee on Public Information full control of the for- 
eign distribution of American dramatic and comedy ]3ictures, 
a plan that permitted us to dominate the film situation in 
every country. Such houses as refused to show our war 
pictures could not purchase entertainment film, and in this 
manner we not only put the committee's own pictures in 
every house, but ran the German propaganda film out of 
business. 

In the case of the more important countries a film expert, 
^' representing Mr. Hart's division, was dispatched as an aid 
to the resident commissioner, and their reports are briefly 
submitted herewith as a faint outline of activity : 



REPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 141 
ARCHANGEL. 

Mr. Harry P. In man, ordered to Archangel, carried with 
him the following equipment to take care of the projection 
and mending of films, and the repairing: One Chronik mo- 
tion-picture camera, complete; six Delco light plants, with 
all accessories; six metallic roll screens; 100 T-Monoplane 
lamps; six motor drives for 6-B cameragraphs, including 
speed control; six Powers 6-B motion-picture machines, 
equipped with 3^-inch lenses; three semiportable motion- 
picture booths. 

Mr. Read Lewis, the committee's commissioner at Arch- 
angel, had been supplying one motion-picture theater in 
Archangel and two in a suburb with programs, and in con- 
junction with the Young Men's Christian Association, was 
furnishing three reels of features and comedies and two reels 
of educationals. The money received was divided with the 
Young Men's Christian Association. 

Subsequent shipments were made to Mr. Inman of nega- 
tive and positive raw stock, also 42 reels of feature dramas, 
16 reels of good comedies, 26 reels of news weeklies, and all 
our official film, including Pershing's Crusaders, America's 
Answer, Bridge of Ships, Official War Review, etc., and ma- 
terial for approximately 15 complete eight-reel programs. 

Among other activities Mr. Inman made arrangements 
with the educational department of the Russian Cooperative 
Unions (which is recognized by the present Archangel Gov- 
ernment) for films to be released in towns within a 200-mile 
radius of Archangel. These showings were gratis. 

ARGENTINA. 

Mr, E. L. Starr, sent to South America, after concluding 
a preliminary survey of the field, made arrangements with 
Max Glucksman to distribute our official pictures. The first 
distribution covered America's Answer, the diplomatic show- 
ing of which was a great success, all Argentine officials being 
present. During the week following the diplomatic showing 
the net proceeds to the committee from America's Answer 
amounted to $368, for one theater only. 



142 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOE". 

The second distribution was made of the fihn Bridge of 
Ships, which had been increased from two to five reels by- 
adding the best and timeliest scenes from the Pershing's 
Crusaders film. Numerous scenes from Pershing's Cru- 
saders had already been shown in the other allied war 
reviews, which necessitated our withdrawing and revising 
the film as explained above. This showing was made at a 
large benefit of the British-American Benevolent Society. 

The financial arrangement with the Glucksman theaters 
was on a 50-50 basis, but from other exhibitors through the 
Glucksman agency the committee received a net amount of 25 
per cent of the gross earnings. Our official films were re- 
ceived most cordially, and by the above plan secured a maxi- 
mum amount of distribution. 

BRAZIL. 

Our records indicated that the average percentage of 
illiteracy in Brazil is 80 per cent, and the utter lack of any 
organized form of diversion had resulted in the great popu- 
larity for the cinema. Conditions in this country disclosed 
the fact that the motion picture was an unusually effective 
employment for the dissemination of information and edu- 
cation. 

Until the outbreak of the war the market was entirely 
controlled by the French and Italians. As a result of the 
committee's work these films have been almost entirely re- 
placed by American films. The distribution in Brazil was 
through the American Embassy at Rio de Janeiro, under the 
personal supervision of Mr. E. V. Morgan, the ambassador. 
All of our official pictures were sent to Mr. Morgan, as well 
as many industrial subjects, and a wide distribution was 
secured. 

CHIMJ. 

The film industry was found to be in the elementary state 
in Chile as far as distribution and presentation of the pic- 
tures are concerned. Tremendous areas are controlled by pri- 
vate corporations which maintain their own motion-picture 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 143 

theaters. The official films of the committee were turned over 
to Mr. Sevier, the Compub commissioner. In the larger cities 
they were shown on a profit-sharing basis in conjunction with 
various charities. In the American mining towns and camps 
the films Avere shown by the American Red Cross under the 
auspices of the local chapters. At the completion of these 
showings the Southern Pacific Paramount Co. released these 
pictures in tvro or three reel lengths in every citj and town 
and camp having a cinema theater. These arrangements 
offer a greater money return and a more complete distribu- 
tion thkn any other method possibly could. 

CHINA. 

y 

Mr. Wilbur B. Hart, arriving in Shanghai, found that 
distribution of our official film through established theateis 
was not feasible inasmuch as less than 2 per cent of the 
entire attendance was Chinese. Notwithstanding this, Mr. 
Hart made contracts up to and including February 15 for 
the distribution of the official films through the existing ex- 
changes. 

An official benefit for the war-fund drive was given early 
in November, after M'hich Pershing's Crusaders was released 
the early part of December at the Olympic Theater at Shang- 
hai and was later shown at Tientsin y.nd Peking. The other 
features followed in succession. 

During December our films were released for the Red 
Cross war drive and for some Young Men's Christian Associ- 
ation showings, in the interests of charity and other worthy 
causes. During January Mr. Hart was authorized to turn 
over all films and equipment to Minister Reinsch, as the 
committee contemplated no more shipments of official films. 

HARBIN AND VLADIVOSTOK. 

Our work in Russia was facilitated by the hearty coopera- 
tion received from the Tokyo embassy, and all American 
enterprises such as the Red Cross, the Young Men's Christian 
Association, and the military and naval associations. 



144 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

During the early summer of 1918 shipments went forward 
to Russia of approximately 68 reels of news pictures and 59 
reels of industrial film. 

In July, 1918, American motion pictures were shown in 
Harbin for the aid of the Red Cross. These programs were 
thereafter sent out on the Manchurian circuit, as far as the 
Russian border to the west, and later to the eastern points, 
and were also put at the disposal of the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association for showing at the various clubs. 

Subsequently, arrangements were effected during Augusfe, 
1918, to supply Russia with full eight-reel programs, and 
shipments were made to Harbin of feature dramas, comedies, 
educational, and industrial films comprising more than 30 
programs. On all this commercial film we obtained from the 
producers the exclusive rights in these territories for the pe- 
riod of the war. 

We likewise made shipments of all our following official 
pictures. Commissioner Bullard detailing Mr. Charles Philip 
Norton to superintend distribution. 

The Russian exhibitors had a great desire for comedies, 
which proved a means of introducing effectively the heavier 
and official films in the program. 

Under orders of Commissioner Arthur Bullard motion pic- 
ture headquarters were moved from Harbin to Vladivostok, 
the center of east Siberian motion-picture trade. Mr. Bul- 
lard sent Mr. H. Y. Barnes to New York with a strong rec- 
ommendation that complete equipment for an efficient labora- 
tory be immediately purchased and sent to Vladivostok. This 
plan was approved, and accordingly two carloads of equip- 
ment were shipped to Vladivostok comprising the following- 
material : Six 6-B cameragraphs ; 6 delco light plants ; mono- 
plane lamps, rewinders, motors, etc.; 2 motion-picture film- 
. printing machines ; 6 motion-picture rheostats; 6 screens. 

This laboratory gave full titling facilities for all subjects 
sent, and was immediately followed by a large shipment of 
industrial subjects, educational, agricultural, and mining 
films. 

In the meantime our New York office communicated with 
a great many industrial concerns in the United States, ask- 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 145 

ing them to donate their industrial films for distribution 
through our laboratory at Vladivostok, Kussia. The major- 
ity of them consented very gladly. 

HOLiiAND. 

For exploitation in Holland we secured approximately 
370,000 feet of commercial film from all the leading film 
producers, who granted us the exclusive rights to use these 
pictures in Holland during the period of the war. This 
enabled us to make up 50 eight-reel programs. 

In addition to this • commercial film we shipped our full 
set of official releases. 

Mr. Llewellyn R. Thomas, representing the Film Division, 
upon arrival at The Hague, cabled requesting more raw stock 
and advising that the Germans were furnishing laboratoi-jes 
and exchanges with raw stock, thereby endeavoring to control 
their distribution. We also received a cable requesting short 
subjects, such as one or two reel comedies and short scenic 
subjects. Mr. Thomas further advised that he could use 1,000 
assorted carbons, due to the great scarcity of carbons other 
than those of German make. In response to his cable we 
subsequently shipped 200,000 feet more of raw positive stock. 

Our shipments to Holland have comprised 306,000 feet of 
dramatics, 52,000 feet of comedies, 12,000 feet educationals, 
and more than 30,000 feet of official releases, also 92 reels of 
news pictures. 

Early in November our official film, America's Answer, 
was displayed to all the Dutch military and naval officers in 
The Hague. It received a tremendous ovation and was after- 
wards released every day throughout the territory. 

MEXICO. 

Our film activities in Mexico were handled personally by 
Commissioner Robert H. Murray, who covers operations in 
his report. He received our official pictures, 10,000 feet of 
raw stock, and also large shipments of commercial film. 

121033—20 10 






146 KEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

PERU. 

The motion picture theaters were found to be crude and 
unsatisfactory. The greater portion of the Peru population 
is Indian and entirely illiterate. Railroads reach some of the 
more important mining and agricultural sections, but a vast 
amount of this territory is reached by burro through moun- 
tain trails. 

The distribution of motion pictures for Peru, Bolivia, and 
Ecuador made through Lima, Peru, is based on an elaborate 
system worked out by an organization there. Mr. C. N. 
GrifRs, commissioner of the committee, and one of the best 
informed men regarding this country as a field for motion 
pictures, was the editor of the only English weekly on the 
west coast and is head of the American Society. Mr. Hand- 
ley is the American consul general at Lima. Mr. GrifRs, with 
the assistance of Mr. Handley, took charge of our official 
films. 

Arrangements were consummated for the showing of the 
films in Peru through the Peru chapter of the American 
Eed Cross, which will show these pictures in each of the cities 
and towns having a Red Cross branch. The net profits will 
be divided with the committee. After the Red Cross has 
played these towns, the films will be turned over to the only 
important distributing corporation in the country, the Im- 
preso de Teatros y Cinemas Limitada. The latter has agreed 
to play the films in every city and town having a cinema 
theater (26 towns and cities with a total of 34 theaters). 
This gives us over a period of time 100 per cent distribution 
and as large an income as can possibly be secured. 

Bolivia has five towns in which we consummated the same 
arrangement as in Peru. 

Ecuador likewise has eight towns in which the same ar- 
rangement for distribution was effected. 

SWITZERLAND. 

On July 1, 1918, the Swiss film problem was delegated to 
an allied committee, whose purpose it was to control all 
allied film in this territory. All film contracts drawn up by 



REPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 147 

the Swiss exhibitors were made under the supervision of this 
committee, one of the stipulations being that a certain per- 
centage of allied propaganda should be shown by the ex- 
hibitors. The Committee on Public Information guaranteed 
the exclusive rights in Switzerland on all American dramatic 
films. Tw^elve of the leading film exporters in New York 
supplied us with 64 prints of dramatic features, comedies, 
and educationals. In addition to this commercial film we 
made shipments of 5 prints, or 33 reels, of our official him. 
This made a total of 228 reels shipped. We also forwarded 
15,000 feet of raw stock. Film shipments were stopped with 
the signing of the armistice. 

During December, Mr. Charles Hart, Avho made a careful 
stud}'' of the Switzerland conditions, cabled advising that 
one of the most reliable film companies in Switzerland de- 
sired to acquire all of our commercial film. We accordingly 
drew up a new standard contract for a five-year lease with the 
purchaser, Louis Aclor, son of the President of Switzerland, 
and the sale was made of all our commercial film. Financial 
arrangements of this sale were such that we were able to 
satisfy the producers. This transaction closed the film activ- 
ities of the ccmmittee in this territory, and gave promise of 
considerable exploitation of American film in Switzerland, 
through Mr. Ador's agency. 

FOREIGN PICTURE SERVICE. 

As has been explained, there Avas not only need in foreign 
countries of American war films and " entertainment pic- 
tures," supplied by the Division of Films, but we needed also 
pictures showing the social and industrial progress of 
America, the life of the country, its achievements, etc. Mr. 
Jules Brulatour, one of the leaders of the motion-picture in- 
dustry, volunteered for the work, assisted by Lieut. John 
Tuerk, and under his able supervision Government depart- 
ments, manufacturers, educational institutions, States, and 
cities, were induced to contribute film. Every known subject 
w^as gathered, from traction plowing to a steel plant, from 
lumbering in Oregon to an East Side school, from making an 



148 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOIT. 

automobile to coal mining. The shipments of Mr. Brulatoiir 
and Lieut. Tuerk were : 



Couniry. 



Footage 
(approxi- 
mate). 



Argentina, Buenos -Aires 

Azores Islands 

Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. . . 

Cliile, Santiago. 

China, Shan'^hai 

Cuba, Habana 

Denmark, Copenhagen.. 

Egypt, Cairo 

England, London 

France, Paris 

Greece, Athens 

Holland, The Hague 

India, Calcutta 

Ireland, Dublin 

Italy, Rome 

Japan, Tokyo 

Mexico, Mexico City .... 

Norway, Christiania 

Peru, Lima 

Philippine Islands 

Russia: 

Archangel 

Harbin 

Vladivostok 

Siberia 

Switzerland, Berne 

Spain, Madrid 

Sweden, Stockholm 

TotaL.... 



67, 500 

24,000 

139, 000 

112,500 

138,000 

24,000 

112,000 

15,000 

40,000 

218,000 

92,000 

647,000 

11,000 

42,000 

420,000 

144,000 

863,000 

322,000 

43, 500 

39,000 

139,000 
554,000 
598,000 
195,000 
352, 000 
492, 000 
357, 000 



6,200,500 



The division made shipments of positive and negative raw 
stock as follows: 



Country. 



Footage . 



Positive. Negative. 



Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. 

Chile, Santiago 

China, Shanghai 

Denmark, Copenhagen 

France, Paris 

Holland, The Hague.. 
Mexico, Mexico City . . 

Peru, Lima 

Russia; 

Archangel 

Harbin 

Vladivostok 

Sweden, Stockholm . . . 
Switzerland, Berne 

Total , 



12,915 

10,000 

24,000 

24,915 

652, 960 

299, 982 

20,000 

600 

64,996 

16,545 

100,000 

59,500 

8,000 



10,056 



131,128 



5,000 
400 

19,967 



40,000 



1,294,413 



206, 551 



This division acted as the shipper for the Foreign Film 
Bureau, and we have accordingly included in the above foot- 
ages all film consigned by them for shipment to their foreign 
film commissioners. 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 149 

It supplied the Young Men's Christian Association with 
521 reels (521,000 feet) for use in Eussia, 150 reels (150,000 
feet) for use in Italy, and 51 reels (51,000 feet) for use in 
France. 

It shipped projection machines, accessories, complete equip- 
ment, etc., to the following countries: 

China, Shanghai 1 

Mexico, Mexico City 2 

Russia 16 

Its shipments to Italy include : 

Italian iDOst cards, showing American scenes 1, 081, 010 

Italian post cards, showing Czecho-Slovak scenes 925, 574 

REPORTS FROM FOREIGN COMMISSIONERS. 

It is regrettable that space can not be taken to give the 
report of every commissioner in full, but it is felt that the 
complete presentation of a few, as examples, will make suffi- 
ciently clear the nature of the committee's activities, the prob- 
lems encountered, and the achievements. 

Report on the Work in Mexico. 

[By ROBEET H. MdrraYj Commissioner.] 

By order of George Creel, chairman of the Committee on 
Public Information, the Mexico Section of the Committee on 
Public Information was created on March 1, 1918, continuing 
until February 15, 1919. 

With the exception of a few sparsely settled and remote 
points, operations extended throughout the entire Republic. 
Representatives of the committee were stationed in every city 
and important town in the country. When the armistice — 
the date upon which the work of the section was at flood 
tide — was signed on November 11, 1918, the Mexico Section 
had 222 individual correspondents, who covered 165 points. 

For purposes of this report the operations of the Mexico 
Section may be divided broadly under the following heads: 

General. Motion pictures. 

Organization. Still pictures. 

Newspapers. School and reading room. 

Literature. Miscellaneous. 



150 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC USTFORMATIOlSr. 

GENERAL. 

In the beginning, elements confronted the Mexico Section 
which rendered its task peculiarly difficult and, to a certain 
extent, unique. With the possible exception of Spain, in no 
other country outside of Mexico did the German propaganda 
attain such vigor and proportion, and nowhere was it waged 
with more determination and vicious mendacity. Events and 
conditions which it is unnecessary to recapitulate had caused 
the people and the Government of Mexico to become highly 
responsive to overt or covert propaganda directed against the 
United States and in favor of Germany. The people, espe- 
cially the masses, reacted favorably almost to a unit to the 
specious and insidious endeavors of the Germans to deceive 
them into believing that the triumph of the arms of the 
United States spelled menace and disaster to Mexico, and that 
a German victory would insure for them and their country 
every manner of political and economic benefit. 

Thus the German propaganda thrived upon fruitful soil. 
It appealed to a readj^-made, receptively sympathetic audience. 
Nevertheless, as the writer prophesied early in February, 
1918, in a resume of the Mexican situation which he furnished 
to Chairman Creel, the German propaganda up to that time 
had not been successful in creating anything substantial or 
lasting commensurate with the effort and money expended. 
Nor did it later. This was proved when, as a result of the 
defeat of the German military power, the German propa- 
ganda in Mexico collapsed almost overnight, leaving nothing 
save a faint and rapidly disappearing impression upon the 
Mexican public to show for the expenditure of more than four 
years' time and intensive effort and at least 10,000,000 marks 
in German money. The German propaganda failed in 
Mexico, as elsewhere, because, as a writer iruthe Journal of 
the American Chamber of Mexico expressed it in the Novem- 
ber number of that publication : 

It is, and always has been, a propaganda of lies. Because it deals 
exclusively in lies. Because it is composed of lies. Because it is 
organized and managed by arch liars who work with intent to lie and 
to deceive. But the German propaganda has failed principally because, 
in the long i-uii, truth will beat lies every time. 



REPORT COMMITTEE OK PUBLIC INFORMATION. 151 

Whatever success the Mexico Section attained may be at- 
tributed, in the main, to the fact that it dealt from the begin- 
ning to the end exclusively in truth. Its sole mission in 
Mexico was to tell the Mexicans the truth, not only about the 
United States, why it went to war, what it was doing in the 
war, and what the real attitude of the people and of the 
Government of the United States was toward Mexico, but 
also what German militarism actually stood for, what the 
conduct of German statesmen, soldiers, and sailors had been 
in the war, and what were the sinister aims of the Kaiser and 
his accomplices toward democracy and free Governments of 
free peoples. 

The fight to win Mexico, or at least to obtain for the com- 
mon cause an adequate hearing before the Mexican people, 
was essentially our fight. And this quite regardless of what- 
ever interest any other nation embattled against the Germans 
might have held in the way of impressing their cause and 
their point of view upon the Mexicans. That the Mexican 
fight was bur fight became apparent from the fact that it was 
only from the day we declared war that the German propa- 
ganda in Mexico really began to flourish. The Germans were 
cunning enough immediately thereafter to play upon the 
anti-American string. That was their best asset in Mexico, 
and they omitted no effort or expense to capitalize and 
profit by it. 

This had been going on for almost a year when the Mexico 
Section was created. The Germans had organized well. For 
the most part their propaganda was financed by loans made 
to the German minister in Mexico by wealthy German com- 
mercial houses and individuals. These provided the minister 
Avith unlimited funds in Mexican currency with which to 
corrupt public sentiment in Mexico, and which they loaned 
upon drafts upon the German Government. In passing it 
may be said that none of these drafts have yet been paid. No 
source of revenue of this nature was available to the Mexico 
Section. The only financial support, with one exception, 
which this office received from American nationals was in- 
direct. It came through newspaper advertising from Ameri- 
can business houses, which was provided for the support and 
encouragement of legitimate newspapers, who championed 
the cause of the United States and of the Allies. This move- 



152 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

ment, although it was originated before the Mexico Section, 
came into being, was latterly revived and placed upon a more 
effective basis through the influence of this office, with the 
assistance of various members of the American Chamber of 
Commerce of Mexico, notably William L. Vail, Esq., who 
volunteered to take charge of the work. This office and its. 
work are indebted to Mr. Vail for his patriotic activities. 

Details of the operation of the propaganda of the enemy 
are not germane here. They did not differ materially from 
those employed in every neutral country. The basis of their 
work was conventional, practical, and sound. Upon that, 
however, they had reared a structure of falsification, misrep- 
resentation, and chicanery. It was upheld, on the part of 
those among the Mexicans whom they drew to their support 
not because of conscientious conviction by the supporters of 
the justice of the cause which they were espousing, but solely 
for that they were paid for what they did with copious 
moneys dealt out by the German information service. Au- 
thenticated documents from the records of the German in- 
formation service which are in possession of this office show 
that the Germans were paying subsidies aggregating nearly 
$25,000 United States currency monthly to 23 newspapers and 
periodicals, besides supplying them with free paper and an 
alleged " cable " service made in Mexico. At a conservative 
estimate the press activities alone of the Germans in subsidies, 
paper, telegraph service and tolls must have cost them not 
far from $50,000 United States currency monthly. 

It is a significant fact, and one which redounds to the credit 
of the reputable, honorable journalists of Mexico, that dur- 
ing the war there was not a single newspaper or periodical in 
the Republic which pleaded the German cause that was self- 
sustaining. All were subsidized with German gold. On 
the other hand, there was not one pro- American ally news- 
paper or periodical which was not self-sustaining. The 
Mexico section, directly or indirectly, did not subsidize any 
publication. 

When the work of this office began the Germans had the 
field virtually to themselves. With rare exceptions the news- 
papers which were not avowedly pro-German gave the cause 
of the United States and of the allies languid and indifferent 
support. Largely, the fault for this condition was ours. Un- 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 153 

til we started our work no organized, adequate, authoritative 
channels for obtaining information regarding the purposes 
and the acts of the United States at war were available to 
newspapers or individuals who were inclined to be friendly. 
The reverse Avas impressively, emphatically, and. to us, re- 
proachfully true, so far as the Germans were concerned. 

But this initial handicap was speedily overcome. From the 
outset it was assumed that the Mexican press and public, or 
at least that portion of it which was not debauched by Ger- 
man money and German lies, was fair and receptive. This 
was almost instantaneously proved. We worked always in 
the open. Official notice was served upon the Mexican Gov- 
ernment of the establishment of the offices of the committee 
in the City of Mexico and of the purpose of the committee in 
extending its operations into Mexico. We hid nothing from 
public view. There was nothing to hide. Incidentally this 
principle was laid down and maintained to the point that the 
director felt free to declare, and still does declare, that there 
is not a document, record, payment, or act of the Mexico Sec- 
tion which is not open to the full and unrestricted scrutiny 
of any person in or out of Mexico. 

From the beginning this office stressed the fact, and gave it 
the widest proper publicity, that the Mexico Section spoke 
and functioned officiallj^ for the Government of the United 
States, and that the Government of the United States stood 
back of every statement contained in every cable report or 
piece of literature issued by us. Our challenge of responsi- 
bility for word and deed, both on behalf of our Government 
and of this office, was not once questioned or accepted by 
those who opposed us. 

It is a source of deep satisfaction tO' be able to report that 
regardless of the obviously difficult field in which we were 
forced to operate and the manifold opportunities which pre- 
sented themselves for complications which, had they de- 
veloped, would inevitably have bred embarrassments both 
for the committee and for our Government, the Mexico Sec- 
tion was fortunate enough to conclude its labors without fric- 
tion with any of the Federal, State, or local authorities of the 
Republic. One can not escape the conclusion that this was 
due largely to the truthful, conservative, responsible, open- 
and-above-board policies adopted. These policies, while 



154 "EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

. rigidly adhered to, did not in the least lessen their aggressive- 
ness, energy, and success of the work. Fundamentally, we 
did all that the Germans did, and more. But we did it dif- 
ferently and decently. 

Our sole mission was to inform the people of Mexico. It 
has been said that we did this adequately. All things con- 
sidered — the remoteness of many of the populous parts of the 
Republic from our headquarters in the City of Mexico, the 
regrettable delay in commencing our work, the vast numerical 
preponderance of the illiterate over the literate among the 
population of Mexico, their latent antagonism to, and sus- 
picion of, the United States, and the modest sum available 
for the purposes of the committee in Mexico — one feels that 
inspection of the record of the Mexico Section may safely be 
invited from any critics, friendly or unfriendly. 

The director was fortunate in being able to surround him- 
self with a corps of assistants — Americans for the greater 
part, but including Mexicans, British, Russian, and French — 
who gave him efficient, loyal, and patriotic support. He owes 
much to them, and he takes pleasure in acknowledging that 
obligation with deep thanks. The always constructive, ap- 
preciated, and helpful interest and cooperation of the Ameri- 
can ambassador, Henry Prather Fletcher, Esq., contributed 
immeasurably to the success of the work of the committee in 
Mexico. Enthusiastic and invaluable aid was also rendered, 
almost without exception, by the members of the consul corps 
of the United States in Mexico. Equally important service 
was given by volunteer correspondents in all parts of the 
Republic, who included not only Americans, but Mexican 
citizens and nationals of substantially every country on earth 
which either militantly or sentimentally was aligned on the 
side of justice and democracy against despotism and ruth- 
less force. 

Two dominant facts stand out clearly as a result of the ex- 
perience of the director in the past 11 months. One is that 
much was accomplished in acquainting the people of Mexico 
with the power, the resources in national crises, the right- 
eously militant spirit, the ideals, the underlying altruism of 
their neighbors to the north. The obvious reply to this, of 
course, is that, considering the close geographical, commer- 
cial, and political ties of the two countries, the Mexican 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 155 

people should have known all this before. Which is quite 
true. But they didn't. It had never been the business of any- 
one to enlighten them systematically, purposefully, and truth- 
fully. The other fact is that much of permanent benefit to 
the United States and Mexico could and should be built upon 
the foundation laid by the Committee on Public Information. 
The United States never more than at present needed inter- 
pretation to the people of Mexico. Never were Mexicans in a 
more inquiring and receptive mood. 

Ground has been prepared which Ave should not, in justice 
to ourselves and our responsibilities in Mexico, leave untilled. 

Two expressions of judgment upon the work of the Mexico 
Section may properly be included in this report. The first 
is in the form of a resolution adopted by the American Cham- 
ber of Commerce in Mexico, as follows : 

Resol'ved, That this chamber commends in the highest terms the 
work accomplished by the Committee on Public Information in Mexico 
under the direction of Mr. Robert H. Murray, it being its judgment 
that a decided change for better in the attitude of the Mexican people 
has been brought about through its efficient work. 

Resolved, That copies of the resolution be sent to the American 
ambassador, American consul general in Mexico, Mr. George Creel, 
chairman of the Committee on Public Information in Washington, 
and to Mr. Robert H. Murray, director of the Mexican section. 

The second is an editorial published in La Prensa, a daily 
newspaper printed in the city of Puebla, on December 24, 
1918. 

WORK OF THE FOEEIGN INFOEMATION AGENCIES DURING THE EUROPEAN WAR. 

Varied and contradictory were the notices which during the ter- 
rible European war were cii-culated by the foreign information agencies 
established in the capital of the Republic, news emanating from the 
battlefields according to the events occurring and sent to Mexico 
from the very countries at war. The effect of all this on the various 
parties is past history, each group wishing success for the side they 
sympathized with. The time is also past of uneasy expectation on 
the part of neutral nations, who anxiously followed the march of 
events as given out by the respective agencies and who, while regret- 
ting the bloodshed and destruction of war, thought as they still do, 
uneasily about the future of the world in respect to commercial rela- 
tions and that state of peace which was to form a league of nations. 

Now that the great struggle has been solved by an armistice which 
will lead to the basis of a lasting peace ; now with the disappearance 



156 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

(»f the powerful empire of the autocratic and warlike German Kaiser, 
who carried destruction and extermination into France and Belgium, 
and that the European nations breathe freely again ; and now, also, 
that we can appreciate present events, as deductions from the past 
great battles, we see clearly that the reports of some foreign agencies 
were not true as to the course of events in the theaters of war, since 
we remember that for many days after the German failure and the 
abdication of a conquered AVilliam II, the pro-German papers and 
agencies coiitinued to deny these events for a purpose the ultimate 
end of ^^■llich would be ridicule, as actually happened in the case of 
these agencies. 

We must confess, however, because facts have so proved this, that 
the agency in the capial of the Committee on Public Information of 
the United States Govv -nment in charge of Mr. Robert H. INIurray, 
never diverged from the truth and never tried to alter the telegrams 
.rhich it received, whether they were favorable or adverse to the 
nation to which it belonged. Its reports Avere an exact statement 
and a truthful one 0/ events, and its straightforward conduct must 
be valued for its true worth, if we remember those days of anxiety, 
of expectation and of worry as to the results of the world struggle 
which had no equal in the centuries. 

We have always relied upon the reports issued by Mr. Murray's 
agency; we always received them with pleasure and entire confidence 
and in repeating them to the public as received we invaribly did so 
with the conviction of truth bearers as to the terrible eyents happen- 
ing overseas in which all Europe was Involved. 

ORGANIZATION. 

The organization of the Mexico Section Avas arranged by 
subdivisions, according to the nature of the work. To the 
director fell the general executive functions. Next in author- 
ity came the office manager, Mr. Arthur de Lima, followed 
by the managers of the Editorial Department, Motion Picture 
Department, the Still Picture Department, the Eeading 
Eoom and School, and the Mailing Department, Each de- 
partment had the necessary corps of translators, editors^ 
teachers, clerks, stenographers, messengers, and office boys. 
At no time did the entire force of the executive office exceed 
40 persons. Salaries ranged downward from 100 pesos (sub- 
stantially $50 United States currency) , which was the highest 
paid. Our salaries as a rule were lower than paid for similar 
service by commercial houses. Preference in employment, so 
far as possible, was given to American citizens. 



KEPORT COMMITTEE OH PUBLIC INFORMATIOlsr. 157 
NEWSPAPERS. 

The supplying of newspapers with cable news, special 
articles, cuts, matrices, etc., was handled by the Editorial 
Department. The expenses and labor of this department 
were increased by the necessity of translating all matter into 
Spanish. Nothing in English was sent out for use in Mexico. 

Thanks to the cooperation of Compub in New York, an 
excellent and carefully selected general war news service 
which ran as high as 1,000 words daily, according to the 
importance and interest of the occurrences at home and 
abroad, was received in the City of Mexico by cable, via Gal- 
veston. Translators reduced the cables to Spanish. Copies 
were transmitted b}^ messenger or land telegraph*wires to 31 
newspapers, 9 in the capital and 22 in the interior. In many 
instances the newspapers gave the committee's cable service 
preference in display to despatches of their own special cor- 
respondents, or those of regular news agencies. At frequent 
intervals the newspapers in the capital issued extra afternoon 
editions on the war news furnished them by the committee. 

Implicit confidence was placed upon the authenticity of our 
news — so much so, in fact, that several newspapers which had 
been printing the alleged news despatches of the German 
information service abandoned them and instead used those 
of the committee. 

It was notorious that the German news service was fabri- 
cated in Mexico and that the Germans did not receive a word 
of cable news from without the Republic. German agents 
stationed at border points, notably Nuevo Laredo and Juarez, 
rewrote cable news clipped from the United States news- 
papers and stolen from news bureaus' and special corre- 
spondents' dispatches sent to Mexican newspapers, distorted 
them to suit the purposes of the Germans, and distributed 
them to their dupes and subsidized newspapers as " Special " 
cable or " wireless " messages. 

Approximately 4,433,000 words of our daily cable seiwice 
were distributed to the Mexican newspapers during the 11 
months of the existence of the Mexico section. Mimeo- 
graphed copies of the daily dispatches were prepared and a 
total of 35,000 of them were distributed in the City of Mexico 
among business firms, which displayed them in show win- 



158 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

dows, to the foreign legations, Mexican Government oiRcials, 
and indiAdduals. 

Spanish translation of special articles prepared by the 
Foreign Press Bureau of the committee in New York, and 
made suitable by careful editing and revision for the Mexican 
field and the limited space of the newspapers were sent daily 
to the 65 newspapers and periodicals on our list. The record 
shows that nearly 60 per cent of this material was used. On 
an average of 300 articles monthly, or 3,300 in all, were 
distributed. The supply was not equal to the demand, the 
same being true of cuts and matrices. Of the latter more 
than 2,000 were used, 

To the newspapers also supplementary daily news letters 
(virtually a complete telegraphic service) were mailed, the 
total being 178,000. For the benefit of persons outside of 
Mexico who were interested in Mexican affairs it was deemed 
expedient, and within the functions of the committee, to issue 
a weekly news bulletin in English. In this bulletin ap- 
peared only matter relating to official Mexican Govern- 
ment activities and topics connected with reconstruction, 
industry, development, etc. This was sent by mail to 1,000 
individuals and firms in the United States. Eighteen edi- 
tions were published with a total circulation of 20,000. 
The bulletin met with appreciative reception and com- 
ment from hundreds of persons among those who received 
them, including Members of the United States Congress, 
the Librarian of Congress, and other officials of our Govern- 
ment and corporations and individuals having investment 
interests in Mexico. Requests for this bulletin were received 
in almost every mail and from parts as distant as England, 
Canada, and Japan. Franking privileges were granted by 
the Mexican Government for both the news letter and the 
English bulletin. 

Several months before the Avar closed it was foimd ad- 
visable to issue a weekly publication devoted exclusively to 
the interests and war activities of our Government. This 
bore the title "America in the War." It consisted of 16 illus- 
trated pages, well edited and attractively arranged and 
printed. Its success was instantaneous and it developed into 
one of the most effective elements of our educational cam- 
paign. Especially was it valuable in inspiring and maintain- 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 159 

ing interest and enthusiasm among our correspondents, and 
bringing them more intimately in touch with this office. Of 
"America in the War " more than 100,000 were circulated in 
weekly editions of from 4,000 to 5,000 copies. We also 
bought and distributed not far from 500,000 copies of vari- 
ous publications containing special articles in support of the 
cause of the United States, or throwing light upon the 
friendly attitude of the United States toward the Mexican 
people and Government. 

The end of the war apparently brought no cessation in the 
demand for the news and other material which it had been 
supplying. Until the office closed, and after, requests for 
articles, pamphlets, etc., were daily received, to which, it is 
to be regretted, we were unable to accede. 

Mr. George F. Weeks was manager of the Editorial De- 
partment. 

MOTION PICTURES. 

It goes almost without saying that among a population in 
which illiterates unfortunately predominate, motion pictures 
possess an enormous influence as a medium for conveying 
impressions and creating sentiment where the printed word 
is without value. In Mexico the motion-picture films proved 
to be one of our greatest assets. The pictures " got over " 
and won converts to our cause where other mediums would 
inevitably have failed. Our motion-picture campaign was 
successful. But at first it was up-hill work. German agents 
saw to it diligently in the beginning that displays of war 
pictures of American soldiers, in the camp or in the field, of 
our preparations in every branch of our mobilizations of the 
industrial, military, naval, and social forces which the Gov- 
ernment brought to bear in the conflict, met with an uproar- 
ously hostile reception from the audiences to which they were 
shown. Frequently the police were summoned to restore 
order. Complaints to the authorities were made by our 
opponents that our pictures were inciting riots, and that the 
screening of portraits of the President, Gen. Pershing, and 
other liotable personages, and of the American flag floating 
at the forefront of marching troops or at the masthead of 
naval units constituted an insult to the Mexican Government 
and people and were in violation of Mexico's neutrality. On 



160 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

various occasions our displays were halted until the local 
authorities could be convinced by tactful explanations, and 
by private exhibitions given for their benefit, that the pic- 
tures might properly be allowed on view. 

Gradually the demonstrations in the cines lessened, and 
finally ceased. The pictures won their way. The attitude 
of the public altered until after a few months we were repaid 
for our persistence by reports from our agents, telling of 
cheering and applause in place of hoots and yells, and even 
of "vivas " being given for the flag, the President, American 
war vessels, and American soldiers. 

American industrial films, with which we were freely sup- 
plied, aroused a disappointing volume of interest. The 
public appetite would be satisfied with nothing less tame than 
actual war pictures or commercial films telling stories to 
Germany's discredit. Measurably successful exhibitions of 
the industrial films were given in the open air, in schools, 
and before selected audiences. 

On the circuit organized by the Motion Picture Depart- 
ment our films w^ere shown in 68 houses throughout the 
Republic, and to audiences which, according to our carefully 
kept reports, aggregated 4,500,000 persons. 

Dr. M. L. Espinosa was manager of the Motion Picture 
Department. 

STILL PICTURES. 

Effective work was made of the still pictures sent us from 
Washington. Boards were provided which had space for 12 
pictures, each with an explanatory caption in Spanish. The 
boards were attractively made and painted and bore in Span- 
ish " The Committee on Public Information, Mexico Section," 
in addition to printed cards, which were frequently changed, 
with educational references to what the United States was 
doing in the war. These pictures were changed weekly. The 
boards were exhibited in shop windows and other conspicu- 
ous places. They amply supplemented the appeal of the mo- 
tion pictures, and, probably to the same extent as the latter, 
impressed through the medium of the eye the might and re- 
sources which the United States arrayed against German 
military despotism. Altogether there were displayed in this 
manner 116,256 separate still pictures. 

Mr. L. Kuhn was manager of the Still Picture Department. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON" PUBLIC USTFOEMATIOIsT. 161 
SCHOOL AND READING ROOM. 

Two experiments which were approached with a degree of 
'Caution and doubt — our Reading Room and School in the 
City of Mexico — proved to be among the most successful and 
effective branches of the work. The Reading Room was 
designed as a popular center for general dissemination of in- 
formation. It became all of that and more. Quarters were 
-obtained in a large shop at Gante, 10, one of the most fre- 
quented thoroughfares in the business heart of the capital. 
Appropriate equipment of tables, chairs, etc., was provided. 
AVith flags, bunting, pictures of American and allied nota- 
bles, posters, etc., the room was attractively decorated. Files 
were kept of the Mexican newspapers and periodicals and also 
of the principal American newspapers and illustrated maga- 
zines. 

An abundant supply of Spanish printed literature, includ- 
ing all of the publications of the committee, was available, 
hoth for reading and on the premises and for distribution. 

Our daily cable news was displayed on bulletin boards, 
inside and outside of the Reading Room. Free toilet con- 
veniences, a dressing room for women, telephone, and writing 
paper were included in the equipment. From the beginning 
the Reading Room was patronized to capacity day and eve- 
ning. The visitors came from all ranks of citizens, artisans, 
laborers, shopkeepers, professional men, women, flocking 
there for enlightenment as to the issues and progress of the 
war, and to exchange views on the situation. Spirited dis- 
cussions took place. Several times weekly lectures or talks 
upon the war, the United States, Mexican affairs, and kindred 
topics were given. Occasionally the discussions were illus- 
trated by motion pictures. During the T-| months in which 
the Reading Room was open the number of visitors, by actual 
count, totaled 106,868. 

Encouraged by the reception given the Reading Room, it 
was determined to take advantage of the widespread demand, 
indicated frequently among the visitors, to open a school for 
instruction in English. A shop adjoining the Reading Room 
was rented, and furnished with desks, benches, and black- 
'.boards. The esthetic element was not neglected, and flag, 

121033—20 11 



162 REPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATION. 

bunting, and pictorial adornments rendered the room attrac- 
tive and inviting. 

From the initial session the capacity of the school was 
taxed. English was the most eagerly sought for study, but 
French, bookkeeping, and stenography classes were well 
patronized. A corps of teachers, volunteers or paid, labored 
diligently, intelligently, and successfully. Instruction was 
free and many pupils were drawn from institutions where 
tuition fees were charged because, as they said, more prac- 
tical and effective teaching was given in the committee's 
school than in the others. The zest of the pupils to acquire 
English was amazing. Their curiosity regarding the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, its history, art, literature, and 
the customs of our people was evinced to a degree which the 
management, owing to the limitations imposed upon it, found 
difficult to satisfy. 

In age the students ranged from boys and girls of 16 to 
elderly men and women. The working classes predominated. 
With few exceptions those who entered studied hard and 
persistently. Uninterested pupils were weeded out, and their 
places given to the more ambitious and serious applicants. 
When the school closed 1,127 individual pupils were regis- 
tered. The total school-day attendance was nearly 30,000. 
Sixteen English classes were in operation with an average 
of 96 pupils, eight classes in stenography with an average- 
of 65 pupils, two French classes with an average of 103 pupils, 
and four special English and two special classes with an aver- 
age of 12 pupils. 

No one who watched the operation of the school and ap- 
preciated by observation the z'est of the students to learn Eng- 
lish and the sympathetic mental trend toward the United 
States inspired among them in the process could fail to re- 
gret that the classes might not have been continued per- 
manently, and that some arrangement might not be made f or 
extending on a larger scale throughout Mexico what the com- 
mittee accomplished in an experimental way in the capital. 

Through the efforts of the section six reading rooms were 
established and successfully conducted outside of the capital, 
in Guadalajara, Vera Cruz, Aguascalientes, Leon, Durango. 
and Irapuato. 



•REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 163 

Mr. J. B. Frisbie was manager of the Eeading Room and 
School. 

LITERATURE. 

In this department the chief difficulty encountered was not 
to find channels and outlets for carrying the word to the 
people, but to obtain enough material with which to satisfy 
their demands. We distributed a total of 985,000 pieces of 
literature of all descriptions — pamphlets, posters, folders, 
postcards, not counting between 50,000 and 75,000 Liberty 
loan and other war posters and half-tone window hangers, 
consigned to us from Washington and New York. Not less 
than 75 per cent of our correspondents filed repeat orders for 
substantially every shipment of literature sent them. It was 
impossible to meet all of these requisitions. Double the 
amount of literature could have been circulated had it been 
available. Travelers constantly brought us word of having 
seen in remote places copies of the more popular of the pam- 
phlets, President Wilson's Fourteen Points, his address to the 
Mexican editors who visited him at the White House, his war 
speeches to the Congress, a condensation of Brand Whitlock's 
story of Belgium, the circumstantial accounts of the German 
atrocities, and Prince Lichnowsky's pillorying of his Govern- 
ment for precipitating the war, which had been passed from 
hand to hand and read and reread until the pages were in 
tatters. 

In general, the literature was circulated in two ways — by 
the correspondents in their respective districts and by mail 
directly from headquarters. A mailing list was prepared 
which contained nearly 20,000 names of professional men. 
Government officials, school-teachers, merchants, clergymen, 
labor leaders, farmers, and others in the middle and higher 
walks of life. Many hundreds of letters were received from 
the persons who received literature expressing their thanks, 
asking for more, and not seldom inclosing the names of 
friends to whom they wished pamphlets mailed. So far as 
possible, pamphlets were prepared which contained matter 
calculated to appeal especially to sundry classes, such as 
workingmen, the clergy, educators, etc. Whenever the text 
permitted, they were embellished with illustrations. 



164 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

Posters were effective, and we used them freely. Care was 
taken to phrase them tersely and simply. 

No literature was issued anonymously. We officially stood 
sponsor for everything. Each piece of printed matter bore 
the imprint of the committee and the slogan of the office: 
"The War: Remember, The United States Cannot Lose!" 
Constant and indefatigable reiteration of this phrase even- 
tually elevated it to the dignity of an impressive and con- 
fident prophecy. It was effective — so much so that for a 
time it enjoyed ephemeral life as a popular catchword in the 
streets and on the stage of the capital. In their heyday the 
Germans made it the subject of sarcastic jest. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Mexican Editors. — At the suggestion of the director, in 
June, 1918, a party of 20 representative editors and journal- 
ists of Mexico visited the United States as guests of the com- 
mittee. The importance of this enterprise, in the way of get- 
ting before the reading public of the country information 
concerning the part which was being taken by the United 
States in the war, the American spirit, our wealth and power, 
the vastness of our domain, and its potentialities, and the real 
attitude of the people and the Government toward Mexico, 
through the medium of skilled observers equipped with first- 
hand knowledge, can not be overestimated. The chairman, 
Mr. Creel, in a recent magazine article has adequately sum- 
marized the effect of the visit of the Mexican editors as 
follows : 

It was interesting to watcli tlie change in public opinion in Mexico 
as our educational effort began to strike hard against German lie and 
anti-American prejudice. What really clinched the victory, however, 
was the visit of a score of Mexican editors to the United States as 
guests of the Committee on Public Information. We took them from 
coast to coast, letting them see vi'ith their OAvn eyes and hear w^ith 
their own ears, and having them received by the President, who 
marked the occasion by a memorable address. We sent them back to 
Mexico convinced not only of our friendship, not only of the justice 
of our cause, 'but equally convinced of America's might and deter- 
mination. 

Liberty Loan Campaigns. ^Coo-persiting with the Ameri- 
can ambassador, an American citizens' committee and the 



EEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC USTFORMATIOE". 165 

American Chamber of Commerce in Mexico, this office did 
its share toward making the third and fourth Liberty loan 
drives a success in Mexico. Through the machinery of the 
section Liberty loan posters and literature were obtained 
and distributed. Under the auspices of the committee two 
rallies were held in the American Club in the City of Mexico, 
at which were present as guests of honor all of the Allied 
diplomats accredited to the Mexican Government. Enthusi- 
asm was stimulated at these rallies by exhibitions of the 
committee's war films, and subscriptions aggregating 
$300,000 were obtained from among the audiences. 

War /Savings Stamjys. — The section aided' in encouraging 
the sale of war savings stamps by distributing literature. 

United War Work Campaign. — The organization of the 
section was placed at the disposal of, and utilized by, the 
committee which raised Mexico's quota of the United War 
Work fund. 

Liberty Truth Committee. — This committee, composed of 
representati-^^es of the American Chamber of Commerce in 
Mexico, and operating in close cooperation with the section, 
aided vitally in our newspaper campaign by obtaining ad- 
vertising appropriations from American business concerns 
for the legitimate encouragement of newspapers and other 
publications which supported our cause. 

Advertising. — The section bought and used freely adver- 
tising space, plainly marked as such, in newspapers and 
magazines. Its appropriation for this purpose was inade- 
quate, but profitable reaction resulted from what expendi- 
tures it was able to make. Especially effective was a series 
of full-page and half-page advertisements announcing the 
heavy oversubscription to the fourth Liberty loan which 
were printed to counteract the intensive and desperate efforts 
of the Germans to delude the Mexican public into believing"; 
that the American people had repudiated the war through 
failure to subscribe the full amount of the loan. 

Buttons. — A trial shipment of 50,000 celluloid buttons- 
bearing the flags of the United States and of the Spanish 
American Eepublics Avhich entered the war against Germany,, 
and the legend " Allied in Honor," proved so popular that 
100,000 more were obtained. The end of the war rendered it 
unnecessary to continue this distribution although at least 



166 EEPORT COMMITTEE OjST PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

a half million additional buttons would have been required to 
fill the orders which poured into the offices of the section. 

Traveling Representative. — So long as the work w^arranted 
a traveling representative of the section was kept constantly 
on the road visiting correspondents, ascertaining the needs 
of their particular districts, directing the work in the field, 
and serving as a personal link between headquarters and those 
who aided the committee in the interior. In his work he 
traveled over two-thirds of the Eepublic from the northern 
states to Yucatan and between the Gulf and the Pacific 
coasts. 

The Work in Feance. 
(By James Kerney, Commissioner.) 

(Note. — In addition to intelligently employing all possible 
agencies for the sustaining of the morale of the French peo- 
ple, the headquarters of the committee in Paris was the 
clearing house for the diffusion into the allied, neutral, and 
enemy countries of Europe of fullest information, compati- 
ble with military considerations, regarding the activities of 
the American Naval and Expeditionary Forces as well as 
the American war effort at home. The work was under the 
direction of James Kerney, editor of the Trenton Evening 
Times, who went overseas in February, 1918, remaining until 
shortly before the signing of the armistice.) 

France was naturally badly nerve racked following the 
military reverses of 1917. An aggressive defeatist offensive, 
aimed directly at America, had been made during the winter 
of 1917-18. The constant air raids and shelling of the big 
gun, coupled with the proximity of the enemy in the spring 
fighting, served to intensify the anxiety in Paris during the 
spring and early summer of 1918. This was reflected in the 
unrest and uncertainty existing evei"ywhere in the industrial 
plants engaged in producing war supplies. " Can America 
get here in time to be effective ? " was the ever-present query. 
In this situation it was highly desirable that an energetic 
and convincing educational campaign as to our progress and 
aims should be speedily launched. The press, magazines, 
universities, lecture platforms, moving pictures, posters, 



REPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 167 

leaflets — all were employed in making known our grim de- 
termination, as well as our capacity, to see it through. 

An efficient staff, including newspaper and magazine writ- 
ers, university and other lecturers, translators, and clerks, 
was quickly assembled. I was given the fullest cooperation 
at all times by Gen. Pershing, Admiral Wilson, and Ambas- 
sador Sharp, each of whom has paid a generous tribute to the 
committee's accomplishments in France. 

At first the Paris offices were at 37 Rue Laperouse, but 
wdien, in June, the Army headquarters were removed to the 
Elysee Palace Hotel, space was assigned the committee in 
that building. This greatly facilitated the work. An office 
was also provided for us in the Maison de la Presse, the 
official propaganda division of the French Ministry of For- 
eign Affairs. At all times the most cordial relationship was 
maintained with the information sections of the British, 
French, and Italian Governments. 

Associated with me were : Martin Egan, at General Persh- 
ing's headquarters; M. Firman Roz, of the University of 
Paris (Sorbonne), and Herbert Adams Gibbons, the princi- 
pal lecturers for the committee ; Madame Edith Biigues, an 
American, who acted as executive secretary; Wilmot H. 
Lewis, in charge of press matters and who likewise served 
as liaison officer with the French propaganda officials ; Edgar 
B. Hatrick, who supervised and planned moving and still 
picture productions ; Frank Fayant and Maximilian Foster, 
press representatives of the committee at Great Headquarters 
and the fighting front, respectively; Frank M. Mansfield 
and A. M. Brace, news editors ; Claude Berton and M. Beryl, 
French journalists and translators ; besides the stenographic 
and clerical force. James H. Hyde, an American residing 
in France, by reason of his wide and favorable acquaintance 
in French governmental, university, and journalistic circles, 
rendered the cause a voluntary service of inestimable value. 
The Marquise de Polignac, also an American, was likewise 
a very useful volunteer on the staff. Hugh Gibson, First 
Secretary of Embassy, was loaned to the committee for a 
part of the time by the State Department, and, as occasion 
demanded, the personnel included Army officers specially 
detailed to serve under Maj. A. L. James, jr., who, for 



168 KEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

several months, as chief of the Press and Censorship Divi- 
sion of the Intelligence Section, had offices immediately 
adjoining those of the committee in Paris. Maj. James, 
representing the General Staff, gave the committee the 
most complete cooperation, as did his immediate superior,. 
Gen. Denis E. Nolan, chief of the Intelligence Section, and 
likewise Gen. Edgar E. Eussell, chief of the Signal Corps. 
In so far as it was practicable, with the already over- 
burdened wires, the Paris office sought to link up the folks 
at home with the Army each day by relaying to Great Head- 
quarters and the various bases in France copies of the daily 
wireless service from America (containing about 1,500 
words summarization of the news), which service was like- 
wise furnished, for the accommodation and comfort of the 
soldier, to the Paris editions of the London Daily Mail, the 
New York Herald, and the Chicago Tribune, as well as the 
Stars and Stripes. All of these publications made liberal 
use of this home news, and so much as was available was 
translated into French and published in both the Parisian 
and provincial press. 

This service was also transmitted to the bureau of the com- 
mittee at Berne, Rome, Lisbon, and Madrid, supplemented by 
a daily service telling of the activities of the American f orces- 
on the fighting front. The news reports from the front were 
written by the representative of the committee attached to 
the press headquarters in the zone of advance, and, in addi- 
tion to being sent to the above-named capitals, were wired to 
London for distribution in Great Britain, Holland, and the 
Scandinavian countries, as well as to South America. 

In order to get an adequate presentation of work of prepa- 
ration that America found necessary, before troops could 
be landed and fought to the best advantage and in keeping^ 
with American standards, it was necessary to overcome some 
drastic existing French censorship regulations. When I had 
formulated a program for the work in France, I talked 
it over with Gen. Pershing, Premier Clemenceau, and Capt. 
Tardieu, head of American relations for the French Govern- 
ment. They gave the program their entire approval, and 
M. Clemenceau promptly had the French censorship rules 
so modified as to freely permit of the publication of the 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 169 

story of " America in France," without so localizing it as to 
give information to the enemy. Leading writers for the 
French magazines and reviews, with illustrators, as well as 
many famous journalists, accepted invitations to visit the 
American work, and the publications were soon crowded 
with the remarkable accomplishments of our Army and 
Navy. This liberal treatment of the work continuecl until 
accounts of the glorious conduct of the troops at the fighting 
front produced the finest propaganda that ever appeared in 
any country. I personally visited the newspaper publishers 
of the big provincial cities, and these powerful journals ac- 
corded America the same generous and enthusiastic treat- 
ment as was given by the Parisian press. Writers from 
Spain, Switzerland, Italy, Holland, and the Scandinavian 
countries were brought to France and shown over the sectors 
in which the Americans were operating and the reports they 
published were exceedingly useful in their effect not only in 
Uieir home countries but upon the civilian morale of Ger- 
many. This was particularly the case with the publication 
of American news in Switzerland, which occupied the most 
advantageous position in the matter of enemy propaganda. 
Photographs of the American work and of the American 
fighters were supplied in great quantities, through the Sig- 
nal Corps of the Army, and were likewise dispatched weekly 
to the committee's representatives all over Europe, with the 
result that American pictures and American news filled the 
reviews and journals everywhere. 

The production and distribution of still photographs and 
moving pictures was of major importance. In addition to 
the weekly shipments of photographs to London, Berne, 
Kome, Madrid, Lisbon, and other points, moving pictures 
were sent for use in the governmental and commercial cinema 
houses. The first big production of exclusively American 
films was entitled "America's Answer to the Hun " and was 
assembled by Edgar B. Hatrick, who spent six months with 
the committee supervising the motion and still picture work. 
The initial showing of the film was made at the Gaumont 
Palace, Paris, June 26, 1918 — the first anniversary of the 
landing of our troops at St. Nazaire. It was witnessed by 
practically all of the members of the Senate and Chamber 



170 REPOKT COMMITTEE ON" PUBLIC INFOKMATION. 

of Deputies, the diplomatic representatives of Great Britain, 
Italy, and Japan, as well as many of the allied military and 
naval chiefs, and was given a mighty reception. This film, 
in four reels, depicted the protection afforded by the Ameri- 
can Navy to transports, disembarking of troops, our con- 
struction and installations at ' ports and along the lines of 
communication right up to the fighting front, the ambulance " 
and supply services. It concluded with a number of scenes 
showing the American fighters in action at Chateau Thierry, 
and one section of the theater was reserved for wounded 
doughboys from the hospitals in and about Paris. Columns 
of space were devoted to the event in the newspapers of 
France and England, and copies of the film were promptly 
sent to all the allied and neutral countries for showing there. 
The big commercial producers, Gaumont and Pathe, ar- 
ranged at once to send it into all their houses in France, 
and it was used most successfully among the troops, in fac- 
tories, universities, schools, etc. • » 

THE LECTURE CAMPAIGN. 

One of the most enduring features of the work was the 
system of university and university extension lectures that 
was carried on throughout the spring and summer of 1918. 
Shortly after my arrival, I met the presidents of all of the 
French universities and presented to them a plan aimed at 
combating the wide-spread anti-American propaganda 
throughout France, by making known the spirit and extent 
of America's part in the war. These lectures were further 
framed to put the story of America's greatness, in some per- 
manent form, into the minds of the local leaders of thought, 
as well as into the minds of the people. The committee 
was able to get into personal touch with more than 200 quali- 
fied lecturers, furnishing them with literature and documents, 
a,s well as lantern slides, with the result that practically every 
part of France was reached. The presidents of the universi- 
ties gave their heartiest cooperation and 150,000 copies of a 
pamphlet containing a summarization of American informa- 
tion was distributed to the school teachers. The university 
presidents, together with the Ministry of Public Instruction, 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 171 

agreed upon M. Firman Roz, of the University of Paris, as a 
man most eminently fitted to inaugurate the American lec- 
tures. Mr. Eoz, together with some other university repre- 
sentatives and writers, was taken over the American lines of 
communication and supplies, as well as to the front lines. 
The series of lectures began at the Sorbonne on May 21, 
M. Lucien Poincaire, brother of the President of the Repub- 
lic, presiding. Immediately after this initial lecture M. 
Firman Roz began his tour of the universities, sx)eaking at 
Bordeaux, Toulouse, Montpellier, Marseille, Grenoble, 
Ohambery, Lyon, Djon. Besancon, Caen, Rennes, Px)itiers, 
and Claremont-Ferand. 

These lectures gave America much publicity in the provin- 
cial press and had an especially good influence on the edi- 
torial columns. The presidents of the respective universities 
had invited to the lectures leading professors from each 
town in the educational district under the control of the 
university. In this way the university extension lectures 
were developed, the local professors organizing lecture cen- 
ters. A complete list of these lectures was kept in Paris and 
fresh literature, giving the latest information about 
America, regularly mailed to them. Local lectures were also 
given in many of the big provincial towns, the conunittee 
receiving fine cooperation on the part of American consular 
representatives. Through the consulates, everywhere, 
printed matter was distributed and in the larger centers such 
as Havre, Cherbourg, Marseille, Nantes, Tours, St. Nazaire, 
Lyon, Boulogne, Franco-American demonstrations, includ- 
ing lectures and production of movie films, were provided. 

At the urgent request of the French Minister of Munitions, 
lectures on the American participation in the war were 
given in the various industrial plants in France engaged 
in manufacturing war supplies. The purpose of these lec- 
tures was to stem the unrest that was constantly cropping up. 
These lectures were given by Dr. Herbert Adams Gibbons. At 
the same time the film "America's Answer to the Hun " was 
shown. Both the French Government officials and the 
manufacturers pronounced this work as highly valuable in 
its effect on the industrial situation. The proprietors and 
managers of the big steel and munitions plants were brought 



172 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATIOE". 

together in Paris on July 5, the meeting being presided 
over by M. Loucheur, Minister of Munitions, who dwelt 
upon the importance of the lecture and cinematographic 
work of the committee in France. 

Dr. Gibbons's first lecture in this unique course was at the 
factory of Louis Renault, where aeroplane motors, motor 
trucks, tanks, cannon and shells were being produced. The 
lecture was given twice in this plant, being recorded both 
stenographically and on the phonograph in order that it 
might get the most complete distribution among the 25,000 
emj^loyees. M. Renault subsequently declared that this ex- 
position of America's part insured his plant against any 
labor disturbances for at least six months. The film was 
shown and the lecture given in all of the large plants 
engaged in the manufacture of war materials throughout 
France. Upwards of 100,000 copies of the lecture were 
printed at the expense of the manufacturers for distribu- 
tion among their employees. 

On the invitation of the official French Propaganda Bu- 
reau, Dr. Gibbons spent several days lecturing in the mining 
country and, at the instance of the same organization, went 
for 10 days into Alsace, explaining the American situation 
to the populations of the reconquered regions and, in turn, 
explaining the Alsatian question to the American troops 
occupying sectors on that front. Dr. Gibbons, working in 
conjunction Avith the Marquise de Polignac, arranged for 
the distribution among the peasants of France of 100,000 
copies of a special leaflet, and otherwise rendered worthy 
service by reason of his knowledge of the country, resulting 
from his long residence there. 

The committee likewise cooperated with the ministries of 
labor and of agriculture and in conjunction with these de- 
partments of the French Government, several hundred thou- 
sand posters were put out, together with many leaflets. Alto- 
gether the committee, directly, and in association with the 
French Government, distributed more than 1,000,000 pam- 
phlets, posters, and leaflets bearing on America. 

Besides the pamphlets and leaflets specifically noted above, 
the committee published a French translation, in booklet 
form, of the report of the first year's work of American 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 173 

preparation, 10,000 copies being distributed among the news- 
papers and through the American consuls and the numerous 
French propaganda agencies. Upward of 200,000 copies of 
a special resume of the American effort were put out in the 
month of July ; and as the news and opportunity presented, 
other thousands of brochures and posters were distributed. 

EDUCATING THE ENEMY. 

For the first five months that the committee operated in ! 
Paris there was close cooperation with the French bureau 
•having directly in charge the dissemination into Germany -- 
and among the German troops of facts to combat false in^ \ 
formation regarding America. Shortly after he" opened his 
offices, I had assigned to me by the Intelligence Section of 
the A. E. F., Lieut. Harry A. Franck, who was familiar -, 
with the German language and conditions and who kept 
in touch with the French Department of Enemy Propa- 
ganda. Despite the difficulties resulting from the lack of 
adequate aeroplanes, there was at all times a reasonable i 
flow into Germany of facts, printed in German, regarding , 
America and American ideals. The newspapers from Ger-'V; 
many were carefully watched and their misrepresentations i 
were met with tracts and pamphlets, sent over the lines both ' 
by plane and balloon and dropped on the cities. It was the 
practice of the German press, for example, to so distort the 
speeches of President Wilson as to give .an entirely erro- 
neous meaning to the excerpts used. This character of de- 
ception was overcome, as far as possible, by the immediate 
flooding of Germany, from the air, with pamphlets giving in 
parallel columns the German version and the correct version 
of the speech, the portions altered or deleted by the Germans, 
in their original publications, being emphasized. The Ger- 
mans had kept up, both at home and in France, a terrific \ 
propaganda that our participation was all " Yankee bluff," iX 
I and the committee kept diligently hammering away to offset 
I these charges in both countries. It was the opinion of the 
French governmental chiefs that the most effective method 
of reaching the German civilian population was through the 
Swiss newspapers, printed in German, and every effort was 
made to keep the Berne office of the committee fully sup- 



174 EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

plied with American information. That office, under the di- 
rection of Mrs. Vera B. Whitehouse, was doubtless the great- 
est single factor in getting the story of America into Ger- 
many. 

With the enormous influx of American troops and the 
victories along the Mame, it became apparent during the 
month of June that, for diffusion into Germany, informa- 
tion regarding the United States had a preponderant value. 
The French bureau was reorganized and Commandant 
Chaix, a thorough-going business man, placed at its head. 
A most efficient equipment was assembled, and the docu- 
ments were given a genuine German appearance as to paper, 
type, typesetting, and the fine points of German diction. 
The printers were German prisoners chosen for this par- 
ticular task. For the troops special matter was prepared, 
according to nationalities. The military authorities, as soon 
as the presence in certain trenches of Jugo-Slav, Polish, or 
other elements, or of German troops from disaffected dis- 
tricts, was noted, at once conveyed the information to the 
end that material specially designed to appeal to these respec- 
tive forces might be dispatched. 

At the end of June and during early July, when some of 
the German newspapers began to wake up to the fact that 
there really was more than a million American troops in 
France and that they were most desperate fighters, there 
appeared articles indicating war weariness and hints that 
all might not be going so well on the western front. This 
material was quickly reproduced in Paris and spread among 
the German troops. It was along in July that the first 
genuine effects of the enemy propaganda were felt. On 
July 18 a conference of heads of the British, French, Bel- 
gian, and American services was held in the office of the 
committee. It was the frank consensus of opinion that the 
place for concentrated effective work was in front of the 
American lines, then shortly to be very greatly extended. 
Gen. Nolan, Maj. James, and Capt. Mark Watson of the 
Intelligence Section, A. E. F., attended the conference, and 
soon thereafter a special group of experts, under the immedi- 
ate direction of Maj. James, took over the American end of 
the work. 



-REPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 175 

The Work In Holland. 

(By Henry Snydam, Commissioner.) 

Holland must be regarded as having offered the main ave- 
nue of attack upon the public opinion of the German masses.. 
It was not, like other neutral countries adjacent to Gevman 
territory, the scene of international conferences or sinister 
outside influences, but presented a clear and homogeneous 
field for the dissemination of information. The informa- 
tion provided was therefore designed to gain direct circula- 
tion in Holland, but the content was always chosen with re- 
gard to the ultimate effect on the German masses. 

The general problem confronting the Committee on Pub- 
lic Information in the Netherlands was two-fold: (1) To 
enlighten Dutch public opinion with regard to the fakness 
and detachment of the United States, as well as to provide 
an adequate picture of American war effort as a factor in in- 
ternational affairs, and (2) to use Holland, as far as that ^ 
might legitimately be done without committing a belligerent 
act, as a means of approach to all classes of Germans, who 
were to be convinced that the United States was strong, and 
would use that strength for the common good. The effort, 
was to obtain facts emphasizing these points, and to present 
these facts to Dutch and Germans with due force and preci- 
sion. 

The broader details of these problems, with their solution 
and the nature of achievement, were as follows: 

1. NEWS DISTRIBUTION. 

When my work in Holland began, the Dutch press- 
through which the German press maintained a large degree 
of contact with the United States— was Avithout adequate 
American news. American editorial comment appeared in 
tlie Dutch press when it furthered the peculiar interest of 
some foreign news agency, and not otherwise. American 
ncAvs was selected by these agencies for interested reasons. 
Eeuter and Havas were, in the opinion of Dutch editors, 
nothing more than the mouthpieces of the British and 
French Governments, and, as such, little better, in effect, than 



176 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION'. 

the German Wolff Bureau. It was perhaps unavoidable, but 
none the less unfortunate, that many of the earlier of Presi- 
dent Wilson's speeches reached the Germans first through 
these agencies. With the cooperation of John Work Gar- 
rett, American minister in The Hague, I never ceased to in- 
sist that these speeches should reach the Germans first either 
through an American or Dutch source. In two or three' in- 
stances the text of such speeches was telegraphed direct to 
me, and distributed to a Dutch news agency which either 
telegraphed the text direct to the German press, or handed 
it to German correspondents, who telephoned it to their news- 
jDapers, as notably in the case of the Frankfort Gazette. The 
Frankfort Gazette was the organ of the Eeichstag majority 
parties, and publication of the President's speeches therein, 
in correct text, some hours previous to publication in the 
semiofficial German Government organs, such as the North 
German Gazette and the Cologne Gazette, forced them to 
pviblish accurate, unaltered versions. This method not only 
purveyed them to the German masses without outside inter- 
ference, but often had the effect of forcing the German 
Government to issue the full text. When the method was 
finally adopted of issuing the President's speeches on the 
American wireless, the text appeared fully and quickly in 
both Dutch and German press, and the question was solved. 
Although Keuter's Telegraph Agency offered very great" 
and very unstinted assistance at all times, I felt that, how- 
ever irreproachable its motive for the common cause, it had 
identified its service too exactly with the British Govern- 
ment to be of exclusive value to the United States in a neu- 
tral country, and therefore although I did not discriminate 
against it, I saw no reason why Renter's should be favored 
over the two Dutch agencies. These were the Hollandsch 
Meuwe Bureau (The Hague) and the Persbureau M. S. Vas 
Dias (Amsterdam) , and although the former especially was 
under some suspicion as having too close German connec- 
tions, I felt that its full use for our own purposes was justi- 
fiable, especially as it was the one Dutch news service of 
consequence. A regular service of American news, selected 
by the Committee on Public Information in New York, 
under my constant correction and advice, was telegraphed 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 177 

to me daily, together with a special service from general 
headquarter; oAhe American Expeditionary Forc^^ Both 
of these services were edited and issued, m various forms 
and through various means, direct to the Dutch press. I 
furthermore purchased a daily copy of the American news 
^^L fron'a Dutch receiving station, and -ued -c^- 
of these items to such Dutch agencies as did not operate a 
wireless receiving station, and, in many instances, to Renter 

^^'Ihhough there were no Dutch newspaper men in the 
United sites, all the larger Dutch dailies maintained men 
in London and Paris. It was my plan to have these men n 
close touch with American official sources of ^-^^^-^-" 
those capitals. I, therefore, gave a dinner on May 23 1918 
in the mess of the American Embassy m London, to the , 
L%Ti Si editors resident in England (representing 
Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, H-delsblad and Te^eg^^^^^^^^ 
of Amsterdam, and Nieuws van den Dag of The Hague). 
There were pr'esent representatives of ^he f^encan^^^^^^^^ 
and Navy and of all other departments of ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 
functioning in England, all of whom expressed willmgness 
o provide information for the Dutch editors on demand^ 
From letters subsequently intercepted by the censorship I 
learned that the effect of this entertainment on the Dutch 
editors was to give them a new conception of Ameiicans 

and Americanism. . , n p n j „^ On 

The advantage thus gained was quickly followed up. On 
June 5, 1918, I escorted Dr. Peter Geyl, editor m England 
of Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, and Mr. E. W. de Jong, 
editor in England of Handelsblad (Amsterdam) to Queens- 
town for an inspection of the American destroyer base, en- 
gaged in convoy and antisubmarine work. Upon returnmg 
from Queenstown, the correspondents had a long interview 
with Admiral Sims. On June 14, we arrived m Pans pro- 
ceeding thence to the French coast at St. Nazaire, and fol- 
lowing the American lines of communication to the front m 
Lorraine. Thus the representatives of the two most impor- 
tant newspapers in Holland had followed the course of an 
American soldier from the moment his transport was picked 



121033—20 12 



178 EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATIOE". 

up by the convoys until he had arrived in a front-line- 
trench. From this trip, which was one of the first excur- 
sions of neutral editors to the American front, and the first 
of any neutrals to the American fleets, there resulted 19 long 
telegrams and 8 mail stories in the Dutch press, all of which 
were copied extensively in the German press, and thus pro- 
vided the first independent neutral testimony of the size of 
American effort. The interview Avith Admiral Sims on the 
success of our antisubmarine measures provoked much pro- 
test from German naval experts, and Mr. cle Jong's tele- 
gram, "The American phase of the war has begun," was pro- 
duced in all the important German newspapers and circu- 
lated by the semiofficial Wolff Bureau. 

It is interesting to note that Mr. A. G. Boissevain, editor 
of the Handelsblad (Amsterdam) stated to me confiden- 
tially about August 1, 1918, that when Mr. de Jong's figures 
regarding the size of the American establishment in France 
were published, both the German foreign office and the 
general staff summoned the Berlin correspondent of the 
Handelsblad and demanded to know whether Mr. de Jong 
was the type of man who would allow himself to be bought 
by the American Government. It was apparent that the 
German authorities were simply staggered at the direct 
revelations made as the result of this excursion, which I re- 
gard as one of the most important single contributions of 
our whole work in the Netherlands. 

Arrangements were later made for the Dutch editors in 
Paris to make similar trips, under the auspices of the Paris 
office of the Committee on Public Information. 

To summarize, then, our solution of the problem of pro- 
viding adequate American news to the Dutch press, through 
Dutch or American sources, I was able to accomplish the 
following: (1) To provide direct telegraphic and wireless 
news and comment from the United States to Dutch news 
agencies and newspapers-, (2) to establish contact between 
Dutch editors in Great Britain and France with American 
news sources, and, furthermore, (3) to maintain close per- 
sonal contact with the more important Dutch editors in 
Holland; and (4) later to issue, in the form of a daily 
bulletin, translations of the more significant news items and 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC IFFORMATIOF. 179 

comment appearing in the American press during each 21 
hours — a service that was sent regularly to some 76 Dutcli 
newspapers. Through these means I was not only able to 
reduce the suspicion of Dutch editors of American news 
served through interested British or French sources and 
censorship, but to establish direct news communication be- 
tween the two countries. 

2. MOTION PIGTTJRES. 

The second most important aspect of our work was educa- 
tion by means of motion pictures. Upon my arrival in Hol- 
land from England, I found several consignments of very 
old and unsuitable films, dealing mostly with current events 
in the United States. Furthermore, there was no coopera- 
tion between the British, French, and Italians. Mr. George 
F. Steward, representative of the British ministry of infor- 
mation in Holland, aided me in establishing an interallied 
cinema committee, which functioned in connection with an 
interallied blockade committee, composed of the commercial 
attaches of the four allied legations. 

As the Dutch exhibitors, to say nothing of the Dutch au- 
diences, had been subject to war films for almost four years 
when the Committee on Public Information in Holland ar- 
rived on the scene, it was my conviction that only the most 
unusual American war films would have effect. Moreover, 
it was our opinion that straight American commercial films 
of superior sort would be a new and invaluable form of edu- 
cation for the Dutch public. I therefore cabled to Wash- 
ington, pointing out the shortage of good allied war films, 
together with the dangers arising from an adequate German 
supply, and requesting a large consignment of straight com- 
mercial films as well. As a result of this telegram, Mr. 
Llewellyn R. Thomas, of New York, a motion-picture expert, 
was dispatched to The Hague, and arrived with several 
hundred thousand feet of war, educational, and commercial 
film, all of which was sold, not given, to the Dutch exhibitors, 
for the total sum of $57,340.80, with a very considerable 
profit to the American producers, for whose future benefit, 
moreover, an American market was thus established. 



180 EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOIS]". 

On November 4, 1918, a private performance of America's 
Answer was given to tlie general staffs of the Dutch Army 
and Navy in The Hague. The Dutch officers expressed them- 
selves as greatly impressed, and many in the audience showed 
their appreciation by rising when President Wilson and Gen. 
Pershing were thrown on the screen, 

3. PAMPHLETS. 

Although the use of the pamphlet as an educational meas- 
ure had been very general in Europe during the war, I was 
convinced that, for our work, the extensive printing of such 
matter would be a waste of money. We issued only one 
booklet — a collection of the pronouncements of President 
Wilson concerning the League of Nations, comprising ex- 
cerpts from his speeches and statements from February 1, 
1916, to September 27, 1918. Of these, 10,000 copies were 
printed, and distributed to universities, schools, public li- 
braries, editors, members of both Houses of Parliament, 
members of the Government, and other persons of impor- 
tance. The residue, after such distribution, was sent to 
various persons on the mailing list of the German propa- 
ganda in Holland, a copy of which had come into my hands. 

Special articles on various American subjects from Amer- 
ican magazines and reviews were translated, however, and 
issued to the Dutch press or to individual editors, and these, 
in my opinion, were of far greater value than any cheap 
pleading by pamphlets scattered about in barber shops and 
bars. 

4'. AMERICAN LITERATURE. 

There was a noticeable absence of books and magazines 
in the Dutch libraries concerning American topics. Apart 
from the distribution of American newspapers, reviews, 
magazines, and trade publications, four complete sets of 
books were obtained from the Foreign Section of the Com- 
mittee on Public Information in Washington. These books, 
written by American experts in international law, politics, 
history, economics, social conditions, and various other as- 
pects of Americanism, were presented to the Nieuwe of 
Litteraire Societeit, the largest club in Holland, situated in 
The Hague and frequented by all important governmental 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 181 

officers and business men, to the Royal Library in The 
Hague, to the University of Leiden, and to the State Uni- 
versity of Amsterdam. There were about 25 volumes in 
each set. 

5. PHOTOGRAPHS. 

A regular supply of photographs dealing with American 
war making was received from Washing-ton and general 
headquarters of the American Expeditionary Forces. These 
were exhibited in shop windows in the larger cities and towns 
throughout Holland. They were regularl}^ sent to Dutch 
photographic agencies and published in the Dutch illustrated 
press. The Dutch agencies also sent them to German agen- 
cies in Berlin and Vienna, and many of them were printed 
in the German illustrated journals. 

6. COUNTER PROPAGANDA. 

The German Government — whether the Imperial Govern- 
ment before the armistice, or the Republican Government af- 
terwards — maintained a very ^ elaborate . organization on 
which the evidence shows that millions of marks were ex- 
pended. It was, of course, impossible for me to fight such 
an organization with its own weapons. Frequent attacks, 
however, were made on the United States, either by means 
of deliberate lies or perversions of the truth. These were 
constantly contradicted in the Dutch press by means of spe- 
cial information telegraphed from Washington, at my re- 
quest, from the department of the Government concerned. 
The German propaganda fell into well-recognized lines of 
policies, such as questioning the intellectual sincerity of 
American war aims, belittling our physical effort, and at- 
tempting to corrupt relations between the allied and asso- 
ciated governments. We were able to fight the Germans 
along these same lines, and by insisting, time after time, on 
a given point, to induce them ultimately to abandon the ges- 
ture as worthless. 

7. INTELLECTUAL CONTACT. 

The German so-called " intellectual propaganda " in Hol- 
land was very effective. Prof. Hans Delbrueck, professor in 



182 EEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

the University of Berlin, and leader of a group of German 
Moderates, made frequent excursions to Holland, for the pur- 
pose of lecturing at the universities, and talking with promi- 
nent Dutchmen. He was usually accompanied by Kurt 
Hahn, a young German educated in England, who was be- 
lieved to provide the lines of attack to the German " intel- 
lectual propagandists " in Holland. 
This form of German propaganda was very successful. 
Jthougli my remedy for this — the establishment of a two- 
^ear lectureship at the University of Leidan in American 
listory, held by a prominent American academician (cf. 
ly report dated London, April 8, 1918, section 2) — was 
not adopted, we were able to make considerable progress. 
Lieut.- Leonard van Noppen, U. S. N. R. F., former Queen 
Wilhelmina professor of Dutch in Columbia University, 
and assistant naval attache at The Hague, was of very 
great service in reaching the intellectual aristocracy of Hol- 
land. I myself made it a point to know as many im- 
portant Dutchmen as possible, to meet them frequently, 
and to set them right, in short conversations, on many 
points of American policy which they professed to mis- 
understand. John C. Wiley, second secretary of the Ameri- 
can Legation in The Hague, and Paul L. Edwards, com- 
mercial attache, were of very great assistance in this dif- 
ficult work. 

8. CONTACT WITH THE LEGATION. 

It was a settled policy to act in very close cooperation 
with the legation, and more especially with Mr. John W. 
Garrett, the minister in The Hague. As the Committee on 
Public Information was thie mouthpiece of the United 
States Government in Holland, I considered it of the ut- 
most importance to acquaint myself with the general busi- 
ness of the legation as far as it affected relations between 
the two countries. Although the Committee on Public In- 
formation was a separate organization, I maintained close 
<;ontact with the diplomatic situation as conceived by the 
legation, and in return received the advice and assistance 
of the minister. Our relations were always most cordial, 
and both of us were able to perform services for the other 
which ordinarily would have lain outside our regular duties. 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 183 

Through the kindness of the minister in allowing us to 

install a motion-picture projector in his residence, we were 
able to reach many of the most influential members of the 
Dutch Government and of the allied and neutral diplomatic 
corps who otherwise would never have been available for 
our motion-picture educational campaign. 

Up to the time of the arrival of Mr. Llewellyn R. Thomas, 
to take charge of the motion-picture campaign, in October, 
1918, it was impossible to obtain assistance in my work. 

-After Mr. Thomas' arrival, he engaged himself in many 
activities which he was able to serve in addition to his mo- 
tion-picture work, and I can not recommend him too highly 
for his ungrudging assistance. 

In conclusion, I wish to state that the work of the Com- 

,mittee on Public Information in Holland was designed to 
show to the Dutch, and, as might be, to the Germans, what 
Americanism, as a moral force in operation, really meant. 

'. My work started at a very critical time, when neither the 
dignity of President Wilson's position, nor the strength of 
our Americanism that supported it, was credited either in 
Holland or within the German borders. The details of what 
was accomplished remain a matter of record. In giving to 
the Dutch public an array of facts through American 
sources, we appealed to both their reason and sentiment: — not 
through a blatant propaganda but through restrained pre- 
sentation of the truth — to a degree which I venture to hope 
will have some lasting effect on the good relations between 
the Netherlands and the United States. 

Henry Suydam, 
Commissioner for Holland. 

Work in Switzerland. 

(By ViEA B. Whitehouse, Commissionei".) 

German propaganda had been developing in Switzerland 

;for 30 or 40 years and was conducted by a corps of trained 

experts. It was common gossip that there were between 800 

and 1,200 German diplomatic representatives, a large major- 

:,ity of whom were said to be active in propaganda. 



184 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

Their policy was to buy or subsidize Swiss newspapers 
and news agencies and leave them under the Swiss directors. 
They also had a system of paying the smaller papers 
throughout Switzerland for every paragraph or item sent by 
German-owned news agencies which were published. 

The motion-picture houses in German Switzerland were 
said to be either owned outright or controlled by the German 
Government. The same situation applied to theaters, opera 
houses, and commercial establishments. They had a very 
complete, accurate, and efficient system of circularization. 
The result of their activities was that Switzerland was inun- 
dated not only by pro-German propaganda, but by anti-Ally 
and especially anti-American propaganda. 

On my arrival, I found that the Germans were maintain- 
ing that America could not raise an army in spite of her 
draft law, that she could not train it, could not arm it, could 
not transport it to Europe and if she did, the untrained 
soldiers could not face the German heroes. They tried to 
persuade the Swiss that America was going to invade Swit- 
zerland in order to attack Germany. They agitated a great 
deal about a secret treaty which was supposed to exist be- 
tween the United States and Great Britain in regard to 
Japan. They tried to show our weakness at home by re- 
porting that our difficulties on the Mexican, border amounted 
to our being at war Avith that country and they insinuated, 
that we meant to annex it. They tried to create difficulties 
between the Allies by articles showing that the Americans 
had invaded France to the latter country's disadvantage. . 
They harped upon our supposed effort to steal Great, 
Britain's place as the leader of commerce on the seas. 

I found no agency interested in presenting the American 
side. There were only a few American items sent by Havas 
or Renter on subjects of general interest. The Swiss papers - 
and public were eager for American news. 

IMPORTAKCE OF SWITZERLAND AS NEWS CENTER. 

The importance of Switzerland as a news center for us 
was that it is the only neutral nation whose newspapers are 
printed in the German language, and they had a free and. 



REPORT COMMITTEE OlST PUBLIC INFORMATIOlSr. 185 

large circulation in Austria and Germany. They were not 
only read in Germany, but the German press quoted from 
them freely. The liberal German papers especially followed 
everything that was said in the Swiss papers. Getting our 
news into the German Swiss press was the best way of 
getting it into Germany. 

There were about 20,000 German prisoners in Switzerland 
who communicated with their relatives in Germany. They 
also read the Swiss papers. A great number of Germans 
came back and forth into Switzerland very freely and in 
large numbers. Gossip and rumor circulated freely between 
Switzerland and Germany. 

As soon as I could find a few assistants I organized my 
office into the following departments: 

DAILY NEWS SERVICE. 
[Under the direction of Mr. George B. Fife.] 

Our service arrived early in the morning. It was re- 
written in simple English, translated into French and Ger- 
man and delivered to the Agence Telegraphique Suisse, the 
official Swiss news agency, which distributed it for us to the 
Swiss press. This agency was reported to be unsympathetic. 
We found that mistakes were made in our figures and that 
some times important items were overlooked. We took great 
pains in confirming and reconfirming by telephone and by 
letter .all figTires, and in order to avoid any oversight in dis- 
tributing important news items, we, ourselves, would tele- 
graph or telephone such items directly to the papers. 

The news items from our service aroused great public in- 
terest and American news was much discussed. We believe 
that to this fact is due the enormously increased use of the 
Havas and Renter items on American events. 

In August I was able to report to the Committee on Public 
Information in Washington that an estimated minimum of 
2,000 paragraphs of our service was being published weekly 
in the Swiss papers. 

All the President's speeches and notes were translated in 
full and sent both in English and German, or English and 
French, to every newspaper. Previously only extracts had 
been carried by Havas and Renter. 



186 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

The News Service Department sent weekly bulletins di- 
rectly to the editorial offices of all the papers, reviewing the 
American events of greatest interest of the past week, and 
commenting upon their significance. 

SPECIAL SERVICES. 

From the Foreign Press Bureau in New York, under the 
directorship of Mr. Ernest Poole, we received special ar- 
ticles and feature stories through the diplomatic pouch. 
These articles we found of great value, but they presented 
enormous difficulties. They had to be rewritten and edited 
from the Swiss point of view and connected with events in 
Switzerland, before they were translated. Until the armis- 
tice negotiations began to absorb public attention, we placed 
almost 100 per cent of these articles which we succeeded in 
having translated. On October 8 I was able to report to 
the Foreign Press Bureau that during the previous six weeks 
we had records of 123 separate articles published (some had 
been given exclusively to one paper or magazine, others to 
agencies and had appeared in a number of papers) ; 72 ac- 
cepted by papers and magazines but not yet printed; 59 on 
hand translated but not distributed; 22 sent out to transla- 
tors but not yet returned. Extracts from the Foreign Press 
Bureau were useful as news items also, although they were 
many weeks old when we received them. 

This department sent a biweekly information service to 
the editorial staffs of the newspapers, including in this 
service such material as Secretary Baker's military report, 
the Shipping Board's report, Navy reports on naval con- 
structions, etc. Many extracts from them were printed in 
the press and they furnished good material for editorials. 

The Mittel Presse, an agency which served a collection 
of small German Swiss papers, formerly considered pro- 
German, accepted a service of special articles from us three 
times a week. 

A number of pamphlets were issued and circulated, in- 
cluding one of the Bolshevik revelations. President Wilson's 
speeches, and one on America's achievement in the first 
year of the war. These pamphlets were printed in com- 
paratively small numbers — about 10,000 in the first edition. 



KBPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 187 

They were distributed free to men of prominence and in- 
fluence and put on sale at bookshops and news stands at a 
nominal price. The sales brought no return to us. 

STILL, PHOTOGRAPHS. 

Under- the direction of Mr. Valentini we received from 
the Foreign Press Bureau photographs illustrating some 
of their special articles. We received from the Photo- 
graphic Division of the United States Army photographs 
of American activities in France and on the front. These 
we placed successfully in illustrated magazines and papers, 
hut the particular use made of them was for displays in 
shop windows and in small glass cases along the arcaded 
streets of the Swiss cities. In October, 1918, we reported 
that 1,988 enlarged photographs of 127 different kinds were 
then on exhibition in 77 places in 33 towns. 

MOTION -PICTURE FILMS. 

[Also under the direction of Mr. Valentine.] 

The Allies recognized that this was an important field of 
propaganda and appointed an interallied committee to work 
out a plan of cooperation. The mere report of joint action 
on the part of the Allies caused one of the German-owned 
companies to offer for sale their large chain of houses. In 
spite of this indication of the power of the joint allied ac- 
tions, the Allies could agree to no plans, except that no allied 
film of commercial value should be sold except on condition- 
that a certain per cent of news or the propaganda film should 
be shown with it. When the armistice was signed the need of 
controlling the cinema situation ended. In the meantime, the 
British and French disputed that American propaganda on 
news films should be shown with American films of commer- 
cial value, because the British claimed that all American 
■commercial films were British property because the accepted 
business method is to sell American films to British firms 
who reproduce them in England on British material. The 
French claimed they were French property because the 
method of renting them in Europe was through French firms 
with right for other countries^ For this reason the Com- 



188 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC HSTFOEMATIOlSr. 

mittee on Public Information in Washington sent through 
the diplomatic pouch directly to me about 145,000 feet, or 
about 195 reels, of romantic story films of commercial value 
to which we could attach American news or propaganda for 
an entire American program. After the armistice we sold 
at a price satisfactory to the former owners all but two of 
these films. Beginning in September we received weekly con- 
signment of news films from the American Expeditionary 
Forces. 

The failure of the Allies to act in concert had no serious 
consequences, as the motion-picture houses in Switzerland 
were almost continuously closed on account of a succession of 
epidemics of Spanish gTippe. 

SWISS MISSION. 

We sent a delegation of six of the most prominent editors 
in Switzerland representing the six largest newspapers there 
on a trip to the United States. 

president's message. 

n ^ We obtainecl wide publicity for a message from President 

' " Wilson sent on November 7 to the peoples of the nations lib- 
erated from the yoke of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. As 
connections between Switzerland and Austria were broken 
and no information could be obtained as to conditions across 
the Austrian frontier, I took the message across myself. 

SUCCESS. ■ 

I believe the work of the Committee on Public Informa- 
tion in Switzerland was undoubtedly successful. When we 
opened our office there was very little knowledge of the 
American situation, either there or in the Central Empires. 
"^ Soon American prowess was the chief topic of comment. 
The j)roof that our activities had something to do with this 
change was to be found in the frequent comments in the Ger- 
man and German Swiss press on our service. The Morgen 
Zeitung, a German-owned paper in Zurich, explained that 
our news service offered the only information obtainable 
about the war craze that had taken hold of America. 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 189 

It was openly acknowledged that the United States had the 
most friendly press support of all the Allies in Switzerland. 

POLICY. 

The policy of the Committee on Public Information was 
to buy no papers, people, business, or buildings. Not one 
cent went for corruption of any sort — subsidies or bribes — 
or was spent in any illegal manner. 

THE SWISS GOVERNMENT. 

The Swiss Government in all its departments with which 
my work brought me in contact was unfailingly friendly and 
helpful. 

RESIGNATION. 

After the armistice was signed, I felt my work had been 
done. I resigned and left Switzerland December 25. Mr. 
Guy Croswell Smith then took charge and remained until 
the office was closed, February 23, 1919. 

Mrs. Norman de R. Whitehouse, 

G omTYhlssioTier For Switzerland. 



As Mrs. Whitehouse has submitted a report covering the 
activities of the Berne office up to December 25, I will speak 
of the continuance of the work until the close of the office 
on February 28, 1919. 

I completed the publication of the various booklets which 
Mrs. Whitehouse had started. These were printed in Ger- 
man and included " The League of Nations," President Wil- 
son's speeches, and several other of the most important of 
the committee's publications. They were circulated not only 
throughout Switzerland but in Germany, Austria-Hungary, 
and the Balkan countries. 

The daily news service, weekly bulletins, and other special 
information services were continued to within a few days of 
our closing, and their termination was a matter of great 
regret to the press of Switzerland, who had come to rely 
upon our office for authentic, unbiased American news. 



190 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOIT. 

Upon the announcement of the closing of our office I received 
letters Pi.nd expressions not only from the newspapers 
throughout the country, but from Swiss Government officials, 
the American Legation, and the office of the American mili- 
tary attache, a few of which I beg leave to quote : 

From the general manager of the Agence Telegraphique 
Suisse : 

We are sorry indeed to learn tMt the Committee on Public Infor- 
mation is soon to close its office in Switzerland. Our papers will 
certainly regret it, for they have highly appreciated its interesting 
news service coming directly from the United States and which 
doubtless has exercised a great influence upon the cordial relations 
between the two Republics. 

We wish that this service might continue under some form or 
other. It will be a great pity if the Swiss press receives its American /. 
news only through the channel of foreign agencies. / 

From William E. Eappard, professor. University of Gen- 
eva, and one of the most prominent men in Switzerland : 

* * * May I avail myself of this opportunity to congratulate you 
on the happy results your intelligent activity has achieved? Your 
office has certainly contributed to' establish the good understanding 
which now so fortunately prevails between our two Republics. 

From the Gazette de Lausanne, February 25 : 

The American press bureau which has been established in Berne 
as a part of the Committee on Public Information closes this week. 
Always scrupulously truthful, always well informed, the committee 
has supplied the press and authorities of Switzerland with much valu- 
able information and was also a beneficent factor to aid those who 
were fighting against insidious German propaganda. The results were 
slow to manifest themselves ; nevertheless, progress was certain. . 

Editorial written by Swiss Middle Press News Bureau and 
used in many papers : 

It is stated that the American Committee on Public Information 
at Berne will close its bureau and discontinue its news service on 
the 22d February. 

This announcement can not be passed over in silence. The Ameri- 
can press service in Switzerland, as no other bureau which supplied 
the Swiss press with news and articles, has from the start taken a 
position vvhich placed it far above the usual standard of propaganda. 
In this respect it formed a counterpart to the Swiss Mission, which 
not long ago went to America and was accompanied by Minister Sulzer, 
because it made it its principal object to explain to the Swiss the true 
conditions and intentions of America and to bring the two Republics 



KEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATIOF. 191 

to a better mutual understanding. Just because of this liigh interpre- 
tation of its tasl<:, it has fulfilled its purpose. As far as its activity 
concerned the war, it was anything but an imperialistic war agita- 
tion ; rather has it carried on only propaganda for a just and lasting 
peace and thereby gained the full appreciation of Switzerland. There 
Is probably no State and no statesman so highly esteemed and re- 
garded with so much confidence in Switzerland as the North American 
Union and its President Wilson. 

Guy CEOgwELL Smith. 

Work in Italy. 

(By John H. Heaeley, Commissioner.) 

In February, 1918, Hon. Thomas Nelson Page, America^ \ 
ambassador to Italy, opened an American news bureau at^ 
Eome and named Mr. John Hearley as its director. Two 
months later Capt. Charles E. Merriam, professor at the 
University of Chicago, arrived as the commissioner to ItalWy 
for the Committee on Public Information. 

Using the news bureau established by Ambassador Page 
as a nucleus, Commissioner Merriam opened the committee's 
offices in Rome' and attached Mr. Hearley to his staff. After- 
wards Miss Gertrude Barr and Lieut. Walter Wanger, of 
the American Air Service in Italy, were added as executive 
secretary and American liaison officer, respectively, both of 
whom must be especially commended for efficient and loyal 
service. Capt. Piero Tozzi and Lieut. Albert Peccorini 
were attached as Italian liaison officers. 

Under Commissioner Merriam's direction and guidance 
the committee in mid-April entered upon its task of mass 
education in Italy. The activities inagurated varied in na- 
ture but all aimed at the instruction of the Italian people 
in the meaning, method, and progress of America's war. 
From the very beginning Italian officialdom exhibited a 
sympathetic interest in the committee's work and aided the 
committee's representatives on innumerable occasions. 

Like all Europeans, the Italians were remarkably ignor- 
ant of America and things American and it was early found 
advisable to use a variety of channels to reach Italy's mil- 
lions. The medium embraced public and private prints, such 
as official documents, newspapers and magazines, the speak- 
ers' platform, moving pictures, photographic displays and 
post card, flag, and kindred distribution. 



192 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

Commissioner Merriam remained in Italy for six months, 
returning to America in late September. From the time 
of his departure to the closing of the Rome offices on March 
7, 1919, Mr. John Hearley served as the committee's com- 
missioner in Italy. 

NEWS DEPARTMENT. 

The news i!;ems distributed by this department were re- 
ceived daily by cable and wireless from either Paris or 
Washington or carried in a news feature letter called the 
Poole service, which was mailed weekly from New York. 
The Agenzia Stefani, Italy's largest press association, was 
furnished with a budget of spot news every day. The Ste- 
fani in turn supplied this news material to its several hun- 
dred newspapers and other clients throughout Italy. More- 
over, these daily news items were gathered together in a 
journal, mimeographed and circulated by this department. 
Approximately 200 copies were mailed daily and penetrated 
into military, journalistic, educational and governmental 
circles. 

Mr. Hearley, assisted by Mr. Kenneth Durant, directed 
the news department. 

A feature section was in charge of Miss Alice Rohe and 
Kingsley Moses. It furnished feature articles or material 
for feature articles to the Italian newspapers and magazines. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC AND MISCELLANEOUS DISTRIBUTIONS. 

Under the direction of Mr. Byron M. Nester, the following 
distributions were made: The department of photographic 
and miscellaneous, 4,500,500 post cards ; American bow pins, 
Italo- American ribbons and Italo-American buttons, 154,854 ; 
President Wilson posters, 68,574; assorted American war 
posters, 66,640 ; American flags in paper, 200,000 ; American 
flags in cloth, 30; sheet music, Star-Spangled Banner, 
33,300 ; booklets containing extracts from President Wilson's 
speeches, 326,650; pamphlets containing American war sta- 
tistics and other information, 364,235; United States maps, 
200; President Wilson photographs, 500; President Wilson 
engravings, 35. 



REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 193 

Eeprints from American photographic displays were ex- 
hibited in 3,000 Italian towns and cities. In some form or 
other American educational information was disseminated 
through 16,000 towns and cities of Italy by this department 
alone. 

SPEAKERS. 

[Under the direction of Prof. Rudolph Altrocchi and Kingsley Moses.] 

Through the hospitality of official and private institutions 
of Italy and the American Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, speakers, representing the committee, came in contact 
with all " classes " in the Italian peninsula and Sicily. 
These orators carried America's message of hope and 
strength to the Italian people and had large and enthusiastic 
audiences everywhere. 

The names appearing on the committee's list of speakers 
in Italy include Dr. Kudolph Altrocchi, Chicago University ; 
Congressman Capt. La Guardia ; Senator Cotillo, New York 
State Legislature ; Judge Ben Lindsey ; Arthur Bennington ; 
Agostino d'Isernia; Dr. Prof. Satorio; Dr. Prof. Penunzio; 
Signor Poggiolini; Judge Cravates, United States judge at 
Cairo; and the 13-year-old Alberto Gelpi. Besides, Pro- 
fessoressa Gugliesmina Ronconi, a prominent Italian social 
worker, and her several associates were attached to this de- 
partment. These concerned themselves with the women 
workers, peasant women, and school children, holding fre- 
(}uent morale and educational conferences or discussions for 
them in popular halls, workshops, and farm centers. 

Whenever possible, American moving pictures or lantern 
slides were used to illustrate all these discourses. 

MOVING PICTURES. ' 

J>iieut. Walter Wanger, E. Q. Cordner, and Herbert Hoag- 
laiid built the machinery for handling American war, indus- 
trial, and agricultural films. These films were selected and 
forwarded to the bureau at Rome by the committee's office at 
either Paris or New York and were subsequently given 
Italian titles and prepared for "popular consumption" in 
Ualy by this department. 

121033—20 13 



194 EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC UsTFORMATION. 

The perfected films were shown to both military and ci- 
vilian populations, at the front and behind the lines. In its 
exhibitions this department employed both private and pub- 
lic agencies, such as Italian cinema houses, patriotic asso- 
ciations, schools, Italian offices of naval and military propa- 
ganda, the American Young Men's Christian Association, etc. 

Once a week this department supplied the Inter- Allied 
Weekly, a war-time Pathe of the Italian Government, with 
appropriate film material for display in theaters throughout 
Italy. 

CONCLUSION. 

Fortnightly or monthly reports, detailing the variety and 
extent of the activities of the committee's representatives in 
Italy are gathered in the official archives of the Committee 
on Public Information at Washington. 

Exhibits evidencing the committee's operations in Italy 
are also on file at Washington. These include newspaper and 
magazine clippings from the Italian press and periodicals, 
testimonial letters from Italian official and unofficial sources, 
a statistical map and specimens of the post card, pamphlet, 
and picture material, distributed by the committee's bureau 
in Italy. 

The clippings and testimonial letters alone adequately 
demonstrate that the committee's educational appeal not only 
reached the Italian masses but psychologically did much 
toward steadying and heartening them through a critical 
period of the world war. 

John H. Heaeusy, 

Commissioner of Italy. 

Work in Spain. 
(By Frank J. Maeion, Commissioner.) 

I left Washington for Spain via Habana on November 17, 
having with me the following letter of confirmation and in- 
structions from the President: 

14 November, 1917. 

My Dear Me. Marion : Mr. Creel informs me that you are leaving- 
for Spain and Italy at once for tlie purpose of making arrangements- 



EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATION. 195 

for such disti-ibution of motion pictures as will acquaint these coun- / 
tries with the life of America, our aims and our ideals. 

It is a distinct service that you are privileged to render to your 
country and the whole democratic movement, aud I know that tliis 
will serve at once as reward and inspiration. Please bear in mind 
always that we want nothing for ourselves, and that this very un- 
selfishness carries with it an obligation of open dealing. Guard 
against any effect of officious intrusion, and try to express a disin- 
terested friendship that is our sole impulse. 
Cordially and sincerely, 

(Signed) WooDKOw Wilson. 

It will be noted that originally the scope of my work was 
limited to the distribution of motion pictures. Under in- 
structions, and with the utmost leeway allowed to my own 
judgment, it expanded to embrace many other educational 
methods. In the beginning, the Madrid office of the com- 
mittee was established in that of the American naval attache.^ 
Capt. (now Rear Admiral) Burton C. Decker, who, from 
the first cooperated with me most cordially, and who gave 
great assistance and unstinted support. As I had brought 
with me a considerable stock of moving-picture films, show- 
ing the industrial and agricultural resources of the United 
States, together Avith views of the early work of training our 
new Army, I VN^as prepared to start as quickly as the films 
could be titled in Spanish. I attended several conferences 
with representatives of the English, French, and Italian 
Embassies who were engaged in a similar work and quickly 
found that their efforts had the appearance of being handi- 
capped by its " official " character. Spain, being a neutral 
country, and most jealous of its neutrality, was naturally 
unwilling to countenance anything to which the German Em- 
bassy might object, and at the time of my arrival the Ger- 
man Embassy was by far the most active and aggressive in 
Spain, with 70,000 German citizens well organized in the 
territory and with apparently unlimited funds at its dis- 
posal. The only moving pictures which our Allies had avail- 
able were of a military character— scenes at the front, etc.— 
and as they were not permitted to be shown in public by the 
Spanish censorship, they were limited to private exhibition, 
hence to a very small audience, composed presumably of 
persons already predisposed to the allied cause. 



196 EEPORT COMMITTEE OE^ PUBLIC INFOEMATION. 

I therefore determined to get the American fihns into 
the reguhxr moving-picture theaters, and because of the 
" unofficious " character of my mission I was able to get the 
entire stock passed by the Spanish censors and shown 
throughout Spain in tlie regular programs of the distribut- 
ing house of Ledesma & Villeseca, the immediate work of 
supervision being handled by Jose M. Gay, an American at- 
torney of Filipino parentage, whom I had engaged as sec- 
retary and who gave me the most faithful and efficient serv- 
ice during the committee's operations in Spain. From the 
theaters we expanded to the schools and colleges and j&nally 
to open-air shows when the weather permitted. In the 
latter we showed to as high as 9,000 people in one audience 
and the Spanish press was unanimous and enthusiastic in 
its praise. Particular success was made by a series of pic- 
tures furnished for the purpose without charge by the Ford 
Automobile Co., of Detroit. 

One of the most gratifying features of the work with 
moving pictures in Spain was that there was no expense 
to the distribution, except the titling in Spanish. Many 
of the prints were originally donated by patriotic American 
manufacturers, and the expense of circulation was covered 
by a small fee charged for the exhibition. From time to 
time new subjects were added to the stock. At the close of 
the work in February, 1919, I was fortunate in being able to 
sell the entire stock of films used in Spain, and those of the 
Italian office as well, to the Foyers de Soldats, of France, for 
a price which almost covered the cost of stock and printing. 

Early in February, 1918, I proceeded to Italy to inaugu- 
rate the work there. Upon the arrival of Capt. Merriam, 
appointed commissioner for Italy, I received instructions 
to return to Madrid to act as commissioner for Spain, with 
full authority to launch a complete campaign. 

Back in Madrid I opened separate offices at Zurbano 14, 
engaged a small staff of translators and office assistants, and 
decided to supplement our films with a press service. At 
first this task seemed fated to failure. Most of the leading 
papers in Spain were under regular subsidy from the Ger- 
man Embassy, and I was told by my French colleagues 
that space could not be secured in the Spanish press with- 
out paying for it at a price per line. A very large sum was 



REPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 197 

suggested as necessary to carry out the plan. However, I 
was convinced that truthful news items from America would 
be welcomed by all the progressive papers and that the sys- 
tem then in vogue of sending out " official " communiques 
from the various embassies could only naturally result m 
the material being treated as advertising. I arranged with 
the Fabra press service to handle a daily service of Ameri- 
can news, and it was soon apparent that my surmise was 
correct. Within a short time the pape'rs of Madrid, in- 
cluding all those subsidized by the enemy, were carrying 
our service and not a cent of subsidy was paid to any 
Spanish paper by the committee during my tenure of office. 
However, the Fabra Agency was not furnishing the service 
to the smaller papers of the Provinces which could not af- 
ford to pay the telegraph tolls, because of the high cost of , 
print paper and the scarcity of advertising. 
^ Accordingly, with the aid of the naval attache, who placed 
his various secret agents throughout Spain at my disposal, I 
organized my own distributing system and within a short 
time had the satisfaction of seeing the entire press of Spain 
printing more news from America than from the allied 
countries combined. 

Following the establishment of the Foreign Press Bureau 
of the committee in New York my office commenced to re- 
ceive regular weekly installments of special articles, photo- 
graphs, posters, window display cards, etc. This material 
necessitated further expansion. The special articles, pre- 
pared with rare good judgment by Mr. Ernest Poole and his 
associates, were placed in the hands of leading literary men 
of Spain, and reappeared over the Spanish names in the best 
daily and weekly publications. My chief translator, Senor 
Jose Armas, for many years correspondent of the New York 
Herald, and Senorita Raquel Alonzo, formerly of the Gulick 
School for Girls, performed prodigies of labor and could 
always be relied upon to give not only accurate translations,, 
but translations of a high literary style. Miss Irene Wright 
was for a time typist and office manager, but resigned m 
July, 1918, and was succeeded by Mr. Seward B. Collins, 
who, being physically unfitted for military duty, joined my 
staff as a volunteer without pay. 



198 IlEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

In the summer of 1918 the work was expanded to full 
force. A lecture course on American ideals was inaugurated 
with Prof. M. Romera-Navarro, of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, in charge. Although interrupted for a long time 
by the influenza epidemic, Prof. Romera-Navarro delivered 
lectures before universities and lyceums in most of the prin- 
cipal cities of Spain and was everywhere well received. 

An exhibit of an edition de luxe of the war drawings of 
Joseph Pennell was started in San Sebastian in July, 1918, 
under the patronage of SoroUa, the great Spanish painter, 
and from San Sebastian went to most of the leading cities 
of northern Spain. 

In our window display work we had the invaluable assist- 
ance of the Singer Sewing Machine Co., whose manager for 
Spain, Mr. Adcock, placed at the disposal of the committee 
the windows of 200 branch stores in Spain and without 
charge to us undertook the distribution and exhibition of a 
great mass of window display material.__ The windows of the 
Eastman Kodak Co. and the Aeolian Co. in Madrid, and 
the entire store of the Ajnerican Machinery Corporation in 
Barcelona were in constant use for the display of educational 
material. Photographs mounted in handsome -frames were 
extensively used and deemed very effective. 

In July, 1918, we started the publication of a weekly 
bulletin in English, the American News, which was distrib- 
uted free of charge to all Americans whose names we could 
secure in Spain and Portugal. The purpose of this bulletin, 
in the form of a small eight-page newspaper, was to put the 
facts of our war preparations and achievements into the 
hands of Americans to be disseminated by them in their 
contact with the Spanish people. The editor of this paper 
was Seward B. Collins. The value of this publication may 
perhaps be attested by the following quotation from a letter 
to your representative from Hon. Thomas H. Birch, Ameri< 
can minister to Portugal : 

We receive regularly the copies of the American News and put 
them to good use, many thanks for your kindness to this legation, 
anything worth while we will wire promptly. I think it is a fine 
idea the publishing of the American News, some items we do not get 
by wireless, so I change the date and use them here as well. 



REPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATIOI^. 199 

While attending the propaganda conference in Paris I 
became convinced that the strongest arguments in behalf of 
the allied cause were embodied in the various official utter- 
ances of President Wilson, and in following that conviction, 
the Madrid office of your committee used every effort to give 
the widest possible publicity to all of the "President's 
speeches. Not only were they published immediately in the 
Spanish press, but they were printed in pamphlet form as 
well and sent under letter postage to upward of 10,000 
prominent Spaniards. It was a matter of great gratification 
to us that so accurate and elegant in its diction was our 
translation by Prof. Komera-Navarro of the President's 
famous "Fourteen Points" speech that it was adopted as 
a literary textbook by one of the leading schools for boys in 
Madrid. In the distribution of this and other material we 
were greatly assisted by Senor Amato, of the Fabra Press ' 
Agency. As a general proposition, pamphleteering had been 
overdone in Spain by both the Allies and the enemy em- ■ 
bassies and we did not deem it advisable to enter to any 
great extent into this branch of work. Furthermore it was 
the experience of the Madrid office that Spanish transla- 
tions made in America were almost worthless because of mis- 
takes in idiom. 

The enemy propaganda which we had to combat during 
the early period of our work in Spain consisted largely of 
slurs and ridicule directed against our preparations and the 
probability of our taking any efficient part in the war. 
These were printed in the subsidized press, but were .so 
worded that anyone who read could hardly fail to realize 
immediately that the material originated in Prince Eath- 
bor's embassy. Although the greatest pressure was put upon 
me from various sources to answer these absurd misstate- 
ments, I was convinced that no good would come from con- 
• troversial arguments with the enemy. My policy was there- 
fore to either ignore them or to answer in some indirect 
way. For example, when the enemy put out the charge that 
our Army was irreligious, controlled by the Masonic order 
and that Eoman Catholic chaplains were not allowed to 
wear their vestments, my answer was to secure a large pho- 
tograph of a Eoman Catholic mass in the open air in one 
oTour camps and to publish it in some of the leading illus- 



200 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

trated weeklies, as well as to include it in our window 
displays. 

Finally, I may say that one of the most effective methods 
of conducting such an educational campaign is by word of 
mouth. In this work, all Americans in Spain loyally as- 
sisted, but particular service was rendered by the gentlemen 
of the American Chamber of Commerce of Barcelona, 
headed by Messrs. Brewer, Van Tress, and Preston M. 
Smith, all of whom could be relied upon to do any work 
that seemed necessary in their territory. And above all, the 
most effective argument was the work of our Army and 
Navy. As our campaign progressed and a delegation of 
Spanish newspaper men, under the leadership of the Mar- 
quis Vallegiesias, of La Epoca, returned from our front in 
France with the word that we had hardly told the story of 
our strength and efficiency, the pro-German tendency of 
Spain began to perceptibly fade, and when Spain sent its 
peremptory note to Germany regarding the sinking olf 
Spanish merchant ships we felt 'that the climax of our efforts 
had been reached. Two quotations may be given as evi- 
dence of the value of the committee's work in Spain. On 
October 23, 1918, the Madrid correspondent of the Christian 
Science Monitor says : 

A development of the popular attitude that has been most marked 
in recent months, and has become a significant feature of Spanish in- 
clination, has been a sincere, anxious, and deep interest that Spain 
has begun to take in all that concerns the United States and es- 
pecially on her productive and industrial side. * * * Demonstra- 
tions by cinema pictures and in other ways of how things are dee in 
America have been greatly appreciated. So have the object lessons of 
what the Americans have been doing in the way of metamorphosis in 
France in various directions. An indication of the new state of in- 
terest that Spain feels in regard to American institutions, systems, 
and so forth, is furnished by the long articles that continually ap- 
pear about them in some of the daily newspapers, especially in the 
newer journals. Lectures on similiar subjects are increasingly popu- 
lar, and multitudinous papers have been read before the members of 
literary and scientific institutions concerning different aspects of 
American development. 

In this connection it is of special interest to point out that at the 
present time Senor Miguel-Navarro, professor of Spanish language 
and literature at the University of Pennsylvania, is in the country 
and has been delivering some pointed discourses which have received 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 201 

close attention and have been reported in detail in the newspapers. 
At Vigo, addressing a large gathering in the Escuela de Artes y 
Officios, the professor has just made a notable statement on the man- 
ner in which Spain was regarded abroad, and the intellectual and 
sentimental relations between her and the United States. 

He said that in his journeys in other foreign countries he had 
observed great hostility toward Spain, because foreign peoples iiad 
interpreted her history incorrectly and spoken badly of her because 
they did not know her. But in North America and especially in the 
Southern States, he had found quite a romantic feeling of attach- 
ment for Spain, due probably to the deep tracks that the Spanish 
work of civilization long ago had made in that part of the country, 
and where the work of their writers and savante and artists who had 
been there had served to intensify that affection. 

And on December 11, 1918, the Monitor said : 

What may be called the Wilson cult is truly making astonishing 
progress in Spain, as shall be shown. Three months ago the Presi- 
dent of the United States was known but little to the general com- 
munity. To-day there is hardly a city of any consequence in Spain 
whose newspapers are not devoting innumerable columns to articles 
upon his career, his views in general, and his present actions, with 
occasional personal details. 

I take the liberty of attaching a summarizing report in 
the form of a letter from Capt. (now Rear Admiral) Bur- 
ton C. Decker. Finally, may I be permitted to add that in 
recognition of the work of the committee in Spain your 
representative was honored by being elected to membership 
in the Royal Academy of Arts and Science of Spain, of the 
Columbian Society of Spain, and to the Centro Cultural 
Hispano- Americana, of which he was named the American 
delegate. 

Frank J. Marion, 
C om/missionneT for S'pain. 

Work in Denmark. 
(By Edward V. Riis, Commissioner.) 

When I arrived in Denmark I found great need of propa- 
ganda work. There was nothing like an adequate conception 
of America's motives, the goal we sought to attain, what we 
were capable of doing under pressure of great necessity and 
what our participation and final triumph would mean to the 
small nations of Europe. When our work ceased, Denmark 



202 RliPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATIOE". 

understood us as never before. Our educational work had 
been carried into every nOok and corner of the kingdom. 
The spirit of America had been photographed for the Danes 
by word of mouth, by written article, and by picture so that 
they saw us clearly and comprehended us. I found them 
looking through glasses darkly. We left them with a new 
vision of our people, our activities, and the lofty principles 
which governed us. 

Our material was published in every publication of any 
importance in the land. We had our pictures displayed in 
towns which had never seen American war pictures. We 
won powerful newspapers to our side; we made people our 
lasting friends, for we taught them that our fight was for 
'Denmark, as well as ourselves; that we had no ax to grind; 
that we sought neither gain of land nor gold ; that we strove 
to attain only world peace, universal justice, and the binder 
of universal brotherhood the world over. 

Americans must not forget the delicacy of Denmark's po- 
sition and the geographical considerations that made her 
absolutely helpless. When Denmark lost Schleswig and the 
Kiel Canal was built, there disappeared the last hope of 
successfully defending Copenliagen from an attack by the 
Germans. The taking of Schleswig and the building of the 
canal was really the first step for the big war. A fleet of 
air ships sailing from Warnemunde, the German Baltic port, 
could lay Copenhagen in ruins in five hours. German big 
guns could easily bombard Copenhagen from the Baltic. 
They could also sweep the peninsula of Jutland from one 
side to the other. Therein was the secret of the Danish fear. 

Allied press representatives were informed more than once, 
before I came, that the papers could not afford to lean too 
much to one side or the other in publishing propaganda. 
Our task required delicate handling, and I was fortunate 
in securing the services of Mr. Bente, a trained journalist, 
who knew the likes and dislikes, the habits and the prefer- 
ences of the Danish newspapers as very few know them. 

From the very first we adopted the principle of laying all 
our cards on the table. I was open in telling those whom I 
wished to have help me just what I had come to Denmark 
for. I am convinced that had any other course been adopted 
we would have failed. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE OIST PUBLIC INFORMATION. 203 

From a small beginning in the Hotel Phoenix, where I 
started with first two and then three and four emplo^^ees, the 
work extended until I had seven persons on my staff, three 
translators, a stenographer, a man to read the newspapers 
daily, my assistant director, and my bookkeeper and confi- 
dential man. My translators were picked with the greatest 
of care, and I eliminated those whom I found could not fill 
the bill, until we had a staff who could translate perfectly 
and, moreover, could write good journalistic Danish, a mat- 
ter of the highest importance. So far as the publication of 
material is concerned the following figures will show you 
how our work grew : 

In September we sent over 217 clippings of our own ma- 
terial; in October the number of our clippings had increased 
to 224 ; in November we sent over 591 ; in December, a month 
with a Aveek of holidays and when in addition I had four 
of my staff in bed with influenza, 420; in January no less 
than 606. 

One article in particular — President Wilson's statement 
that justice would be done in the matter of Schleswig — was 
published in .more than 100 newspapers, including 3 news- 
papers in territory held by the Germans, such as the Flens- 
borg Avis. So far as I know no other allied power had suc- 
ceeded in getting propaganda material published in news- 
papers in territory held by the Germans. 

Furthermore, when I left we were beginning to get our 
material into the newspapers of Germany. We had an article 
on the German school system — a criticism of the German 
school system — published in the Hamburger Ekko. We had 
letters from German newspapers, such as the Plamburger 
Fremdenblatt, asking us for material. The article published 
in the Ekko was written by Dr. Maximilian Grossman, of 
the committee, and was attributed to us. Letters from Ger- 
many appealing for our material were beginning to come in 
just as I left. 

We did not feed the Danes cut-and-dried propaganda. We 
carefully selected those articles which we knew the Danish 
publications would be eager for. In this I had the invalu- 
able aid of Mr. Herman Bente, my assistant director, who 
knew the likes and dislikes of the Danish press all through 



204 EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC USTFORMATIOE". 

the land. We did not put out onr stnlf as propaganda. We 
Jet the Danish editors know that we were running a straight 
news bureau — that we had news of interest about America and 
what was going on behind the scenes there. We did not urge 
it on them. They coukl take it or leave it, as they chose. 
Thej took it and called for more. At first we went to them. 
Tlien they came to us. We put the breath of life in dry 
mateiial. We put an American journalistic punch in it. We 
aimed to tell the story of the pictures in short, crisp sentences 
Ho that they would hit the reader between the ej^es. If the 
Danes were told, for example, that we were producing so 
many thousands of tons of ammunition, they could not grasp 
the picture. But if they were made to understand that this 
ammunition, if piled, would make a mountain as high as one 
of the highest buildings in the land, they got the picture. 

When we were sending over 300,000 troops a month I 
figured out how many men that would mean departing from 
our shores every minute and wrote a short story stating that 
every minute so many men were going out from the States 
to serve under the flag. There was need of this. The Ger- 
mans had said that we were not able to send an army. They 
"said that such troops as we had Avere ill-equipped. We were 
able to convince the Danes to the contrary, 

I wrote many articles. When the great American offen- 
sive at St. Mihiel began we received, just in time, a picture 
of Pershing, but no written matter with it. The people of 
Denmark were unable to visualize Pershing. What manner 
of man was he ? What was his previous military experience ? 
Wliat had he done that he had earned the right to lead the 
American Armies? I had brought along with me some ma- 
terial, and I went out and scoured the entire city until I 
found some more. Then I sat down and wrote a column 
story which appeared, along with the picture, on the first 
page of the second largest newspaper in Denmark, Ber- 
lingske Tidende, the time of the publication fitting in with 
the beginning of the offensive. 

When I found, on first coming, that nobody knew just 
what was going on behind the scenes at home I sat down and 
wrote an article telling what I had seen of the strength and 
power of our war preparations, letting them know that we 



REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 205 

did not want this war, but when we found that it had to be 
fought we became one great workshop in which all the 
people were working unitedly to end the war as quickly and 
as effectively as possible. AVhen I found that the Danes 
had only an imperfect idea of President Wilson, hoAV he 
rose to fame, what he meant in the life of the people, how he 
was trying to interpret tlie spirit of his country, just what he 
stood for and what he strove to attain, I wrote a three-col- 
umn story, " Wilson, Hope of the World," in which I en- 
deavored properly to interpret him and his principles. 
Along with it I tried to mirror the spirit of my people. That 
story was favorably commented on all over Denmark. It 
was not only printed in one of the largest of the Copenhagen 
newspapers, Berlingske Tidende, but ran the rounds of the 
provincial press. It was published in four provincial papers, 
four of the leading papers, and among others in the leading 
newspaper of Kibe, 3 miles from the German border. That 
was just where I wanted to get it. 

The Danes were interested in everything American. I 
found that it was good propaganda work to write upon 
American subjects not directly connected with the war. I 
wrote an article about American journalism; I wrote an ar- 
ticle about Col. Eoosevelt and the manner of man he was, 
after we had received news of his death; I wrote an article 
about the development of our shipping under the guidmg 
genius of Charles M. Schwab, and that article was pubhshed 
Lstead of a leader on the editorial page of another Copen- 
hagen newspaper; I likewise wrote a descriptive story telling 
how the news of the signing of the armistice was received - 
in New York. These articles proved popular and the Copen- 
hagen editors frequently asked me to write other articles. 

I made several speeches in Copenhagen and in the Prov- 
inces after thev had asked me to do so. I delivered one at a 
large concentration camp for soldiers at Sandhohn. I ^vas 
asked to, and did, deliver one in the auditorium of the chief 
Copenhagen newspaper, Politiken, just before I left. 

I made myself a personal friend of the editors. I called 
on some of them almost daily. I went to the Provinces and 
to the editors there I explained what we were trying to do. 
These calls were followed by an encouraging result in the 
greater use of our material. 



206 EEPORT COMMITTEE OK PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

We, kept careful track of what the newspapers were say- 
ing, either to our detriment or to our credit. When they said 
anj^thing which was incorrect, and we knew it to be incor- 
rect, we went after them. When one newspaper which had 
been printing erroneous reports about us wrote vicious sub- 
heads on a news article dealing with an address delivered 
by the President and referred to him as the "Trustland's 
President," I called them to account, and the second editor 
came to my office and apologized. He did more. A two- 
column article was written praising our work. The news- 
paper swung over. so that it took with eagerness articles sent 
out by us, attributing them to our committee. This news- 
paper published two columns of Justice Clark's important 
decision on the eight-hour law and credited it to our com- 
mittee. The story went the rounds of the Social Democratic 
papers. 

Every magazine of any prominence using pictures pub- 
lished ours. We had more pictures in the magazines than 
any of the other allied bureaus were able to show. iSome- 
times half a dozen such pictures would appear in an issue 
of a single magazine having a circulation of 200,000. Many 
hundreds of pictures were sent out by us through the Pres- 
sens Illustrations Bureau, which serves between 200 and 300 
publications in Scandinavia, and this material, sent out in 
Copenhagen, was published in Norway as well. 

Copenhagen was filled with our pictures. They were 
posted in places conveniently located. The Germans after- 
wards followed us up and put up. pictures where we did. 
We put them up on side streets where pictures had not been 
shown before and in outlying districts. We sent them to 
provincial towns, such as Aarhus, Esbjerg, Elbe, Kallund- 
borg, Roskilde, and other places. We grouped them so that 
people could see the gradual development of small-arms 
manufacture, of the progress of the Browning machine 
gun, of the flying machine, and we put red-lettered captions 
and stories under them which conveyed a ready lesson to the 
man in the street. These pictures were viewed daily by 
thousands. 

The same may be said of the cuts we received and of 
the display posters. 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 207 

We gave pictures to the Biitisli Legation to be used in 
their ' illustrated booklets and to lecturers. We even paid 
for lantern slides for such men as Winding, one of the 
prominent journalists of the staft' of Politiken, who had 
been a correspondent at the front and who afterwards de- 
livered lectures telling what American troops were doing 
in the war, what they were like, and the spirit which actu- 
ated them. 

We furnished school teachers with printed material in 
the shape of articles or pamphlets,, likewise writers. W^e 
sent a volume of President ,Wilson's messages to a large pub- 
lishing house which got them out in Danish. 

We took up the Schleswig question at a time when scores 
of persons came to see me to ask that the United States help 
to adjust the Schleswig problem on a basis of justice to the 
Danes, and I sent home cables, articles, and pamphlets deal- 
ing exhaustively with the entire Schleswig question. I 
Avrote home about it, and even sent a letter to the President, 
pointing out that the people of the small neutral nation 
which had suffered so grievously looked to him in the wist- 
ful hope that he would right an ancient wrong and strike 
off the shackles of the Danes in Schleswig who for 50 long 
years had felt the tyranny and oppression of Prussian rule. 
I talked among others to Mr. Hansen-Norrem011e, the Dan- 
ish representative from that district in the German Reich- 
stag, who came to my office to see me, and I wrote and cabled 
home what- he told me about the Schleswig question. 

I sent a daily cable informing the committee about con- 
ditions in Germany, Russia, and Denmark, as they came to 
my notice. T was able to cable home in early October that 
the Germans had suffered a severe blow to their morale, and 
sometime before the Kaiser's abdication I cabled that the 
people in Berlin were talking of the possibility, I also 
cabled how the German Army had been shot with Bolshe- 
vism by agents from Russia. _ . 

When Mr. Edgar Sisson's Bolshevist disclosures first 

reached Denmark by cable I got the complete text and, that 

. night, I called a meeting of my staff and instructed them to 

go get out the entire text on our duplicating machine first 

thing in the morning. I invited the chief censor to sit in on 



208 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION". 

our talk. It was not necessary for us to get it out on the 
duplicating machine, for the newspapers were imjpressed 
with its extreme importance as news and the next day all the 
Danish newspapers gave it all the space that was possible. 
The Social-Demokraten, the strongest organ among the 
Socialists of Denmark, alone published eight columns of the 
revelations. The newspapers continued to publish the story 
for three days. Later we got rid of between 10,000 and 
15,000 copies of the disclosures printed in pamphlet form, 
part in Danish and part in Russian. The Russians who were 
combating Bolshevism snapped them up eagerly. 

We published three pamphlets in Denmark. One was by 
Booth Tarkington, dealing with our awakening ; another w as 
by Ernest Poole and described the spirit of the Army; a 
third was an appeal to the reason of the German people writ- 
ten by a Capt. Helwig, born in Germany, but an American 
serving as a captain in our Army. 

The last-named pamphlet was published in German. It 
was distributed in the last months of the war. From one 
place alone we received reports that it had been given into 
the hands of about 300 Germans. Copies of that pamphlet 
were left at all hotels and restaurants frequented by Ger- 
mans. We sent many into Germany. 

The Germans had been unloading propaganda on Den- 
mark for three years. The British and the French were on 
the ground long before we were. The Germans had a 
strong organization. It included a number of young authors 
who had been unsuccessful in having their works published. 
The Germans tempted them by telling them they would see 
their names in print and offered to get out, free, the books 
they wrote. In among these books they cleverly sandwiched 
others dealing with German propaganda. These books were 
issued from a large publishing house. Later the Germans 
added another and smaller publishing firm. They had a 
clientele of from 100,000 to 150,000. The Germans also 
tempted newspapers which were known to be in financial 
difficulties by offering them paying advertising contracts and 
a supply of printing paper at considerably less cost th^n they 
were able to get it from allied sources. This paper was 
to be delivered free at the plant. They also offered ink and 
printing machines. 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORM ATION. 209 

The leader of the German propaganda was Louis vom 
Kohl, of an old Danish family and a clever author. He and 
his associates bought up a chain of eight Danish magazines, 
but none of the more influential ones fell into their clutches. 
The last they got hold of was a magazine circulating among 
seafaring men in which the propaganda was subtly con- 
cealed. 

Denmark was tired of propaganda when I came and if 
we had attempted to put out material plainly tagged as such 
it would have gone into the wastebasket. I adopted a new 
line of endeavor. I went to the editors and told them 
frankly what we were aiming at". I hid nothing. I said we 
were conducting a news bureau. Before I did that I went 
to the chief censor, Mr. Marinus Yde (one of the fairest, 
ablest men I ever met), and was perfectly frank with him. 
I showed him our files and said he might come and look at 
our office at any time. We strove to, and we did, convince 
the people that we were there not so much to advertise our 
wares as to bring about a better relationship, a mutual 
understanding between our country and theirs as to the aims, 
objects, and purposes of each. Frankness on our part begot 
frankness on their part. 

In pursuance of this I had a talk with the leading agri- 
cultural experts and sent home a careful and accurate report 
written by one of them detailing the exact situation in 
Denmark and what she could do to help the hungry if she 
obtained her requirements. 

I suggested and helped to arrange the visit to our country 
of the 12 Scandinavian journalists. That visit did much to 
cement the friendly relations between ourselves, Norway, 
Sweden, and Denmark. When they returned they wrote 
many admirable articles showing a ready understanding of 
our people and our spirit and correcting such impressions 
as that we were a dollar-chasing land engrossed merely in 
our own selfish considerations. Emil Marot, one of the 
Danes and a member of Parliament, gave, on his return, a 
series of 25 lectures in which he explained us to his people. 

T haVe seen a change of feeling come over people who had 
f ot understood us before. I have seen a new understanding 
of [^resident Wilson come into the minds of the Danes so 

121033—20 14 



210 EEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

that tliey placed him on a plane beside their greatest na- 
tional heroes. I have known them to cut out the photo- 
graphs of him sent out by us, which appeared in Danish 
papers, and place them in a sort of family shrine. Yes, I 
have known the rough farmers to do that on the lonely heath 
lands. I know that the people of the small neutral nations 
of Europe, soulsick with war, yearning for an enduring 
peace, have looked to him in the hour of trial as the great 
deliverer, the Moses in a wilderness of trouble. They looked 
to him to lead them to the light, to lasting peace, to bind the 
nations in the great brotherhood of which so many mil- 
lions dream. They believed in him and in us when I left. 

Edward V. E,iis, 
G ommissioneT for Denmark. 

SUMMARIES OF TYPICAL INTEEVIEWS GIVEN BY MR. KIIS. 

Hovedstaden, August 18 ; headline, " Denmark and America " : 
The name of Jacob Riis is very popular in Denmark. Who has not 
enjoyed reading the story of the boy from Kibe, who lived to be called 
New York's most useful citizen by an American President? The son 
of this man is sure to be welcome in Denmark. 

In intervievF Riis says that it is wrong that the United States 
should not have the friendliest feelings for Denmark. On the con- 
trary, America vi^ishes to strengthen the tie of friendship and con- 
siders it important that Danes should understand why America went 
to war. The United States not in war to crush German nation, but 
German militarism, so the world will be more fit for our children to 
live in. America thanks Denmark and Scandinavia for what their sons 
have done in the war. Two hundred thousand are in the Army and 
Navy and the Scandinavians have contributed liberally to war loans, 
the Red Cross, etc. Proud that two Scandinavians are among the 22 
first American soldiers to receive the highest military American war 
decoration. Danish league formed in the United States to promote 
better understanding of war. Asked if Roosevelt is his friend, like 
he was his father's friend, Riis answers yes and tells of the ex- 
I'resident's sons in war. Says the United States now has one and 
quarter million soldiers in France and nest summer will have four 
million men over there, and Gen. March promises that with these 
troops he will be able to go through the German lines at any time. . 
We don't believe, we know that we shall win. The will to victory is 
strong and still growing in America. We feel this is the most un- 
selfish war the United States ever participated in ; more unselfish 
even than the war of 1776, birt' we are fighting for the same prin- 
ciplesv-life, happiness, and liberty, and for justice and humanity. 
We do not need to hide our purposes. There is nothing to hide. Presi- 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMA'xiUiV. 211 

dent AVilson is to-day placed alongside of Washington and Lincoln 
by the A-merican people, who have confidence in his leadership and 
will follow him everywhere, because his diplomatic wisdom shows he 
is the greatest man of his time. 

Questioned if America not satisfied with Denmark's neutral atti- 
tude, Rils says nobody Mdshes to drag Denmark into the war, but 
wants it to be neutral. He concludes with words of appreciation 
because his father's name is honored in Denmark and thanks for the 
welcome he himself has received. 

Dageus Nyheder, August 16 ; headline. "America and the World 
War — United States and Denmark — Jacob A.' Riis's Son Tells Dagens 
Nyheder About Holy War '" : 

After introductory remarks about Jacob A. Riis. Edward R-iis says 
in lntervie^^■ it was impression in the United States that you in Den- 
mark needed better information from America and about the Ameri- 
cans in war. To this end I have been sent here by the Comrnittee on 
Public Information. There is nothing secret or underhanded in my 
mission. You can read my instructions hei'e. I am no spy, but a 
man whose purpose is to get Danes and Americans to understand 
each other better. There is nothing but friendly feelings for Den- 
mark in America, and there ha,s been no change in this during the 
war. They think here that vve have been unduly strict in our embargo 
policy, but you must understand that we are in a struggle which for 
us means all and it can not be helped that also the small nations feel 
tliat. We did not go to war because we wanted war. When Presi- 
dent Wilson was reelected the Nation was not for war, but the feeling 
changed because of Germany's aggressive methods on the high seas 
and in regard to our munition plants and factories in the United 
States. W^e saw that we could not keep our self-respect and our 
liberty, and not the w^orld's respect either, if we did not go to war; 
not to crush Germany or to obtain material advantages, but to secure 
for the world's peoples liberty and peace for the future. It is Ger- 
man autocracy, not the German people, we are fighting, and we will 
not stop until the war is M^on. There are now a million and a half 
American soldiers in France. Next Christmas there will be two 
millions. In a year, four or five millions and, if necessary, we will 
send ten or fifteen millions over there. Strangers think it remarkable 
that ^^■e, of our people, composed of so many elemeJits, have been able 
to create such a unity. It surprised even ourselves. It was a miracle. 
I have seen regiments after regiments of men of cTift'erent nationalities, 
all united in one and the same will, all inspired by the same idea, 
the fight for freedom, for the people's liberty, for democracy. It has 
become a religion for Americans. The war is for them a holy war. 
The struggle is between the old feudalism, autocratic rule, and the 
people's right to self-determination. All American preparations are 
for five years' war, but I believe the war will be over long before that. 



212 ?s.y'3'flt committee on" public infoemation. 
Work in Russia — General Introduction. 

[By BlDGAR SissoNj General Director of Foreign Section, Committee on Public 

Information.] 

The work of the Committee on Public Information in 
Russia and Siberia was the most arduous of the accomplish- 
ments of the organization, owing to the difficulties of Russia's 
immense area, as well as those of revolution. 

Time will continue to show the importance of the whole 
achievement. 

The chief credit goes to Arthur Bullard, who gave more 
than a year and a half of his time to the directorship of the 
committee's Russian enterprise, making sacrifices of every 
kind, including health. 

The report that follows is set forth in sections, beginning 
with the account of installation, and continuing with the 
record of the succeeding work in Russia proper, and of the 
building up of the great plant in Siberia. 

A few weeks after my own departure from Russia in the 
spring of 1918, it became definitely clear to me that the pur- 
pose of the Germans and of the Russian Bolsheviks was to 
bring about an untenable situation in Russia for all officials 
and citizens of Entente countries. The purpose was to limit 
their freedom and their activities more and more, and finally 
to expel them. It was my hope that all countries would see 
this and get their nationals out of Russia before they should 
be thrown out humiliatingly. But at that time the interna- 
tional political world could not believe that this outcome was 
inevitable. 

I was sure, however, that within a few weeks it would 
be impossible to get material into European Russia. Ac- 
cordingly, I took the responsibility of ordering Mr. Bullard 
and his American group, save one man, to remove themselves 
from the Bolshevik area of Russia. 

Our chief office at Moscow, and even the office at Petrograd, 
remained open, the former in charge of Read Lewis, whose 
report is included, and the latter in charge of a Russian 
assistant. The Moscow office was finally raided and closed 
by the* Bolsheviks the first week in September, 1918. 

It was necessary to shift the organization as a whole to a 
place where it could have a dependable base of supplies. 



EEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 213 

Obviously, this place was Siberia, affording the opportunity 
for a sound and steady penetration along the line of the 
Siberian railroad as fast as order was restored along this 
railroad line. The eventual goal Avould be Moscow. 

This whole project of transfer was successfully carried 
out. Two men, Malcolm Davis and William Adams Brown, 
worked their way out through Siberia, and in the early 
summer had opened new offices at Harbin and Vladivostok. 

Meantime, Mr. Bullarcl, accompanied by Messrs. Bake- 
man, Glaman, and Tajdor, secured passage from Archangel 
to Halifax and about July 1 reached the United States. 
This nucleus was at once equipped for the remainder of the 
journey around the world. The additional staff included 
translators, teachers, moving-picture experts, and office help- 
ers. Seven hundred and fifty thousand feet of the best 
moving-picture film was sent, together with powered pro- 
jecting machines. Four weeks after he set foot on American 
soil, Mr. Bullard was sailing with the first contingent from 
a Pacific port. 

Mr. Malcolm Davis' report (included) tells the story of 
the Siberian expedition. 

When my forecast of the spring was proved by the forced 
flight of all allied nationalities from European Russia in 
the late summer, Read Lewis, of the Moscow office, on reach- 
ing safety in Sweden was at once ordered to go to Arch- 
angel and open an office there. 

Mr. Harry Inman was also sent direct from New York to 
Archangel with moving-picture film. 

Both Read Lewis and Harry Inman did notable service 
there throughout the winter of 1918 and 1919. 

From Paris the first Sunday in February, 1919, I cabled 
around the world demobilization orders for all offices of the 
committee, except those of New York, London, and Paris. 
The offices demobilized by that order were Copenhagen, 
Stockholm,- The Hague, Berne, Prague, Rome, Madrid, 
Buenos Aires, Santiago, Lima, Colon, Mexico City, Peking, 
Vladivostok, Harbin, Irkutsk, Omsk, and Archangel. 

To the Siberian and Russian offices the chief leeway in 
time was granted, but it was impossible to allow them to 
operate beyond March 15. The last members of the group 
did not reach the United States until late in June, 1919. 



214 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC IlSTFORMATIOlSr. 

Here is the roster of the Eussian-Siberian organization: 
Arthur Bullard, Guy Croswell Smith, Malcohn Davis, Read 
Lewis, George Bakeman, Otto Glaman, Graham Taylor, jr., 
Harry Inman, Boris Lebedeff, Dr. Joshua Eosett, Franklin 
Clarkin, Edwin Schoonmaker, Robert Winters, George 
Bothwell, Sid Evans, Prof. William Russell, William 
Adams Brown, jr., William Games, Lem A. Dever, Phil 
Norton, Dennis J. Haggerty, H. Y. Barnes, Edgar Sisson. 

Edgar Sisson. 

Work in Russia — The Installation. 

(With instructions to install the Committee on Public 
Information's service in Russia, Mr. Edgar G. Sisson left 
the United States on October 27, 1917, and arrived in Petro- 
grad November 25. His report follows:) 

The Bolshevik-Proletarian revolution had begun Novem- 
ber 7, and the city was still under the closest Red Guard 
military control. I was told by the Americans on the 
scene that there was no possibility of any open govern- 
mental activity. This did not seem logical to me, but it 
necessitated a careful preliminary survey. 

In a week's time I had convinced myself not only that 
it was possible to go ahead, but that the best way was to go 
ahead openly. This plan, however, required the use of the 
mechanical facilities wholly in the control of the Bolshevik 
Government — telegraph agencies, printing shops, and, to 
a lesser degree, distributing agencies. 

As an example of the chaotic condition of affairs, the 
Bolsheviki had suppressed all the existing and opposing 
Bourgeois newspapers, leaving for the chief publications 
in Petrograd their official newspapers, the Isvestia and the 
Pravcla. Such other newspapers as appeared were being 
obliged to change their names almost with each issue, so 
fast did the suppressions come. 

When I left the United States our cable service was sup- 
posed to be ready to begin to feed into the Rusian govern- 
mental distributing organization, the Petrograd Telegraph 
Agency, which in Russia corresponds to the Associated 
Press in the United States. The revolution, however, had 
broken the service. Efforts to replace it had been made by 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC IlSTPORMATIOIir. 215 

the use of the wireless station at Lyon, France, the receiving- 
station being at Moscow. The project failed because the 
Moscow station itself was almost immediately put out of 
commission. In Kussia we would not have known of the 
effort had not a few sentences of one garbled message been 
picked up a few days before inefficient operators (or in- 
tent) finally wrecked the instruments at the station. 

The first job, therefore, was to restore the cable service. 
This was done after an interchange of cables with Wash- 
ington, and after finding that the Petrograd Telegraph 
Agency desired to have and would use the cables. 

I called Arthur Bullard up from Moscow, where of his 
own initiative he had been acting as a volunteer in the 
consul's office in preparing a mail service for provincial 
papers, and made him the Director of the Russian News 
Division of the committee. I also commandeered Graham 
Taylor, jr., who had been engaged on work in the German 
prison camps in Eussia until we went to war, and put him 
in charge of the Petrograd office. This was done in order 
to enable Mr. Bullard to return to Moscow and organize an 
office there. 

We opened an office at 4 Gorokovaya for the receipt of 
cable messages, and put in a translating force. The mes- 
sages, as soon as translated, were fed into Petrograd Tele- 
graph Agency in Petrograd and theoretically were tele- 
graphed all over Eussia, as well as released to the Petrograd 
uewspapers. Such was the disorganization of the telegraph 
lines, however, that in practice we found it at once neces- 
sary to install a courier service to Moscow, and to make the 
lai'ger part of the national distribution from there. In both 
phices we also released direct as exigencies required. 

In Moscow each week we assembled the cable material in 
pamphlet form, added to it educational mail and article 
material and distributed the pamphlets to the provincial 
piess, and to organizations where we deemed it useful. 

We adopted for ourselves the Eussian name, Amerikansky 
Kiireau Pachata (the American Press Bureau), and at- 
'Mched a governmental symbol to indicate its official nature. 

l')oth the British and the French did 'their publicity work 
^'s ()rivate organizations, and it was a matter of interest to 



216 REPORT COMMITTEE OE^ PUBLIC IFFORMATIOH. 

j-i:-' i : 1 

me that the head of the French department came to me be- 
fore I left Petrograd and said that ours was the right way. 
The British organization, Cosmos, was raided and closed by 
the Bolsheviki the last week in December. The French 
never put out anything openly. We were not seriously inter- 
fered with throughout the winter. 

The middle of December found our news organization 
in operation. One of the first impressions I had got of 
Petrograd was of its billboard possibilities. Every street, 
including the Nevsky, was papered up and down with plac- 
ards and proclamations, mostly emanating from the Soviet. 
The first of President Wilson's Russian messages came in 
early December. As I feared, after reading it, the official 
newspapers refused to print it in full, and misused and mis- 
interpreted such parts as they did print. Other papers also 
used it insufficiently, so I made up my mind to put it on the 
billboard. I was advised this would be regarded as a chal- 
lenge by the Bolshevik Government, but this view did not 
appear reasonable to me. I went about the matter openly, 
gave the job of printing to the biggest Government printing 
establishment in Petrograd, a plant that would compare fa- 
vorably with all but a very few in the United States, and 
negotiated with a billposter agency to put up the message. 
The bill-posting man was the only person to show any fear 
of the outcome, but he heeded the business and decided to 
take a chance. He played " safety first," and hired soldiers 
to do the posting. The result was that 50,000 copies of the 
President's message were posted one morning throughout 
Petrograd without any hindrance whatever. This posting 
was followed by a street hand distribution of 300,000 copies^ 
in the street cars, in the theaters, hotels, stores, and to the 
street crowds. 

Similar plans were started in Moscow, but rioting broke 
out and prevented success. The third process of printing, 
the turning of the speech to pamphlet use, was done at 
Moscow. 

The experience on this message enabled us to do the big 
job on the President's message of January 8 with its state- 
ment of terms of any possible peace. We had learned the 
machinery. The January 8 speech began to reach us January 



REPORT COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC INFORMATION. 217 

10, but did not come complete mitil January 11. It was used 
in full in the Isvestia, the direct organ of the Soviets. This 
in itself gave a complete all-Russia circulation among the 
Soviets. There was liberal use of the message ift nearly all 
of the newspapers. 

The Petrograd posters were up January 13. The street 
distribution, again of 300,000, followed a few days later. 
The Moscow distribution was done almost simultaneously. 

On this message German distribution was essential. One 
million copies were printed in German. Of this quantity 
300,000 were put across the northern line into the German 
line, and 200,000 similarly at the central and the southern 
front. A half million went to German prison camps in 
Russia, for the reason that these prisoners were expected 
soon to return to Germany. 

The German distribution was done by an organization of 
soldiers through the help of Jerome Davis, of the Young 
Men's Christian Association, who had used them for package 
distribution. The Young Men's Christian Association as a 
body had nothing to do with the work. This soldiers' or- 
ganization was later made a part of our own machinery, and 
was used with high effectiveness in the distribution of Ger- 
man and Hungarian versions of President Wilson's speech 
of February 11. It worked along the line of the German 
advance into Russia, and fulfilled its instructions to scatter 
the messages in territory about to be occupied by the Ger- 
man Army. The head of this organization was B. Morgen- 
stern. 

The details of the distribution of the message of January 
8 will show the general method : 

President Wilson's Message of January S, 1918. 

Petrograd : 

Russian posters printed, posted np along streets 100, 000 

Russian handbills printed — 

Distributed to theaters, etc 300, 000 

To Davis-Morgenstern for Russian soldier line 600, 000 

German handbills printed ^ 1, 000, 000 



2, 000, 000 



218 REPOET COMMITTEE 01^ PUBLIC IFPORMATION. 

Fiom Petrograd : 

Text telegraphed to — 

Chita : Representative of International Harvester 

Co., from vphom no word has come. 
Omsk : Gray, of International Harvester Co., who 

reported that he was pushing distribution. 
Ekaterinburg : Palmer, of International Harvester 

Co., who reported that local situation prevented 

an immediate start, but that now the work was 

progressing well to distribute 10,000 posters and 

150,000 handbills ■100,000 

Kiev : To Jenkins, American consul ; text in Uk- 

ranian ; letter from Jenkins said he planned to 

distribute 50,000. 
American consul at Vladivostok reported that he received uK^ssjigt; 

by direct cable from United States. 
Moscow : 

Posters printed — 

Pasted up along streets 45, 000 

Pasted up in rooms of house committees 20,000 

Sent to Voronesch 1, 000 

Handbills printed — 

Gonetz to theaters, etc . 235, 000 

Young Men's Christian Association 286, 000 

To Voronesch 10, 000 

To Lubertzi (International Harvester) 2,000 

To town in Tamboff 1,000 

Factories within 150 versts . 300, 000 

Manufacturers' Association for its 30 branches in 

Russia 18, 000 

All-Russian Trade and Industry Association for 

its 450 branches in Russia 45, 000 

To^ 700 cooperatives in Russia 150, 000 

To 2 individual soldiers who wanted them for 

their regiments ^ 2, 000 

Muir and Mirriles • 1,000 

Committee of escaped prisoners 

To Kharkoft 50,000 

To houses throughout Moscow, distributed by the 

Society of Municipal Employees 125,000 

I»aniplilets printed, in bulletin No. 3 12,000 

Total 3, 403, 000 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC USTFOEMATION. 219 

From Moscow : 

Text sent with order to print and distribute to — 
American consul at Odessa. 
American consul at Tiflis. 
American consul at Kiev. 
American consul at Rostov for— 
Rostov. 
Taganrog. 
Novocherkassk, and district north of the Caucasus. 

Had the Germans entered Petrograd in late February they 
would have been greeted by posters in German, both of the 
President's messages of January 8 and February 11. One 
hundred thousand copies of the former were run the middle 
of February to provide for this contingency. 

In the last week in February we encountered our first 
definite Bolshevik stoppage. The colored cartoon poster, 
showing the arm of German force stabbing the people's 
hand, and tramping upon the people's banner of liberty, 
was confiscated on the press by order of the Bolshevik Gov- 
ernment. 

Why? 

Smolny laughed at us when we asked it. 

We asked in order to see whether Smolny would laugh. . 

The News Division moved into larger quarters on the 
Nevsky the last week in February, the week that saw the 
exit from Petrograd of the embassies, consulates, and the 
missions, including the American Embassy, the American 
consul, the American Military Mission, and the American 
Red Cross. The change had been planned for weeks earlier. 
We concluded to be found going ahead until we could go no 
farther. So large American flags were draped across the 
windows, and the division moved in. 

The Film Division headquarters were on the Kazansky, 
half a block from the Nevsky, facing the cathedral. It was 
in charge of Guy Croswell Smith as director. The machine 
stood ready to receive new films by January 1. The failure 
of Hart, of the Young Men's Christian Association, to bring 
through a quarter of million feet of film intended for us 
kept us from saturating Russia with American films in the 
early winter. The second allotment of films given into the 
custody of Bernstein had reached Stockholm when the Fin- 



220 REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC IKEORMATION. 

nisli Revolution of the last days of Janiiarj^ closed the gates 
into Russia. No couriers came into Petrograd after Feb- 
ruary 1. 

Smith and I found both the Hart and the Bernstein films 
still in Scandinavia in April. 

With such films as he had — the Uncle Sam Immigrant 
film and the Presidential Procession in Washington — Smith 
did fine work. The Uncle Sam Immigrant film was put out 
with a camouflage title "All for Peace." The finished title 
would have read "All for Peace Through War," but we left 
it to the audiences to find that out for themselves. The big- 
gest moving-picture theater in Petrograd ran both films, and 
they fed rapidly throughout the whole of Russia. We traced 
them from the Arctic Ocean to the Black Sea and far into 
Siberia. 

I arranged for an option on a Petrograd theater, and the 
purpose was to lease similarly in Moscow and after a run 
for advertising purposes, to turn the films into trade chan- 
nels, to add incentive to circulation. It is the method to use 
in Russia and, in general, nearly everywhere. 

In my opinion, the best individual work done in Russia 
for the United States was that of Arthur Bullard in writing 
the pamphlet " Letters to a Russian Friend," an interpreta- 
tion of the highest order of America. We published it in 
Russian as a Red, White, and Blue book. Three hundred 
thousand copies were distributed. 

The Moscow office continued the distribution of the Jan- 
uary and February messages in the remote sections of Russia 
after March 1. The total distribution, including the Hun- 
garian and German text, was more than four million. Three 
hundred thousand handbills containing both messages were 
distributed ahead of the German advance in Ukraine. The 
President's Baltimore speech was printed in Irkutsk, Omsk, 
Samara, Petrograd, Moscow, and Ekaterinburg. 

An American Bulletin was issued weekly. By issue No. 6, 
the Bulletin had reached a circulation of 40,000 in all parts 
of Russia. It went to all newspapers, zemstvos, schools, 
Soviets, commercial and manufacturing associations, and 
universities. It was also sent to 10,000 cooperative societies 
which form the backbone of the practical liberal element. 

Edgar Sisson. 



eeport committee on public information. 221 
Work in Kussia — Summer of 1918. 

[Report of Read Lewis.] 

Stockholm, Seftemher 2Ii-^ 1918. 
Mr. Edgar G. Sisson, 

Director Division of Foreign Work., 

G omifnittee on Public Information.^ W ashing ton .^ D. G. 
In accordance with your instructions, I returned from 
Archangel to Moscow June 30. From then until August 26, 
when I started for Stockholm, I had charge of the Compub 
work centering in Moscow and Petrograd. During these 
two months I was busy in building up and revitalizing the 
organization which we had left on May 4 and in extending 
the work. Despite the absence of American associates, our 
inability to communicate with the outside world, and the 
entire failure of news cables and publicity material to reach 
us, as well as the handicap of an acute political crisis 
threatening daily the future of the work, we were able to 
reach a steadily increasing public. After the consulate gen- 
eral on August 5 placed American interests under the pro- 
tection of the Swedes, it seemed more than ever important 
to continue Compub as the only agency which remained to 
express President Wilson's affirmed policy of friendship and 
helpful cooperation with the Eussian people. There was 
need for even more vigorous effort by us to offset the 
assiduous anti- American German propaganda, and to inter- 
pret in democratic fashion the Entente policy at Archangel 
and in Siberia. As long as the work was permitted by the 
Soviet Government, I believed it should be carried on. The 
possibility that Americans might be held as hostages seemed 
to me no reason for withdrawal. On the western front the 
chance that a soldier may be taken prisoner has never been a 
reason for keeping him from the fight. It was accordingly 
under protest that I left Moscow with the consulate staff. 
I left Moscow reluctantly, but with the hope that if the 
wor]^ could be continued I should receive authority to return. 
Following my arrival in Stockholm, however, I learned by 
cable through the Swedish consulate general at Moscow, as 
I have already cabled you, that on September 2, a week fol- 
lowing my departure, the Soviet had closed our offices and 
that the work was being liquidated. 



222 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION". 

During July and August the principal work of the Russian 
Press Division was the publication and distribution of the 
American Bulletin. This 16-page pamphlet, designed for 
the general reading public, was issued weekly and distributed 
free of charge to a mailing list of 40,000 names. Its cost, in- 
cluding printing and paper, was 10 kopecks, or 1 cent, al a 
cost (according to the second-class mailing rates first ob- 
tained in August) of only 7 kopecks per month for each sub- 
scriber. The Bulletin contained the cable news dispatches, 
so long as they were received, and articles and paragraphs 
descriptive of the different phases of American life. The 
Bulletin mailing list included all newspapers and publica- 
tions, 800 cooperative unions and their more than 10,000 con- 
stituent societies, thousands of schools and libraries, all the 
Soviet and Government institutions of the country, trade- 
unions, teachers' associations, the old zemstvos, commercial 
and manufacturing associations, many business houses and 
individuals. The building up of this mailing list was a 
matter of continuous and careful work. Our attempt was to 
reach not only the sources of public opinion but at least some 
part of the people themselves. Lists of their cooperative 
societies, representing in their membership the great substan- 
tial and forward-looking masses of the Russian people, had 
in response to our letters been sent- us by the cooperative 
unions. In response to letters to the educational divisions of 
provincial and district governments we had secured lists of 
local schools, people's houses, libraries, etc. Every mail 
brought many letters from persons and organizations v^^ho 
had seen the Bulletin and asked to be placed on our mailing 
list. Not a day went by without at least one letter from a 
provincial Soviet, or one of its departments, expressing in- 
terest in our work, forwarding names of local organizations, 
and requesting sometimes as many as 50 copies of each issue 
for its use. Thus despite the territory impossible to reach on 
account of civil war, we were distributing 50,000 copies of 
each issue of the Bulletin. 

In addition to the American Bulletin the bureau also issued 
during the summer a translation of " How the War Came to 
America," and a pamphlet collecting several of the speeches 
of President Wilson, principally those of January 8 on terms 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 223 

of general peace, of February 11 repljdng to the Central 
Powers, and of April T at Baltimore. Of each of these two 
pamphlets 100,000 copies had been printed and were being 
distributed. We continued to print and distribute the very 
successful " Letters of an American Friend." Of this 400,000 
copies had been printed and distributed and a new order was 
on the press. It is interesting to note that these letters were 
reprinted in full by one of the Astrakhan newspapers, and 
the inability to report similar instances may be due to the 
very few provincial papers it was possible to obtain. In the 
form of leaflets we issued and distributed 100,000 copies of 
both the President's Eed Cross speech of May 18 in New 
York, and his speech of June 11 to the Mexican editors. To 
the earlier speeches more general distribution had already 
been given. Four million copies, indeed, of the speech of 
January 8 were distributed throughout the country and at 
the front. Copies of it for posting had been sent to all rail- 
road stations in Russia. In default of a greater variety of 
literature for general distribution we printed of the last sev- 
eral issues of the Bulletin a second 50,000 for distribution 
outside of its regular mailing list. To pampMets like " Let- 
ters of an American Friend " and the speeches of President 
Wilson, the bureau aimed to give a far more general dis- 
tribution than to the weekly bulletin. Copies of such 
pamphlets were of course sent to the Bulletin mailing list. 
In addition the bureau maintained a staff of 11 couriers and 
messengers for the work of distribution. Two, foi; example, 
devoted their entire time to daily distribution at the railroad 
stations in Moscow ; two more to distribution at the factories 
and cooperative societies in the Moscow district. A special 
effort was made to reach personally with our literature each 
of the many congresses and conferences held in Moscow (and 
even in some of the provincial cities) with their delegates 
from different parts of the country. To these meetings and 
conventions our messengers carried subscription lists and in 
this way were able to add to the Bulletin mailing list. The 
rest of our courier staff, were employed in making regular 
trips to the Provinces. The complete breakdown of the 
transportation system in Russia made it essential, if we were 
consistently to reach the provincial cities and districts with 
our literature, that we should have our own system of dis- 



224 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATION. 

tribution. The trips for our provincial messengers were 
carefully planned, each man being given a list of the organi- 
zations, factories, persons, etc., to which he was to distribute 
literature in the several cities which he was to visit. Nearly 
all men engaged in this department of our work were mem- 
bers of the Society of Escaped Prisoners; that is, they had 
been common soldiers in the Russian Army and subsequently 
prisoners in Germany, from which they had escaped. No 
little part of the success of the distribution work was due 
to their loyal interest in it and their ingenuity in dealing 
with the difficulties of transportation and the obstacles in the 
way of opposition from some local authority with which they 
had frequently to contend. The bureau was also arranging 
at important points on the Volga like Nizhni j -No vgerod and 
Saratov to have a regular employee who would distribute bits 
of literature on all boats stopping at the port. 

Through its department of distribution the bureau had 
thus distributed, during the month from July 15 to August 
15, 10,112 pieces of literature at congresses and conventions; 
51,600 at railroad stations in Moscow; 55,951 at factories, to 
works' committees and trade-unions; 38,007 to cooperative 
societies and shops in Moscow and vicinity ; and 167,950 in 
the Provinces by the bureau's couriers. This, in addition to 
a small miscellaneous distribution at the offices of the com- 
mittee in Petrogracl and Moscow and in addition to the dis- 
tribution of the Bulletin by post, made the total distribution 
for the month 479,333. 

It is obvious, of course, that if we could have supplied to 
arid had published by the Eussian newspapers the same or 
jnaterial equivalent to that which we ourselves printed and 
distributed, we should have employed a far more economical 
and extensive method of publication and distribution. The 
publication of our own pamphlets, and especially of our 
weekly paper, however, seemed essential, not only because 
of the utter demoralization of the Russian press, but as a 
concrete evidence and expression of America's policy of 
friendship and helpful cooperation with the Russian people. 
Following the assassination of Ambassador Mirbach early 
in July all of the bourgeois press were permanently closed, 
and until I left Moscow none but a few Bolshevik newspapers 
appeared. The same condition was true in the provincial 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 225 

cities except for a few left S. E. papers. The editorial of- 
fices of these papers, particularly in Moscow and Petrograd, 
were definitely unfriendly to America. 

The bureau, on the other hand, not only was without the 
American staff but entirely lacked the material which would 
have enabled it to furnish these Bolshevik papers with news 
and a special press service which, I am convinced, would in 
large part have overcome their hostility and intolerance. On 
the contrary we were cut off from communication and most 
of the material needful to counteract the anti-Aiiierican Ger- 
man propaganda in the Russian press. Following the non- 
receipt of our own cable dispatches, much of the American 
neAvs in the press showed unmistakable evidence of having 
been made in German3\ Most of it was cleverly selected in 
order at the same time to appeal to the particular sympathies 
and prejudices of the Bolsheviks and to discredit America. 
As an example of the chief American news items published 
widely throughout the country I may cite stories of Negroes 
hung in Iowa, a cage for cowards in Alabama, the sentence 
of Lochner, a reported scandal in the Quartermaster's De- 
partment of the Army over supplies and contracts, ammuni- 
tion explosions in Syracuse, the persecution and judicial bru- 
tality exhibited toward Socialists and pacifists, the occupa- 
tion of two towns in Panama by American troops, the story 
that the French were dissatisfied because one-half of the 
American troops in France were Negroes, a Socialist in 
Washington sentenced to 10 years because he had in his room 
a placard " Don't be a soldier, be a man," etc. 

This shows the supreme importance of the communication 
to Eussia by us of American news. But from early in July 
we were cut off from all cable and telegraphic communica- 
tion with the outside world. The last Compub cable received 
was No. 10144, of July 2, describing the preparations for 
Independence Day. Subsequent Compub cables up to 10183 
were dispatched but none of them except for 10155 were ever 
received. Although I tried to send you word of our situa- 
tion, first through Archangel and later via Petrograd and 
Stockholm, I presume my cables never reached you. One 
indeed sent by neutral courier early in August has overtaken 
me in Stockholm. While we were thus without cable news, 

121033—20 15 



226 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

we also lacked, the necessary general material. Our latest 
American newspapers dated from December and January. 
Since the first 400 numbers of the Foreign Press Bureau's 
service we had received none of its material except for two 
installments early in July, one dating from December and 
the other the first week of April. These proved of great 
assistance but were speedily exhausted. After the Compub 
cables stopped the contents of the Bulletin was limited to 
general informative articles about America, its life and war 
activities, and to such news notes as I could get from the 
few English and French papers at hand. Nearly all of this 
material had to be personally prepared by me. 

While our work with the newspapers was thus actually so 
limited, I was convinced of the supreme importance of estab- 
lishing a special and exclusive service for the newspapers 
quite apart from the Bulletin, and to this end preparatory 
work was carried on. We had thus in practically all the 
20-odd Governments with which it was possible to commu- 
nicate secured a local correspondent. This was some person 
who was known to us or who had expressed his wish to help 
in the work and who as a result of correspondence seemed 
suitable. These agents were employed at nominal salaries. 
It was their duty to send us the names and addresses of all 
newspapers in their Government or district, to keep us in- 
formed of the local newspaper situation, to supply us with 
clippings showing the attitude of these papers toward 
Ameiica and their use of our material, and to send us names 
of local persons and institutions for the Bulletin mailing 
list. We thus tried to keep on hand ready for use an up-to- 
date list of Russian newspapers. If the cables had started to 
come through again it had been my intention to send them 
either by post or artel to each of these newspapers, forward- 
ing them sufficiently in advance of their release in Moscow 
so that they would reach the provincial cities ahead of the 
Moscow papers publishing them. I planned also to send out 
semiweekly as soon as the necessary material could be accu- 
mulated to start the service, two or three galley sheets con- 
taining notes, articles and paragraphs and fillers suitable for 
reprinting by the newspapers. 

Concerning the A, B^ C book, the primai y^ book which the 
committee had planned to issue and distribute as a gift from 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 227 

American to Eussian school children, 3,000 advance copies 
were printed. A meeting of educational experts representing 
the leading teachers and educational organizations was held 
under the bureau's auspices and a plan worked out for the 
most effective method of distribution. These advance copies 
were never sent out for two reasons. First, there was delay 
due to the necessity of obtaining the consent of the authors 
to the substitution of the old by the new spelling in the final 
edition, a change which was judged expedient in view of the 
attitude of the Government. In the second place as the cost 
of the A, B, C book would have been 120,000 rubles per 
100,000 copies, I hesitated with limited funds at hand and the 
xlifficulties of communication and obtaining more funds, to 
use the money which might be needed for more general 
propaganda. 

Up to the time of my departure from Moscow August 28, 
there had been no interference by the Soviet authorities with 
our work.^ All publications had to be licensed by the com- 
missar of the press, but all permissions for printing and dis- 
tribution which we asked for, had been granted. 

There was, however, in the face of the threatening atti- 
tude of the Entente in Siberia and Archangel toward the 
Soviet Government, indications that our work might be re- 
garded as hostile propaganda. In the latter part of August 
various articles appeared in the Moscow press calling atten- 
tion to the propaganda character of our work. There were 
also one or two fantastic tales published ia a paper unmis- 
takably German in its ownership suggesting that our em- 
ployees were engaged in our offices in making bombs and 
explosives. The commissar of education had before my de- 
parture communicated with the university where we had our 
offices since April on the question of our removal and we had 
been trying to find and move to new quarters. The com- 
missar's position that as the university was supported by 
Government funds the presence of the press bureau of a 
foreign Government .was improper, although we had been 
invited by the university management, seemed an entirely 
correct one, and did not in itself, I believe, indicate any 
animus against us. In regard to the events humediately lead- 

^ The office was raided and closed by the Bolsheviks Sept. 6. 



228 EEPORT COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC INFORMATIOlSr. 

ing up to the closing of our work by the Soviet and that 
event itself, I have received no information except that the 
work of liquidation has been moved from the university to 
our original offices opposite the consulate general. 

When I left Moscow I placed Mr. Lebedev in charge of 
the work under instructions to continue it. In the event 
that the work should be stopped Mr. Lebedev was under 
instruction to retain such help as he required to complete 
and place our accounts in proper shape, to put our files in 
order, and to have our mailing list ready for future use, but 
to pay off all our other employees with two months' salary 
in advance in accordance with the Russian custom. I have 
since sent word to Mr. Lebedev that if possible he and two 
other of our Russian staff in Moscow should, if they could 
secure the necessary passports, proceed to Stockholm in order 
that they might join me in Archangel. It seemed likely 
that under present conditions I would otherwise be unable 
to obtain the . experienced and competent Russian help in 
Archangel so essential to the success of our work. In regard 
to the PetrogTad office I have sent instructions that it should 
be given up and our property stored in the embassy. During 
the summer the Petrograd office served only as a distributing 
point, with a staff limited to Mr. Younger and a couple of 
messengers. It was my wish to organize there a local dis- 
tribution service similar to that which we had in Moscow, 
but the urgency of the political situation was such as to 
prevent me from going to Petrograd to accomplish it. 

All through July and part of August while the Russian 
press was fuming at Anglo-French imperialists, never a 
word was said about America, although it was well known 
that we w^ere also parties with England and France to the 
treaty with the Murmansk Soviet. The different attitude 
which the Russian newspapers and Government have taken 
toward America, as distinguished from the other Allies, has 
been due not only to what America is, but also, I believe, to 
our propaganda, and the efforts we have made to make 
America understood. It has been clue to the fact that our 
propaganda was distinguished from that of the English and 
French, has aimed at reaching the broad masses of the Rus- 
sian people. We have tried to make friends with the people 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORM ATIOK. 229 

themselves. That we have at least in a small measure suc- 
ceeded is attested by many letters of appreciation received 
from simple people, often from scarcely literate peasants 
and working-men. I quote the following foreword to several 
pamphlets we were preparing to issue when I left Moscow, 
as showing the spirit not only in which I tried to carry on 
the work, but also in which I believe it must be carried on to 
be permanently successful. 

This little pamphlet is printed and given to you by the Government 
of the United States of America. You may well ask v^^hy it should take 
the trouble to go halfway around the world to give it to you, a citizen 
of the new Russia. 

The Government of the United States of America, which is only 
another word for the people of America, believe in democracy, in gov- 
ernment by and for the great masses of the people. It believes that 
only when such government exists everywhere will its own democracy, 
and democracy throughout the world, be safe. So at a time when 
you are forming the institutions of the new Russia, it wishes to extend 
"to you the hand of good-will, and to bear witness to its faith in 
democracy. It wants you to believe in democracy, in making and 
keeping democracy for Russia. 

Probably you already do. Perhaps, further, you think that the 
Government and people of the United States, who are even now 
speaking to you, are undemocratic, imperialistic, and hostile to the 
ideals of equal opportunity, industrial democracy, and international- 
ism, which stir so much of Russia to-day. We see, indeed, the faults 
• of our democracy, the many places where we have failed, but in our 
hearts we believe- in those ideals, and we know that we are struggling 
toward them. Because we are fighting for them we believe that they 
are the most real thing about us. 

Even now we are engaged in a great war, not one of enmity to 
any people, not to gain any material thing, but to bring nearer the 
realization of those ideals. We do not see how there can be any 
guarantee of political, let alone industrial, democracy, any lives of 
free and equal opportunity, any brotherhood of mankind in a world 
where one government seeks to dominate other nations and refuses 
to acknowledge the right of other peoples to self-determination. 

But whether or not you agree with us about the war as a necessary 
step toward their realization, we want to work together with you for 
those ultimate ideals of equal opportunity for all, industrial democ- 
racy, and internationalism. Hoav can we work together if we do not 
believe in each other's good faith? How can we trust each other if 
we do not know each other? So the purpose of the following pages is 
to tell you a little about ourselves— to show you that we are working 
with the same problems, striving toward the same goals as yourselves. 
The solidarity of mankind can be built not out of wishing, but only 
out of actual friendships. By helping to establish a common under- 



230 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

standing between us we want to lay the basis for sucli a friendship 
and mutual helpfulness between the peoples of Russia and America — ■ 
a friendship that will be one of the bulwarks of that future world 
of peace and liberty in which we both believe. 

If you are interested in reading more about America than is con- 
tained in the following pages, in which we print some articles already 
published in the American Bulletin, please write to the Amerikansky 
Bureau Petchate and it will be glad to send you the future issues of 
the Bulletin and its other literature. 

Respectfully, yours, 

Read Lewis. 

Work in Russia — Siberian Activities. 

[Beport of Malcolm Davis to Arthue Bullaed, Russian Director.] 
INTRODUCTORY, 

This rej)ort on the Siberian activities of the Russian 
Division of the Committee on Public Information must 
necessarily be a report on a work not developed to its full 
possibility because of the necessity of liquidation. The 
main work really began only in August and September, 
when the opening up of the Siberian railroad line by the 
Czecho-Slovaks made it possible to develop a campaign of 
public information in what had been Bolshevik Siberia. 
The orders for demobilization inevitably following the end 
of the war came in the middle of February, when the organ- 
ization had been under way about six months and when it 
was just reaching full effectiveness in the telling distribu- 
tion of its information material, and the results were just 
beginning to show. 

All the staff recognized the inevitability of the ending of 
the work and understood the reasons for it; yet there was 
not a member of the organization who did not feel that it 
came at a most unfortunate time, considered from the point 
of view of Siberia and of Russian relationship generally. 
Other nations were developing energetic propaganda cam- 
paigns; and the American engineers were finally taking up 
the task of railroad reorganization and the American Red 
Cross extending its relief activities. These considerations, 
together with the fact that it was a critical time in the 
discussion of Russian- Allied relations, made the withdrawal 
of the American Information Bureau regrettable. That 



KEPOKT COMMITTEE ON" PUBLIC HsTFOKMATION. 231 

this was not merely the feeling of men engaged in the work, 
but that it was a view shared by impartial representatives 
of the Government of the United States of America as well 
as by Russians and by representatives of some of the other 
Allies, is evidenced by the messages to Washington of Am- 
bassador Morris, who was in Vladivostok on a special mis- 
sion from Tokio, from Consul General Harris and all his 
consular staff, by the telegram of Motosada Zumoto, head of 
. the Japanese Information Bureau, and by letters from Rus- 
sians, all urging the continuance of the work, if possible. 

Report On Spring Campaign In 1918. 

This next section will cover the period from arrival in 
Omsk, on the assignment given in Moscow in March, 1918, 
by the director, Arthur Bullard, to William Adams Brown, 
jr., and myself, to canvass the field for an American cam- 
paign of public information in Siberia and to begin the de- 
velopment of a Siberian Department, reporting later to 
Moscow. We were to visit Omsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, 
Chita, Harbin, and Vladivostok, to find, if possible, suitable 
Russian representatives in each of the places where we 
stopped, who could be relied upon to receive telegraph news 
and printed literature, push the circulation of both in his 
district, and keep the central office informed upon condi- 
tions in his district affecting our work and upon needs for 
specially adapted material. 

It is unnecessary now to go into the matter of the senti- 
ment of the individual newspaper editors. It will suffice to 
say that we found the press under the strict control of the 
Bolshevik regime. No papers with a political color were be- 
ing published in any town visited except the official Bolshe- 
vik organ and one or two others of the jnost radical Socialist 
revolutionary tendencies. In general, there was less free- 
dom for the press in Siberia under the Bolshevik regime 
than in Petrograd and Moscow under the same regime. The 
separate peace had just been concluded between the German 
Government and the "Russian Federated Socialistic Soviet 
Republic." 

We proceeded on the same policy which had won a meas- 
ure of success in Moscow and Petrograd, since we were 



232 REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. . 

under orders to attempt to continue publicity in Bolshevik 
Eussia and Siberia. It had been decided not to attack Bol- 
shevism or discuss political questions in Russia directly, and 
to get across as much information as possible about the prin- 
ciples of democratic government, the aims of America and 
the Allies, the war organization of America and the grow- 
ing supremac}^ of the Allied arms, the actions of the German 
Government, in Russia and other occupied territories and 
spheres of influence, and as much general news and special 
article material as possible about political and social condi- 
tions and ideas in the United States. This work was re- 
garded as tending to strengthen every sane democratic move- 
ment existing in the country, to give information that might 
serve as a basis for working out new problems of government 
in the country, and to create as much of friendly feeling and 
understanding as possible among the common people in 
Russia. 

We met with varying attitudes on the part of the editors 
and of the leaders of the " Soviets " or " Councils " which 
were in charge of affairs everywhere. While frankly antag- 
onistic to America as a " capitalists' country," they had no 
objection to our carrying on a campaign of information so 
long as they were sure they knew what we were doing and 
that we were not doing anything directly against Bolshe- 
vist organization. 

Siberians were engrossed in their own political difficulties, 
and Siuj question of renewing a war on the western front was 
out of their minds. We found that we could use material 
on general social and political institutions and on agricul- 
ture in America to best advantage, getting in occasionally 
some information showing the growing war strength of 
America and the increasing certainty of the defeat of the 
Central Powers. 

Posters. — We had at this time the war anniversary speech 
of President Wilson, and this we had printed as a wall 
poster, in 50,000 copies, for posting in and around Omsk 
and for mail distribution. The circulation was carried out, 
after our departure, by a Russian assistant whom we en- 
gaged, under the supervision of American Consul Thomson. 
An additional 10,000 copies of this poster were later sent to 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 233 

Vice Consul Thomas in Krasnoyarsk for display and dis- 
tribution there. We also arranged at once for the distribu- 
tion of about 15,000 copies each of Mr. Bullard's pamphlet 
" Letters of an American Friend," which had been very suc- 
cessful, and also of the weekly American Bulletin from the 
Moscow office. 

Going on to Krasnoyarsk, we stayed long enough to form 
an impression of all the editors and Soviet leaders there, 
and to engage a local Russian representative, who was to 
work in contact with the American vice consul. We also 
arranged for the circulation of material through the co- 
operative unions; and for the regular forwarding of tele- 
graphic news and printed literature from the central offices 
in Moscow. There was a considerable interest in the pos- 
sibility of receiving American motion pictures at Kras- 
noyarsk, on which we reported, and which we intended to 
satisfy upon receipt, of equipment at Vladivostok. 

^In Irkutsk we had from the start the cordial cooperation 
of the American Consul MacGowan, whose advice and as- 
sistance greatly facilitated the work. We had hardly got 
fairly started on the printing and distribution of the 50,000 
copies of the war anniversary speech, however, when the 
work was cut short by formal instructions from Washington, 
via Moscow, to leave the field. 

Since the Easter holidays were at hand, offering the best 
sort of opportunity for getting attention for the President's 
address, we decided to stay long enough to make effective use 
of the 25.000 copies which had already been run off the 
presses. We arranged through a local distributing agency 
to have these put up all over town just at the holiday time, 
and also to have them distributed among the crowds who 
gathered in the central square for the games held in celebra- 
tion of the holidays after Easter. About 6,000 copies were 
also sent to Chita to American Consul Jenkins for circula- 
tion in Chita and the Trans-Baikal region. 

In connection with the distribution of this speech there 
was an incident which illustrates the conditions under which 
work of this sort was done in Siberia, at that time, and the 
attitude which often had to be met on the part of the Bol- 
shevik officials in control. In order to circulate copies of 



234 EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC I]SrFORMATIO]Sr. 

this address of the President at all, we had to get the offi- 
cial permission of the Irkutsk commissars who were deter- 
mining entirely what should be published m the city at the 
time. We went to call on Yanson, the commissar for foreign 
affairs of the Siberian administration, which was located in 
Irkutsk. He was at first absolutely opposed to publication of 
anything representing an American or Allied point of view. 
" You know," said the commissar, " we regard all estab- 
lished governments with antagonism, for we aim at a world- 
wide revolution which will overthrow the power of the capi- 
talists everywhere." 

" Do you mean," asked we, " that you recognize no differ- 
ence between such a Government as the Government of the 
United States of America and the Prussian military govern- 
ment of Germany" ? 

"Absolutely none," replied the commissar. "America is 
one financial imperialism and Germany is another. Both 
systematically exploit the working class and the people. So 
far as we are concerned they are one and the same; and we 
are against them both ! " 

We pointed out to him that the address which we pro- 
posed to publish and to circulate in and around Irkutsk 
was an official utterance of the Chief Executive of our Na- 
tion, that it represented the point of view of the Government 
of one of the great powers both with regard to the issues 
of the war in general and with regard to Russia, and that 
as such it should be published as news, not as propaganda. 
We got the necessary rubber-stamped permission to circulate 
the copies of the address on the strength of this argument, 
and proceeded to plaster the town with copies of the ad- 
dress. 

Populm^ interest. — It is essential to state that in the 
course of doing the work in Siberia we got constant evidence 
of friendly feeling for America and confidence in her in- 
tentions on the part of the common people not allied with 
the Bolsheviks. These people were completely suppressed 
for the time being, however, and they could not make their 
point of view effective, since the Bolsheviks had all the guns. 
They did take our material and circulate it. We got such 
expressions of feeling from the railroad men along the 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATIOK. 235 

Trans-Siberian line, and from the students, members of pro- 
fessional unions, and cooperative society . workers in cities 
where we stopped. This feeling was also evidenced m an 
incident which occurred after we left Irkutsk. We had 
left all our printed material and special article material 
with the American consul, asking him to give it as much 
circulation as possible since we were ordered out of the 
region. He gave the material to a representative of an 
American firm in Irkutsk. There the material was dis- 
played on a counter, and in a very short time it was all 
gone. The consul afterwards related to us how people 
would come in and ask for copies and also for permission 
to circulate them among their friends. Representatives of 
the railroad workers' unions also came in and asked for per- 
mission to reprint at their own cost some of the material 
about America, for distribution among their members. This 
they actually did; and reported a wide interest m the 

propaganda. c-u • 

We next turned to the question of getting out of Siberia. 
At the time there was some question as to the possibility of 
passage to Vladivostok around by the Amur Railway line, 
inasmuch as the Semeonov fighting with the Bolsheviks was. 
very close to the line. The line to Harbin was absolutely 
closed. Furthermore, the Allied consuls were forbidden at 
the time the right to telegraph to their Governments any 
reports in cipher code. There was a convenient Chinese 
telegraph station at the border point of Maimatchin, near 
Kiatkhta, about three days' travel by train and then by boat 
up the Selenga River from Verkhne-Udinsk. We, there- 
fore, decided to go that way and to slip across the border and 
send, for a representative of the British consulate who was 
in Irkutsk at the time, a code message to Pekin which he 
was very anxious to get out. Then we were to drive through 
Mongolia and across the Gobi Desert to Peking, taking offi- 
cial mail from the American consul to the American Em- 
bassy and from the British consul to the British Embassy at 
Peking. Following out this plan, we reached Peking on 
May 31, having crossed the desert in Ford automobiles run- 
ning on the caravan route. 



236 EEPOET COMMITTEE OW PUBLIC HSTFOEMATION. 

Harbin Work. 

Upon arrival in Peking, we cabled to Washington, expect- 
ing to I'eturn to America. We got instructions, however, to 
proceed to Harbin, Manchuria, on the line of the Chinese 
Eastern Eailway, managed by a Russian directorate and 
forming an important link on the Trans-Siberian line from 
the west to Vladivostok. The towns along the route of the 
Russian railroad concession zone were full of Russian refu- 
gees from Bolshevik territory. The city of Harbin, at that 
time, formed what might be called the external political 
capital of Russia, having as residents influential members of 
the Russian business and political groups most strongly op- 
posed to the Bolshevik regime. It therefore offered a very 
fertile field for publicity, combining in its population the ele- 
ments above mentioned with the Russian workers in the 
large railroad repair shops of the Chinese Eastern Railway. 
We purchased a few office supplies in Peking and started for 
Harbin on the 10th, arriving there two days later. 

The state of public opinion in Harbin and in the general 
section around it and reached by its newspapers was very 
uncertain. The German advance on the western front was 
still in full progress, and the fresh forces of the American 
Army had not yet been thrown into action. The submarine 
campaign was continuing, and the facts of American ship- 
building were not known as they needed to be known in this 
part of the world. The Allies had not yet adopted a policy 
of active aid to loyal Russians against the Bolsheviks and 
German-Mag3^ar exprisoner forces, so no one knew what 
would be the issue of the political situation in Siberia and 
Russia. Consequently, there were a great many people who 
were listening to the incessant German propaganda, that the 
Russian Bolshevik revolution had destroyed the last chance 
of the Allies to win, that the entrance of America into the war 
was too late to save the situation, that at least the Allies 
would be forced to a compromise peace in which Germany 
would gain the main advantages or else that Germany would 
actually win the decisive victory in the war and thus dom- 
inate the international situation. In Russian circles there 
were many who believed that a monarchy supported by an 
alliance with the Prussian monarchy would be the best thing 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 237 

for Eussia; and there were many others who believed that 
any force which could bring order in Kussia would be bene- 
ficial, and who, consequently, were ready to turn to Germany 
for that result. 

Matenal. — We had arranged before leaving Peking for the 
forwarding from the American Legation there of the daily 
news cable service of the Committee on Public Information 
from Washington. We also found in the American consu- 
late's care some cases of motion-picture films, about 60 dif- 
ferent films in all, some of them in duplicate and triplicate. 
There were also some books and pamphlets from America 
about American conditions and war organization, sent by the 
committee in Washington. The committee had also sent to 
the American consul, Mr. Moser, the sum of $5,000 to finance 
a campaign of publicity in and around Harbin. This sum 
had just come to hand; and Mr. Moser, who was working 
under great pressure in the complicated situation in Harbin, 
had engaged H. Curtis Vezey, formerly editor of the Russian 
Daily News in Petrograd, to act as publicity agent. We re- 
tained Mr. Vezey as an assistant, moved into the temporary 
office which he had engaged, and started to work at the job 
of changing public opinion regarding the v> ar. The sum of 
$5,000 was turned over to us by Mr. Moser. 

Telegraph nsios. — We began to flood the neAvspapers with 
telegrams, translated ready into Eussian and furnished free, 
regarding the numbers of American troops being transported 
each month to France, the numbers of new ships being built 
for the battle fleet and merchant marine, amounts of Liberty 
loans and other subscriptions for the war, amounts of food- 
stuffs shipped to the Allies, and refutations of rumors about 
paralyzing strikes in the United States and proofs of the 
unity of the people in the effort against the Central Empires. 
Fortunately, the newspapers were either friendly to the 
Allies or open-minded ; and further, they were comparatively 
poor and had no good telegraph news service. The appear- 
ance of the free American service was a boon to them. They 
printed nearly every line of news that we gave to them, as 
the filed record of clippings from the Harbin office will show. 

Articles. — We also began to translate special articles on 
American national institutions and organizations, on labor 



238 EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

conditions and the labor movement and the reasons why 
labor was supporting the Government in the war and would 
continue to support it, on various aspects of the life of the 
people in America, political, social, economic, tending to 
show what advantages they already have and what powers 
they have to change conditions constantly for the better, 
all intended to show the reasons for American unity and 
loyalty. Many of these articles were also printed, despite 
the comparatively small size of Russian newspapers. The 
changed tone of editorial utterances regarding the war 
showed the cumulative effect of the propaganda. All utter- 
ances by the President were also translated and sent to the 
papers, and they were invariably published and commented 
on. 

During all of this period our assistant, Mr. Vezey, whom 
we employed on a part-time arrangement, was publishing 
our news in English in his Russian Daily News, transported 
from Petrograd for the consuls and members of the foreign 
colony. Occasionally, when especially important news ar- 
rived, an evening telegraph bulletin in Russian was gotten 
out by the Russian Daily News and sold on the streets, 
which made a very useful and effective form of quick-action 
publicity. 

We had the full cooperation of Mr. Moser, the American 
consul, and his assistants from the start, the consul having 
felt the need for American publicity in Harbin for a long 
time and greeting the arrival of special men for this work 
with generous cordiality. 

FouTtJh of July. — We cooperated with the consulate in the 
arrangement of an Inter- Allied celebration of American In- 
dependence Day, which was held with considerable success. 
There were some American sports, organized by the local 
representatives of the Young Men's Christian Association, a 
short j)rogram in solemnization of the day, with the reading 
of the Declaration of Independence in English and Russian 
-and also of a special message to the Russian and Allied com- 
munity in Harbin from Secretary of State Lansing, for- 
warded from Washington. We had programs for the day 
printed, with the text of the Declaration of Independence in 
English and in Russian. These were read with noticeable in- 
terest, very few Russians being familiar with the principles 



KEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 239 

uj)on which the foundation of the American Eepublic was 
based as expressed in the Declaration. The program closed 
with some American music. Uncle Sam, in costume, received 
his guests. The whole affair left a pleasant impression ; and 
we felt that the comparatively small sum of money we gave 
in meeting certain extra expenses not covered by voluntary 
subscriptions was quite justified by the value of having 
helped to create friendship in an Allied meeting under 
American auspices and having spread a knowledge of the 
meaning of the American anniversary. 

Motion pictures. — Finally, we sorted our motion-picture 
films into programs and arranged for a week of American 
official motion pictures in one of the Harbin theaters for the 
benefit of the Russian Eed Cross. The pictures which we had 
were mainly military and industrial, with a few travel pic- 
tures of America and some weekly news review films. We 
had the excellent film, " The Eemaking of a Nation," and 
also much other film showing Army training in the United 
States. We divided the films off into programs as well bal- 
anced as possible ; and then covered the town with advertise- 
ments and distributed handbills for- the week's program, 
which we entitled "America for the Allies." 
- The pictures were well attended by mixed audiences and 
made a considerable impression. We had quite as many 
Japanese as Russians in the theater usually ; and the Japa- 
nese often stayed through all the performances making 
notes of their impressions on the military and naval films. 
Indeed, the Japanese always took an intent interest in all 
our publicity. The motion pictures showing the efficient 
drilling of the new army of America, and the power of the 
battle fleet, however, seemed to impress them most of all. 
The impression which we were trying to make constantly 
was that America was with the Allies, and for them, heart 
and soul, and that she was throwing into the fight every bit 
of strength and resource that she could make effective, a fact 
which was making the ultimate triumph of the Allied arms 
sure. The motion pictures, consequently, counted at the 
right time as corrective to any German propaganda of Allied 
defeat. The pictures also served as an excellent prelude to 
the news which we were able to give shortly afterwards 
about the first victorious American drive at Chateau-Thierry, 



240 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

and the turning of the tide of battle which developed into 
victory. 

Charging off to propaganda the cost of the posters and 
pamphlets which we had printed in connection with the film 
shows, and also of the newspaper advertising and printing 
of tickets, we had a balance sufficient to donate 1,500 rubles 
to the Harbin Chapter of the Russian Red Cross after re- 
peating the performances in a second theater in another part 
of the city. If we had not made this donation we would 
have above covered expenses, including the theater rental 
and the city stamp tax on tickets. On the other hand, we 
would have forfeited the friendly feeling created by the gift 
and by the fact that in the city it was known that the pic- 
tures were not given for the sake of any profit to the Ameri- 
can Information Bureau. 

The pictures had English flash titles, so we arranged to 
show them with a lecturer who explained each picture in 
Russian and who answered any questions about it from the 
audience. After finishing the showings in Harbin, the pic- 
tures were sent out along the line of the Chinese Eastern 
Railroad in Manchuria to the Russian theaters in Tsitsikar, 
Hailar, and Manchuria Station. On their return they were 
sent to the office which had by that time been opened in 
Vladivostok to have Russian titles put in. 

Extent of -field. — When we first arrived in Harbin the lines 
to Vladivostok and to Siberia were, of course, closed. The 
Bolsheviks were still in control and fighting between them 
and Semeonov was going on along the line between Man- 
churia Station and Chita. The Harbin newspapers, however, 
were the only ones in Russian in Manchuria, and were sent 
to every Russian community. Consequently, by placing ma- 
terial in these papers, we were reaching all Russian news- 
paper readers. The Harbin papers were also sent through 
whenever possible, by various individual ways, to Vladi- 
vostok, to Habarovsk, to Blagovestchensk, and to Chita ; 
and there they were read and often reprinted by the editors 
of local papers. In this way, consequently, we were reach- 
ing as much of the Siberian field as possible at the moment. 
When a paper was established at Station Manchuria, we 
started sending our telegrams and special articles there ; and 
when another was started in Sakhalan, just across the river 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 241 

in Manchuria from Blagovestchensk, we began sending ma- 
terial there. We also arranged with a Russian in that town 
to act as a local representative and to get printed material 
across the river into Blagovestchensk whenever possible. We 
also tried to send material down the Sungari River, to 
Habarovsk. 

Pmnphlets. — The President's speech at Mount Vernon, 
which we printed in a pamphlet to the number of 10,000 
copies in Harbin, in addition to securing publication in the 
newspapers, was distributed in Harbin and through Man- 
churia in these various ways. 

The American proclamation of August 3, regarding Rus- 
sia, caused a very animated discussion in the Harbin press. 
We printed 20,000 copies of the statement and distributed 
them as well as possible in Harbin and Manchuria, sending 
some to Sakhalen for Blagovestchensk, and some to Vladi- 
vostok. In this distribution, the American Railroad Mis- 
sion was very helpful. We also had selections from the an- 
nouncement made into plates for projection on the moving- 
picture screen and showed them in two motion-picture 
theaters. 

Post cards.- — From the. large number of photographs sent 
us from Washington by the committee 25 were selected, and 
after some difficulty we arranged to have cuts made of them 
and have them printed in the form of post cards for sale 
in railroad stations and stationery stores. 

MAIN SIBEPiIAN CAMPAIGN. 

EEPOKT ON ORGANIZATION OF V/OEK IN VLADIVOSTOK. 

Tliis section of the report will take up the development 
of the Committee on Public Information service from the 
time of the opening of the Siberian Railroad by the Czecho- 
slovaks in the summer — first of the road to Vladivostok 
from Harbin, where we were located for Compub work in 
June, and afterwards of the road through to the Urals, giv- 
ing a chance for general Siberian work. 

The first survey of the field in Vladivostok y^F^s made by 
William Adams Brown, jr., who was sent do^n from Har- 
bin in July to arrange the first showings of Afmerican propa- 

121033—20 10 



242 KEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATION. 

ganda motion pictures in Vladivostok. Mr. Brown ar- 
ranged two successful showings of the films in the Summer 
Garden. He also canvassed the field in the city generally 
and telegraphed his conclusions as to the need for establish- 
ing Compub work in Vladivostok. Our instructions from 
Washington M^ere only to go to Harbin and to start Compub 
work there. It seemed obvious, however, that the more 
centers in which publicity work could be organized, the bet- 
ter; and since it was possible to finance some work in ad- 
vance of the arrival of the director, Arthur Bullard, with 
his party, telegraphic instructions were sent to Brown in 
Vladivostok to make preliminary arrangements and to en- 
gage a Vladivostok Russian assistant. He tentatively en- 
gaged Mr. Tilicheieff, who was formerly with us in Irkutsk, 
and returned to Harbin to report. I went to Vladivostok 
from Harbin early in August. The need of work was being 
urgently pointed out by the consulate and by Admiral 
Knight, commander of the cruiser Brooklyn^ as well as by 
Americans generally who passed through the district. No 
representative of the Committee on Public Information had 
ever been stationed there. The cruiser Brooklyn was doing 
everythiiig possible to spread American information, giv- 
ing the wireless reports of news received daily to the Amer- 
ican consulate, which in turn distributed the dispatches to 
the daily papers. This was all that these already overbusy 
representatives of the American Government could do. 

This was the situation at the beginning of the Compub 
campaign in the middle of August. We made the first tasks 
to secure offices and a staff, get the telegraph news service 
organized to furnish authorized translations for the press, 
get a special article service started, continue the showing of 
American motion pictures, and start the printing of the 
pamphlet, "Letters of an American Friend," which has been 
successful in Russia and for which we" had the text. Our 
idea was to have two bases in readiness for the director on 
his arrival, in working order, with the necessary initial staff 
in the offices, so that either one could be developed as a main 
Otiice if necessary, or continued as a branch office. The 
choice fell to Vladivostok, the Harbin work being continued 
as subsidiary. 



KEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 243 

Preliminary loork. — Through the courtesy of the Russian- 
American Chamber of Commerce my Russian assistant and 
I were given the temporary use of one room in an office at 
6T Svethanskaya (the main street), until we coukl find more 
suitable permanent quarters. This became the American 
Press Bureau until about the middle of September. In it 
we started to issue a daily English bulletin of the telegrams 
for the Allied consulates and officials, and this also went to 
the French Red Cross for translation for the French troops. 
The daily bulletin was also translated into Russian and dis- 
tributed to the Russian newspapers in Vladivostok, Nikolsk- 
Ussurisk, and Harbin, which latter city received the English 
dispatches daily over the Railroad Mission telegraph wire 
free, the service from Peking being discontinued. A repeti- 
tion of the American motion pictures was arranged for the 
benefit of Czecho-Slovak wounded, and the pictures were 
run ofi' to good audiences. Selections were also made from 
material of the Foreign Press Bureau, brought from Har- 
bin, and a series of special articles was started out to the 
editors of the various papers for reprinting. The service 
was coordinated with that sent out from Harbin, and the 
articles were well received and often published by the pa- 
pers. These were the activities under way when I left for 
Japan at the end of August to meet Mr. BuUard's party, 
leaving instructions to keep up the search for a larger per- 
manent office on the main street and to continue to get in 
touch with translators and typists, and have a list ready 
for an office staff if needed on our return. 

This work Mr. Carl E. Krantz did very efficiently and 
faithfully. I could not give him better credit for his activity 
and loyal work in my absence than by stating the results 
of it. On my return early in September with the bulk of the 
Bullard party— Mr. Bullard himself having gone to Harbin 
by way of Korea before coming down to Vladivostok — Mr. 
Krantz had ready a list of about 25 qualified translators 
and typists, and had followed up one of the various possible 
office propositions on which he had been working so that we 
secured these offices in the store of Konovaloff, at Svet- 
lanskaya 10, equipped them, and were able to move shortly 
after the middle of September into well-located and roomy 
offices with a large window on the main street where maps 



244 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC HSTFORMATION. 

and display bulletins could be shown. We had also in the 
meantime arranged for the use of two living rooms in the 
house where he was staying, and this was later extended to 
the use of five rooms, which were adequate for the tem- 
porary needs of the committee men passing through Vladi- 
vostok, thus solving the difficult problem of living space 
in this extremely congested city. Eight to ten men, for the 
period of a month or six weeks, slept and breakfasted to- 
gether in these rooms, using one as a central living room. 

Motion Picture Division. — The first problem upon arrival 
from Japan, aside from the closing of the contract for the 
press office on Svetlanskaya, was the securing of adequate 
space for the development of a motion-picture laboratory. 

The following memorandum of G. S. Bothwell, technical 
director, indicates some of the difficulties encountered in es- 
tablishing in Vladivostok the Motion Picture Division of the 
Committee on Public Information up to January 18, 1919: 

We arrived in Vladivostok early in September and started imme- 
diately to find a suitable building. We were switched about from 
place to place by the local government until we were entirely dis- 
gusted. Filially we got a requisition for No. 7 Suifunskaya. The 
tenants in this building were practically out of business on account 
of the war. 

In the first place, we had brought no apparatus or chemical sup- 
plies along to make titles, as we did not expect to do this work and we 
knew nothing about the water or climatic conditions. As it was 
almost impossible to get any of this apparatus from the United States 
within a reasonable time on account of transportation facilities, we 
decided to buikl our own stuff out of raw material, siich as could be 
foimd here, and buy our chemicals in Japan. It might be well to 
mention that up to this time no one had been able to make moving 
pictures or moving-picture titles in Siberia. The English tried it at 
Archangel and failed and the Young Men's Christian Association and 
Red Cross tried it in Vladivostok and failed. 

The biiilding we worked in is like most other buildings in Vladi- 
vostok. It neither has water supply nor sewerage systems, as this 
is almost unknown in this place. In order to turn out any quantity 
of these titles we found it necessary to have running water and at 
an expense of 25,000 rubles, we put in a water supply and sewerage 
system which meets all requirements of the city's laws. However, 
after this system was completed and all arrangements had been agreed 
upon, the city authorities refused to turn water on and kept us three 
weeks or more without running water. 

We had employed about 30 people in the Film Division and only 
one in the whole bunch ever saw a moving-picture film before. Ex- 
perienced help in this line is simply out of the question. 



EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC USTFORMATION. 245 

A]l goods shipped liere were considerably damaged in transit in 
Japan or by the customs people, possibly both. We found it necessary 
to establish a machine shop, and as the Russian Government had 
many lathes lying on the wharves rusting and fast becoming worth- 
less we tried to requisition one. We were switched - from one party 
to another by the Russian authorities until we were fighting mad and 
at last pinned them down to facts. We were informed 'that if we 
deposited 16,000 rubles in a bank a commission would let us know 
how much they would charge us for a lathe worth at the most $50. 

Despite these obstacles, for the past month we have been turning 
out about 2,500 feet of completed titles each day, quite a number of 
still pictures, and some motion pictures, both negative and positive. 

Shortly after we arrived, about October 1, 1918, we received 70 
reels of film — weeklies, current events, and news pictures. These had 
been sent to Harbin, Manchuria. We loaned them to the cruiser 
Brooklyn and People's House (Narodni Dom). The Brooklyn ex- 
hibited to Czecho- Slovaks and Russians as well as American troops. 
The People's House was an all-Russian audience and they used an 
interpreter. 

The Young Men's Christian Association had a number of pictures 
belonging to us. Around the 1st of October, we secured some of this 
•film and loaned it to the Cooperative Society, and they sent it intO' 
all the towns and villages they could reach. Transportation was sim- 
ply terrible. It is beyond me to describe it. The Cooperative Society 
sent a lecturer-translator on these trips, as our film had English, 
titles and was almost as understandable as it would be if you showed 
motion pictures with Russian titles In the United States. Union of 
Amur Cooperatives also used most of our educational film in the 
schoolhouses in and around Vladivostok. 

About the middle of October we received our shipment of ma- 
chines and film that we brought to Japan and the Japanese held up 
when we reshipped from Kobe to Vladivostok. This is a long story, 
and it is not possible 'to exactly place the responsibility. 

However, after we received this film, we mad(> many attempts to 
get distribution and found it most discouraging. The picture houses - 
would not use these pictures without Russian titles and graciously 
offered to show them for us if we would insert good Russian titles 
and pay them for exhibiting first-class American films. 

We then got the Vladivostok Zemstvo (Russian self-government for 
local districts) interested with fine results. They agreed to take our 
industrial and educational pictures throughout Siberia and show 
them in the towns and villages if we would supply the complete outfit 
consisting of generator, motion-picture machine, etc., which we gladly 
did, and the results were most satisfactory. The first show was for the 
agriculture districts and the reports were simply great. The village 
commune is common all over Siberia, and these people in many 
instances want to buy tractors and other farming implements col- 
lectively. They ask no end of questions and beg for farming in- 
structors from America. They are also considering sending some of 



246 EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATIOIsT. 

their own people to the United States to learn how to raise the tall 
stalks of corn we sh<nv in the pictnres. Their enthnsiasm is great. 
When the Vladivostok Zemstvo first informed the other zemstvos 
about the proposed motion picture venture they immediately sent 
in money to the local zemstvo from 8,000 to 25,000 rubles each to 
have the exhibition in their districts. 

We now handle all the educational work through the Vladivostok 
Zemstvo with gratifying success. The last show we sent out the . 
week of January 20 is to go to the mining districts. We will probably 
send out more of these shows during the next month if we receive 
more education films in the shipment that is now due. We also send 
films to the Russian army training schools. 

We have now started our first shows with the regular motion- 
picture houses and their business has increased. Our Russian titles 
are real Russian and they like them. 

In January a successful series of motion-picture entertain- 
ments for the benefit of school children was arranged by Mr. 
Phil Norton, acting director of the committee, in coopera- 
tion with the Vladivostok Parents' Committees. Programs 
of American and Russian music, in which Mrs. Norton sang, 
were given in connection with these entertainments. 

Mr. Bothwell deserves great credit for the manner in 
which he carried through the development of the motion- 
picture plant in the face of Vladivostok difficulties. 

Printing iwoblenis. — The following extract from the re- 
port of Otto T. Gluman, shows also some difficulties encoun- 
tered in Vladivostok in procuring facilities necessary for 
publicity work : 

I arrived at Vladivostok October 20, and immediately took up the 
various problems encountered in procuring (1) printing facilities 
for a weekly journal it has been decided to publish ; (2) paper for the 
printing of the Compub publication; (3) distribution and editorial 
rooms and offices. 

Printing facilities : I found that the printing facilities available 
for possible Compub publications were very limited not only as re- 
gards actually mechanical appliances but also as regards inclination 
on the part of the Russians to do our work, the latter attitude being, 
In my opinion, accounted for by two reasons. Distrust was shown 
toward all foreign propaganda activities because of past experiences, 
as a number of foreign propaganda agencies had resorted to such 
means as subsidizing newspapers ; and this distrust was augmented 
by the fact that the Russians were dissatisfied with the military in- 
activity of the United States and the Allies. 

The printing plant of the newspaper Delckaya Okraina, owned 
by one PantaleyefC, I was able to persuade to do our work only by 
overbidding the orders received by Pantaleyeff for schoolbooks, 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 247 

which, the commitUe was very reluctant to do, but which remained 
the only alternative. The Delokaya Okraina, as a matter of fact, 
grantecl the committee better facilities than it had been hoped were 
procurable, as immediately paper was available in sufficient quantity 
the Compub Weekly Journal appeared most regularly every week, 
without any interruption. 

Th-^ Zemstvo printing shop was given'a try at printing the Compub 
pamphlet entitled "Germany's Attempt to Control Russia," but for 
100.000 copies of this publication the committee had to pay 60,000 
rubles whereas for 100,000 copies of the pamphlet entitled " Letters 
of an American Friend," containing the same number of pages and 
of the same size, the committee paid the Delokaya Okraina printing 
shop only 37,000 rubles. The Oriental Institute printing shop was 
tried but showed little interest in our orders. 

The one factor in the printing situations in Vladivostok that was 
not satisfactory as regards the shop of the Delokaya Okraina han- 
dling our work, was that tlat-bed presses, which are the only available 
form of press in this part of the world, did not make it possible to 
print in sufficient numbers. The Weekly Journal started at 30,000 
copies weekly, later increased to 40,000 copies. Our field offices were 
in a position to handle much greater numbers than the Vladivostok 
Feeder office was able to produce -with these fiat-bed presses and the 
available supply of paper. 

Paper supplies: The paper situation was even more complicated 
than the printing press shortage, in view of the fact that there are 
presses in the interior of Russia which are standing idle for want of 
paper. Both Harbin and Ekaterinburg have offered us printing 
plants, to be sold to us outright, which shows that everywhere in 
Siberia paper shortage is very acute. Irkutsk newspapers begged 
Brown to urge the War Trade Board to hurry paper out there, other- 
wise the districts would shortly be without newspapers altogether. 
I managed to purchase a supply of paper, sufficient for our imme- 
diate needs, in Shanghai— old stocks of Swedish newspaper paper— 
and also stocks or anticipated arrivals of paper in Japan. Tlius we 
covered our requirements -until approximately May, allowing a margin 
of safety. 

Quarters : After long negotiations we secured of a restaurant keeper 
his third-rate establishment at Borodinskaya 25, paying him his out- 
of-pocket expenses for renovating and rearranging the place. Under 
the able direction of Mrs. Bullard, this place was altered into office 
premises suitable for a Government organization to occupy. 

Publications.— The following is from a report letter of 
Graham E. Tajdor : 

The publications issued by the committee from its publication office 
in Vladivostok are the following : 

The Friendly Word, weekly magazine; 14 issues totaling 288 
pages and 522,350 copies. 



248 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOIS'. 

Letters of an American Friend, by Arthur Bullard; 150,000 
copies. 

American Activity in Siberia, by Arthur Bullard ; 100,000 copies. 

America and Peace ; 100,550 copies. 

German Plot to Control Russia ; 100,000 copies. 

Typhus (handbill) ; 24,000 copies. 

Development of Education in the United States, by Prof. W. F. 
Russell ; 64-page booklet, 50,000 copies. 

Speeches of President Wilson, 48-page booklet ; 100,000 copies. 
The first five issues of the Friendly Word and the pamphlets Letters 
of an American Friend, American Activity in Siberia, America and 
Peace, and German Plot to Control Russia were issued under the 
editorial direction of Mr. Malcolm Davis and business management 
of Mr. O. T. Glaman. The publications Issued under my direction 
include issues 6 to 14, inclusive, of the Friendly Word, the handbill 
on the prevention of typhus, the booklet on the Development of Edu- 
cation in the United States, and the booklet containing speeches by 
President Wilson. 

The fundamental purpose which has guided in the preparation of 
these publications, nearly all of which have been issued subsequent 
to the signing of the armistice, has been: (1) Statement of America's 
aims and activities, as shown in official utterances, Jn her eiTorts for 
a permanent, democratic peace and the establishment of the League 
of Nations; tmd (2) interpretation of the democratic ideals and prog- 
ress of American life, in an effort to convey to the Russian people a 
larger understanding of America, and to promote friendship between 
the Russian and American peoples. The extent to which this purpose 
has been accomplished will appear in a complete set of our publica- 
tions and in the reports from the representatives of the committee 
throughout Siberia, showing the distribution of the weekly maga- 
zine Friendly Word and the various pamphlets and the impression 
which they have created among the Russian people. The substance 
of this report from the publication office, therefore, lies in the con- 
tents of these publications. They have been issued under conditions 
of most extraordinary difficulty — difficultj'- hi securing office quarters ; 
in organizing a staff of Russian assistants ; in finding and purchasing 
paper, even of poor quality and at high prices ; in finding a printing 
office equipped to do the necessary work ; in pushing work through 
when there were almost daily interruptions due to the failure of the 
power and light supply, sometimes for hours at a time, during the 
breakdowns of the Vladivostok electric plant ; in the manufacture of 
half-tones for illustrations, the total output procurable in Vladivostok 
being usually not more than four or five a week, at prices often three 
times as great as in America ; and in many other ways due to the 
disturbed and disorganized condition of life in Siberia. 

Friendly Word, iveekly magas'me. — Together with the file of the 14 
numbers of the Friendly Word submitted herewith, will be found the 
complete material in English from which the translations into Rus- 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 249 

sian were made. Some of this material was drawn from ttie cable 
service of the Committee on Public Information, and this includes 
particularly the texts of the notes exchanged between the various 
nations leading up to the armistice, and the speeches of President 
Wilson. 

The main portion of the material was received from the Foreign 
Press Bureau of the Committee on Public Information in New York 
City, and it included many articles and news notes which were used 
in full, others which were shortened or condensed, and others which 
were used as the basis for the preparation of material adapted to 
meet space conditions or the interest of the Siberian public. And all 
of the illustrations appearing in the Friendly Word are from half- 
tones or photographs which were sent by the Foreign Press Bureau. 

The remaining portion of the material used in the Friendly Word 
was almost wholly written by members of the staff of the Russian 
Division. This included various editorial notes and articles ; the 
articles on American Activity in Siberia, by Arthur Bullard ; the series 
of articles by Prof. W. F. Russell on the Development of Education 
in America ; a series of four articles on the League of Nations, by 
E. D. Schoonmaker ; and a series of four articles on health — Typhus, 
Tuberculosis, Milk, and Infant Feeding — by Dr. Joshua Rosett. 

The total number of pages in the 14 issues of the Friendly Word 
was 288. These were distributed roughly as follows : 

Pages. 

Cover pages and announcements : 34 

America's efforts for peace 16 

League of Nations ' — 41 

Agricultural and rural topics 21 

City improvement 20 

Education 34 

American Government and citizenship 21 

Aiiierican and Russian relations 8 

American efforts in Siberia 10 

Health 1 13 

Industry and labor 9 

Commerce - 9 

Women's life 18 

American activities in Europe 10 

Demobilization and readjustment of Army 5 

Miscellaneous 19 

Total 288 

The total number of illustrations was 93. 



250 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

Tlie number of copies of Friendly Word issued were as follows : 

No. 1 30,250 

No. 2 ____^_ 30,000 

No. 3 30,000 

No. 4 34,500 

No. 5 40,000 

No. 6 39, 500 

No. 7 40,000 

No. 8 39, 500 

No. 9 : 40, 250 

No. 10 40,000 

No. 11 41, 350 

No. 12 40,000 

No. 13 40,000 

No. 14 ^ 37,000 

Total 522, 350 

Tliese 522,3.50 copies were distributed to the various offices of the 
committee as follows : 

Ekaterinburg 95, 000 

Omsk ^ 142, 000 

Novo Nikolaevsk (distribution by American 

consul) 17,500 

Irkutsk •_ 122, 200 

Chita 70, 000 

Harbiff 24, 000 

Vladivostok 44, 900 

Distributed from Compub car 6, 750 

Total 522, 350 

This distribution was greatly facilitated by the generous coopera- 
tion of the Czecho-Slovak authorities in permitting the shipment of 
bundles of copies in the weekly mail car operated by the Czecho- 
slovaks on the Trans-Siberian Railroad. 

From each of the offices of the committee copies were sent, as far 
as possible, to individual addresses. Each copy was thus made to 
count effectively. The mailing lists included governmental and local 
officials, libraries, reading rooms, universities and schools, officers and 
members of Zemstvos, cooperative societies and peasant unions, per- 
sons who wrote letters expressing interest and requesting copies, etc. 
In many cases organizations such as Zemstvos, cooperative societies, 
peasant unions, teachers organizations, literary societies, and com- - 
mercial and industrial bodies, took an active interest in distributing 
copies to their members. 

The details of distribution and the response accorded to the 
Friendly Word and the other publications of the committee appear 
more fully in the reports by the representatives of the committee 
throughout Siberia. 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 251 

Letters of an American Friend. — Of this pamphlet of 24 pages, 
written by Arthur BulJard, Director of the Russian Division, ex- 
pressing the friendly interest of America in the democratic progress 
of the Russian people and explaining the principles of American 
democracy, there were published 150,000 copies, distributed as follows : 

Ekaterinburg_ 25, 000 

Omsk 22. 000 

Irkutsk 22, OOO; 

Chita : 16, 000 

Harbin 6, 000 

Vladivostok 1 51, 500 

Distributed from Oompub car 7, 500 

Total :__ 150, 000 

Car used by Messrs. Davis and Glaman on inspection trip. 

Ameriean Activity in Siberia — This pamphlet of 8 pages, contain- 
ing a reprint of an article by Arthur Bullard, Director of the Rus- 
sian Division, which originally appeared in the Friendly Word, was 
published in an edition of 100,000 copies, distributed as follows: 

Ekaterinburg 27, 000 

Omsk 24, 000 

Irkutsk 20, 000 

Chita 12, 000 

Harbin 8,000 

Vladivostok v- 4,. 000 

Distributed from Compub car 5, 000 

Total 100, 000 

Ainerica and Peace — This pamphlet of 16 pages, compiled by M. W. 
Davis, containing, with an introduction, the texts of the notes ex- 
changed between the various nations in the negotiations leadhig up 
to the armistice, and passages from" President Wilson's speeches bear- 
ing on peace, was published in an edition of 100,550, distributed as 
follows : 

Ekaterinburg 11, 000 

Omsk 22, 000 

Novo Nikolaevsk (distribution by American Con- 
sul) : , 4, 000 

Irkutsk 20,000 

Chita 11, 000 

Harbin 6, 000 

Vladivostok 7,800 

Distributed from Compub car 18, 750 

Total 100, 550 

TJie German Plot To Control Russia. — This pamphlet of 16 pages, 
by M. W. Davis, after consultation with Mr. Billiard, containing the 



252 EEPOET COMMITTEE OlST PUBLIC INFOEMATIOlSr. 

substance of the documents in the Sisson report made public by the 
Committee on Public Information to show the character of German 
activity in Russia, was published in an edition of 100,000 copies and 
distributed as follows : 

Ekaterinburg 23, 000 

Omsk ■_ 18,000 

Irkutsk 13, 000 

Chita 9, 500 

Harbin 3, 500 

Vladivostok 28, 000 

Distributed from Compub car 5, 000 

Total 100,000 

Typhus handbill. — This handbill, containing a reprint of an article 
in the Friendly Word designed to give information in popular form 
concerning ways whereby each individual and family could help 
combat the epidemic of typhus in Siberia, was printed in an edition 
of 24,000 and distributed as follows : 

Ekaterinburg 4, 000 

Omsk 5, 000 

Novo Nikolaevsk (distributed by American con- 
sul) 2,000 

Irkutsk 7, 000 

Chita 3, 000 

Harbin 2, 000 

Vladivostok 1, 000 

Total -_- 24, 000 

/ Develotmient of Education in the United States. — This booklet of 
/ 64 pages, containing a reprint of the 14 educational articles by Prof. 
/ W. F. Russell, of the State University of Iowa, which wei'e originally 
published in the Friendly Word, was published in an edition of 50,000 
\ and, in accordance with instructions from the main office of the com- 
\ mittee in Washington, the entire edition, issued just prior to the 
\ termination of the committee's work in Siberia, was turned over to 
\ the American consul in Vladivostok for distribution under the super- 
Wision of the various consular officers in Siberia. 
\ Speeches of President M^ilson. — This booklet of 48 pages was pub- 
lished in an edition of 100,000 copies, 7,000 on a good quality of paper 
for distribution to libraries, reading rooms, schools, universities and 
officials, and 93,000 on cheap paper for popular distribution. It con- 
tained the following speeches : 

America Must Accept War. April 2, 1917. 
Memorial Day Address. May 30, 1917. 
Statement to Russia. June 9, 1917. 

Address to the American Federation of Labor. November 12, 
1917. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC IIsTFORMATION. 253 

America's Teiniis for General Peace. January 8, 1918. 

Who is Responsible? The Answer to Germany and Austria. 

February 11, 1918. 
Freedom or Slavery? Address on the Opening of the Cam- 
paign for the Third Liberty Loan. April 6, 1918. 
America's War Aims Restated. Fourth of July Address at Mount 

Vernon. July 4, 1918. 
Address on the Opening of the Campaign for the Fourth Liberty 

Loan. September 27, 1918. 
Passages from Addresses Delivered on Arrival in Europe. 

December, 1918. 
The League of Nations. Address at the Peace Conference in 
Paris. January 25, 1919. 
The entire edition, issued just prior to the termination of the 
committee's work in Siberia, was, in accordance with the instruc- 
tions received from the main office of the committee in Washington, 
turned over to the American consul in Vladivostok for distribution 
under the supervision of the various consular officers in Siberia. 

In concluding this brief summary of the publication work of the 
Russian Division it should be stated that after barely six months of 
effort the work had arrived at a stage of efficient operation when, in 
accordance with instructions, its discontinuance became necessary. 

The Friendly W^ord especially, as the principal channel for dis- 
seminating information about America, had been developed to a 
point where it was meeting with rapidly widening interest and in- 
creasing appreciation on the part of all elements of the Siberian 
people. Each issue had been an improvement on the preceding one, 
and the final issue, No. 14, was 32 pages in size, with 22 illustrations, 
and presented a broad interpretation of various phases of American 
life. Its discontinuance called forth many expressions of regret from 
its Russian readers and friends. The termination of the weekly maga- 
zine and of the work of the committee in Siberia was considered by 
many Russians to be an indication that, despite all the expressions of 
interest and friendship on the part of America toward the Russian 
people, the real interest of America was merely to gain and utilize 
support in the struggle against German autocracy, and was not based 
upon genuine and lasting friendship. 

To counteract this imi^ression, care was taken to point out in the 
editorial announcement in the final issue of the Friendly Word, that 
the discontinuance of the magazine and the work of the committee in 
Siberia was due to the inevitable contraction and readjustment of 
American governmental activities from a war to a peace basis, and 
that this process naturally involved the Committee on Public Informa- 
tion which had been created as a war agency. But the experience of 
the Russian Division shows the great value of an information service 
from one country to another. And it is to be hoped that the American 
people may find a way to reestablish and extend such a service for the 
promotion of mutual understanding, which is the foundation of friend- 
ship between peoples. 



254 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION". 
FIELD ORGANIZATION. 

The scope of this report does not give opportunity to. in- 
clude the reports of the individual field men in Chita, 
Irkutsk, Omsk, Ekaterinaburg, and Chelyabinsk, which con- 
tain much interesting detail. They worked loyally and 
hard in the service, with a spirit of cooperation which made 
the whole relationship a pleasure. Special notice is due to 
the service of W. A. Brown, jr., who had the hardest physical 
conditions to face. He traveled on freight cars and crowded 
third and fourth class cars constantly, and never complained 
of hardship if a piece of work could be done. He went to 
Perm as soon as possible after its capture from the Bolshe- 
viks, and had literature dropped across their lines from air- 
planes. 

In general, the distribution from the field offices was car- 
ried out by developing personal mailing lists so that every 
one of our restricted number of copies would count, or by 
giving limited numbers to people or organizations to dis- 
tribute them personally. 

The daily telegraph news service was extended to reach 
nearly all Siberian papers through an agreement with the 
Russian Telegraph Agency at Omsk, reached through R. E. 
Winters, our representative there. 

In addition, our bulletins in English were sent by Ameri- 
can headquarters at Vladivostok to Chita and relayed by 
our man there to the other field men, so that each would have 
the service in full. 

The field men also received weekly packages by mail, with 
special articles already translated for the press and full sets 
of the bulletin accompanying a regular service letter. 

Early in January Otto T. Glaman, business manager, and 
I started out for a tour of the field to get in touch with the 
men in the several offices and to coordinate their activities 
further if necessary. We traveled in a freight car, which 
had been made over into an office car, with a sleeping com- 
partment and a kitchen and a brakeman's compartment, 
specially for this purpose by the American Railway Mission. 
We also had a smaller freight car as trailer, with a stock of 
literature and of fuel and food supplies for ourselves and 
the field man. 



REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 255 

The Harbin office, which we visited first, we found not 
very active. This had become a minor office since the cen- 
ters of interest shifted to Vladivostok and to western Si- 
beria, its main responsibility being the receipt and distribu- 
tion of a small amount of literature for Harbin and other 
partly Russian communities in Manchuria along the line of 
the railway. The Harbin office was the only one in which 
there was any sign of lack of energy or interest. 

The Chita office, under Franklin Clarkin, which we visited 
next, was especially well organized. A large personal ad- 
dress list had been worked up ; and nearly every copy of 
our sadly limited amount of literature sent out from this 
office was going by request to some individual^ who would 
be sure to read it and circulate it, while copies distributed 
in bunches were strictly controlled and were sent to organ- 
izations which circulated them to their members direct. 
These were the principles of distribution which we urged 
throughout the field. In Irkutsk we received the demobiliza- 
tion orders, and from there on the original purpose of the 
trip was automatically changed. We went to Omsk, where 
we took Brown, from Ekaterinburg, and Winters, from Omsk, 
office manager, on board with us and started back for Vladi- 
vostok on March 2. Bakeman, the Irkutsk manager, re- 
turned in a consulate car, and Clarkin, from Chita, with us. 

SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 

To estimate the results and the consequent value of a cam- 
paign of public information which could not be completed 
is both difficult and problematical. Nevertheless, I am con- 
fident in saying that all of the men engaged in the work, 
and also men in other official American services, felt at the 
close that the effort had justified itself and been worth 

while. 

The telegraph news service alone^ reaGhing ISO Siberian 
papers by our. arrangement with the Russian Telegraph 
Agency in Omsh^ was a great influence. 

When the division was ordered to demobilize, the friendly 
attitude of other American agencies, and especially the cor- 
dial cooperation of. the headquarters of the American Expe- 
ditionary Forces and of the consulate general and branch 



256 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

consulates, were evidence that useful work had been accom- 
plished. This evidence was reinforced by many expressions 
from Russians, samples of whose letters are given at the end 
of the report. 

Summing up the results of the work, I should say that the 
most valuable effect was the creation of a new sense of 
acquaintance with America and with the spirit of the Ameri- 
can people. As one Siberian editor wrote : 

I think that I am not mistaken when I say that owing to the 
activities of the representatives of the American Press Bureau, demo- 
cratic America will never again become a strange country of indus- 
trial kings to the population of Siberia. 

This establishment of a knowledge of the life and char- 
acter of the rank and file of the American people, and of the 
broad range of their interests and activities, together with a 
sense of mutual sympathetic interest in common ideals and 
aspirations, is the most important achievement of the Sibe- 
rian Department. The circulation of our material on the 
organization and growth of a modern democracy, with its 
creative principles of constructive change and development, 
may also do much to clear up the confusion existing in many 
Russian minds challenged for the first time with the problem 
of working out their own difficulties. All the evidence is 
that the work has laid a basis of friendly interest which will 
remain for future relations of cooperative good will. 

Coupled with this broader result and contributing to it, 
are certain very specific things which the Siberian Depart- 
ment did. By, circulating broadcast information about 
American war organization and activity, it helped to con- 
vince the public mind in Siberia of the potential power of 
America and its promise of victory during the critical days 
when the issue of the war was still in doubt in 1918. By 
circulating information about the American peace program 
and the League of Nations proposal, embodied in the ad- 
dresses of President Wilson, it helped to establish confidence 
in the genuine disinterested sincerity of America as a Nation 
and as a democracy in matters of international policy. By 
circulating information regarding the American policy con- 
cerning Russia, it served to create confidence in America as 
a country not seeking for internal control in Russia and 
Siberia and truly interested in free and fair play for Rus- 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 257 

sians in the settlement of their own affairs. The circulation 
of information regarding the activities of American relief 
agencies, such as the American Red Cross, the American 
Railway Mission, and the American War Trade Board, as 
well as regarding the interest taken by Americans at home 
in Russian affairs and the progress of the Russian people 
in their struggle for a better order under free institutions 
has at the same time kept alive the sense of American friend- 
ship and sympathy. Circulation of information regarding 
American methods of agriculture and industry and regard- 
ing the life of the American farmer and the efforts for bet- 
terment of the conditions of life of the worker, regarding the 
activities of the American Government in the interest of the 
people, and regarding the powers and opportunities which 
the people of the United States have for changing and per- 
fecting their institutions, have both corrected many false 
impressions of America and tended to develop new standards 
in Russian minds for their own national life and system of 
Government. 

In closing, I wish to express in the name of all the staff 
of Siberian Department of the Committee on Public Infor- 
mation — for I know from their expressions that I can do 
so — our appreciation of your personal leadership as Direc- 
tor of the Russian Division, and our sense of privilege in 
having had the opportunity to serve with you in this work in 
the interest of the Russian people and of Russian- American 
friendship. 

Faithfully, 

M. W. Davis, 
Manager Siberian Department. 

SAMPLE LETTERS. 

Opinions of prominent men of Chita, Siberia, concerning 
activities of the Committee on Public Information : 
1. President of Zemstvo of Trans-Baikalia Province: 

The Committee on Public Information has worl^ed here too little. 
One might suppose that if it would continue work here the aim of 
bringing near peoples of America and Russia by means of permanent 
information would have been attained. It is too bad that the com- 
mittee ceases work here at the very beginning. 
121033—20 17 



258 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

2. President of Exchange : 

As to myself, I consider the activities of the Committee on Public 
Information most useful as to information about American life and 
views. I think that continuation of work by the American Commit- 
tee on Public Information would have been very desirable for the 
neutralization of local partial views. 

3. Mayor: 

>Sympathies of the Russian people toward America have always 
been great ones, and acquaintance by Russians with political and 
economic life of America have had a positive influence as to de- 
velopment of democratic ideas in Russia. The democratic institutions 
and structure of life of the United States always attracted the broad 
masses of Russian people. If the American Committee on Public 
Information would continue to exist and would enlarge the scope 
of its activities, it would be of great importance in bi'inging near 
America and Russia. 

Chita, March 1, 1919. 
To Mr. Clarkin, Chita, D. S.: 

I am glad to fulfill your proposal to write you my sincere opinion 
about the publications that you had been so kind as to send me, as 
well as to tell you whether they have been of any utility for Russians 
at the present crisis. That is rather a difficult task, for it is eqiiiva- 
lent to the evaluation of the importance of activities of the American 
Press Bureau and its Siberian branches for the population of Siberia. 

It seems to me) that the United States of America through their 
Press Bureau have made the first attempt in the world to speak 
immediately with the people and not with the Government and its 
agents. I don't know whether it has been their intention, but it has 
proved to be so. 

Notwithstanding the comparatively close neighborhood of America 
and Siberia, broad circles of Siberian population did not know 
America. Even the intelligenzia did not know this country, although 
they had studied in schools the denominations of American rivers, 
lakes, and cities. More precise representation about the industrial 
force of America had only two groups of population — traders and 
industrials, and workmen, followers of social democracy, the the- 
oretics of which followed very attentively the economic successes of 
the trans-Atlantic Republic. But this knowledge was partial. The 
representation about American social life, about American schools, 
about the life of agricultural population, about ties of American pub- 
lic thought, etc., were very fragmental by all shades of Siberian popu- 
lation, and frequently even false. 

A most insignificant correction brought into this false representa- 
tion about America Russian emigrants who returned from America 
after the February revolution. Most of them had no general view 
on the many-folded and many-sided life of America ; they evidently 
knew only one corner of America, and a very narrow one. 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION, 259 

The first American publications in 1917 and 1918, in general, did 
not attain their end, and augmented very little the acquaintance with 
America among broad masses of Russian people. They were being 
sent mainly to governmental and public institutions, i. e., to a group 
of city inhabitants who were very deeply engaged in social-political 
affairs and strife and paid very little attention to publications which 
they were receiving from time to time. 

That is perhaps a generalization which is not quite true, but it was 
so in Irkutsk and trans-Baikalian Provinces in 1917 and in the first 
half of 1918. The circumstance that the material of the publications 
of the American Press Bureau was a very official one, and I would 
say dry, attributed to such an attitude toward them. 

Toward the end of 1918 circumstances changed fully. On the one 
side the Importance of America in the economic life of the world 
and its decisive and crushing part in the World War became not 
merely plain and sensibly clear, but the consciousness of that pene- 
trated to the very bottom of illiterate Siberian villages. At the same 
time over the Siberian population was pending the threat of a strong - 
and undesirable political and economic influence on the part of 
Japan. This especially alarmed the population, for the Japanese 
Government was supporting and helping monarchical and reactionary 
elements that appeared on the surface after the overthrow of Soviet 
power by Czecho-Slovaks. 

All that raised an intensive interest toward America which could 
not be sufficed by far by official telegrams and declarations. Just at 
that time started appearing the Friendly Word, which had put to 
itself much broader tasks than previous publications. But the new 
journal would not have acquired such a pi;blicity as it enjoyed if the 
bureau would not have come near to the population by opening 
branches in Siberia, and particularly in Chita. 

Through cooperative societies, which number only in the eastern 
part of trans-Baikalia reaches 500, the publications of the bureau 
were being distributed among the masses of rural population, and 
owing to the above-mentioned general interest in America they have 
been welcome visitors. 

But have they been useful to Russians? If utility will be evaluated 
by rubles and copecks, then of course not. But if one means utility, 
that knowledge precise representation about 'near and remote neigh- 
bors give us, then obviously they have been very useful ; from the 
chaos of fantastic representations about the land of dollars and 
trust companies has emerged the real America. 

But except the service that the publications of the bureau have 
rendered to Siberia and its population America itself has profited by 
them ; it has raised its authority and popularity. It is to be said 
that especially during the last time, perhaps owing to the wide in- 
formation activities of the bureau, the period of indefinite sympathies 
or unsympathies toward America on the part of the whole population 
has ended, and the position of certain public groups has proved to 
become definite. The turning point, without any doubt, has been the 



260 REPORT COMMITTEE OlsT PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

project of the league of nations, the decision of the peace conference 
concerning conference on Princes Island, and partly also the Habar- 
ovsk incident. 

Reactionary monarchical groups headed by various nominal govern- 
ments of separate Provinces of Siberia have realized that America is 
not intended to back them in all their desires, that it does not thirst 
to cover European Russia with blood only with the end to suffice 
' dark and exasperated masses and political parties of maximalists doc- 
trine by the rule "for one eye two, for a tooth a jaw" as it is being 
applied now in Siberia; but they are sincerely striving to establish 
perhaps a bad but nevertheless a civil peace, and want to diminish use- 
less bloodshed (Habarovsk). These groups are now showing their 
wrath toward America that they were hiding before. Counting with 
the physical power of America (these gentlemen are always acknowl- 
edging only physical force as a dog a stick) they have limited their 
actions with a few excesses only. 

Trading and industrial circles were for a long time unconditional 
partisans of America following their traditional, since 1905, feeling 
of enmity toward Japan. During the last time one begins to perceive 
also here a hesitation. I will not try to find out the reasons of this 
phenomenon, the more so for they are not difficult to understand, I 
only will mention the fact that President Wilson, about whom the 
representative of these groups, the Kadet Party, was speaking with 
respect, has suddenly become "Mister Wilson," and all his projects 
have proved to be "theoretical" ; briefly, the right Siberian press have 
made the same turning to the right as the Paris reactionary papers. 

Partisans of the fallen Soviet power who railed before the American 
militarism not less than the Anglo-French one practically have begun 
to confess the point of view of America, although officially they have 
not changed their position. In cases of crying violences workmen 
and peasants were striving to find protection, or at least sympathy, 
not at Frenchmen or Italians, but at representatives of America. 

These groups represent an insignificant minority of Siberian popiila- 
tion, while the great majority of Siberian peasants, a considerable 
part of workmen, and middle classes of city population — are true 
friends of America., 

And I think I may say that these sympathies are based upon a 
solid material foundation. The Siberian peasant needs agricultural 
machines which he may have quickly and comparatively cheap only 
from America. If Siberia has to become the arena of activities of 
foreign capital it would not be indifferent to the Siberian workmen 
and intelligenzia whether this will be Japanese, French, or American 
capital. Russian population has enough experience to know that 
Japanese capital would come not only with its machines (oftentimes 
imported from other countries), administration, but also with their 
own workmen and employees, that French capital would do the same 
(except importation of workmen), while American business men 
would not do that. 



REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION". 261 

Meantimes on Russian soft-bodied business men close connection 
witli American spirit of enterprise does not smile. 

The Siberian democracy is headed by two organizations — coopera- 
tives and Zemstvo and city self-governments. By informing them 
the American Press Bureau and its branches were informing the 
whole organized population. In Trans-Baikalia this has bee.n attained 
rather completely and even perfectly. 

The publications of the bureau interested but did not satisfy 
always. One was feeling lack of information about American co- 
operatives, municipal and workmen life, about social-political group- 
ing. The last numbers of Friendly Word show the tendency to dis- 
cuss also these sides of life of America. 

In connection with the departure of the branches of the American 
Press Bureau among Siberian readers of its publications arises the 
question whether the information activities of the bureau would con- 
tinue, and if it would so, in what a form. It is difficult to suppose 
that nations after this four years' slaughter just finished would be, 
satisfied by unorganized, incomplete, and oftentimes pursuing prac- 
tical aims, information of newspapers party and sometimes commer- 
cial interests of which impede them from being objective. It seems 
to me that big weekly newspapers, like the London Times, the Paris 
Temps and Matin, the New York Tribune, Herald, and others, the 
Philadelphia Public Ledger, etc., are giving little real representation 
about the life of their respective country as a lively street of some 
large city about domestic life of these people and their public and 
scientific interests. On the other side, one has to fear that these 
papers would swallow the whole flora of the terrestrial globe. . . 
Therefore, I think that such brief reviews of life of the country 
which the Friendly Word started to give to Russian readers one 
should prefer to huge bunches of newspaper paper overheaped with 
bagatelles and information of transitory interest. While closing the 
branches of its Committee on Public Information America would, per- 
haps, continue issuing yearbooks or monthly papers that might be 
published in languages of the whole civilized world. 

For immediate collaboration in such publications might be ad- 
mitted representatives of all ties of social, economic, and political 
life and thought, as by this the authority and wealth of contents 
would be augmented. 

I think that I am not mistaken when I say that, owing to the ap- 
proaching activities of representatives of the American Press Bureau, 
democratic America will never again become a strange country of 
industrial kings to the population of Siberia, and that Siberian and 
American rural population and workmen will establish in the next 
future, through their economic organizations, the cooperatives, a close 
business and spiritual collaboration. 
Yours, truly, 

K. Lux, 
Secretary of Trans-Baikalian Union of Cooperative Societies. 



262 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOIsT. 



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KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC USTFORMATIOliT. 263 



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264 EEPQRT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATIOIsr. 

Addresses contained in mailing lists {grand total, 7,091). 

Irkutsk Province (total, 5,908 addresses) : 

Schools 991 

Peasants' unions 1,293 

Cooperative unions 758 

Government institutions 1, 025 

Hospitals 98 

Educational societies 50 

Telegraph offices 233 

Individuals 1, 460 

Yakutsk ProAdnce (total,' 77 addresses): 

Schools J 50 

Government institutions 27 

Yeneseesk Province (1,106 addresses) : 

Schools 1,000 

Government institutions 106 

Note. — The list of local agents includes about 40 individuals, scat- 
tered throughout . the Provinces of Irkutsk, Yakutsk, and Yeneseesk, 
who have offered their services for the distribution of our literature. 
They handle from 10 to 200 copies apiece. 

Translation of letter from Irkutsk Province Professional- 
Political Peasants' Union Executive Committee. 

Iekutsk, December 13, 1918. 
Ameeican Committee on Public Information, Irkutsk. 

Deab Sirs: I have read with pleasure the pamphlets which you 
have sent me, namely : Letters of an American Friend, American 
Actions in Siberia, The Friendly Word, and others. 

I think that these pamphlets will meet among the intelligent 
readers of our villages with due understanding and friendly sym- 
pathy. The sobriety of opinions and the definite decisiveness of 
their tones are the good features of the articles. One feels the voice 
of democracy sound in these articles — democracy which is conscious 
of its national interests and aspirations, which is conscious of its 
power and real possibilities. The statements of friendly feelings of 
the American democracy toward the Russian workaday people will 
produce a favorable impression on our readers, especially if such 
statements are followed up by friendly acts. We already see these 
friendly acts in the behavior of the American troops on Russian 
soil, in the practical measures of giving economical aid to Rus- 
sia, and we would be glad to see the same friendly attitude in the 
question which is most vital for the Russian people; the question 
whether or not the Russian people will take part in the conclusion of 
the international peace treaty. 

We think that the American democracy, whose voice is practically 
decisive among the powers that have taken part in the great con- 
flict, will give a possibility to the Russian democracy to state its 
national aspirations at the conference where the peace terms will be 
worked out and also to attain a maximum of its national interests. 



KEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOKMATIOE". 265 

We are aware that the nature of our participation will depend en- 
tirely upon ourselves. Our international situation will correspond 
to the state of our internal affairs. With a collapse going on in the 
interior we can not count on an honorable standing on the inter- 
national " front." 

Nevertheless, we not only believe, we feel sure that Russia will 
exist as an independent country. " The darker the night, the brighter 
the stars." He who knows Russian history knows what the Russian 
people is capable of. We have survived the domination of the Tar- 
tars; we have successfully emerged from the great collapse at the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, and we gave the whole world 
an example of a great national war in the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century. We will also overcome the political, social, and eco- 
nomical collapse of to-day. 

The regeneration of our country is already commencing. It is com- 
ing from beneath the surface, from the villages. Let the political 
leanings and currents of the parties on the surface change as they 
will ; let the fierce political struggle, which is as bitter as it is aim- 
less, continue in its usual way ; let the " temporary Government's com- 
binations " be created or destroyed for some one or another occa- 
sional reason ; these actions are not those of the real people of the 
country. Their hour has not yet struck. They do not yet feel them- 
selves strong enough or well enough organized to express their power 
and feelings in national government affairs. It is, however, from 
them, from the God-forsaken villages that the real Russian Govern- 
ment and the real Russian strength is being formed. Notwithstand- 
ing its being aback of civilization, notwithstanding its lack of 
experts in the various branches of social and economical life, 
the villages are making their efforts to organize their producing 
and consuming forces, their own local governments, their own educa- 
tional systems, and all on the basis of true democracy. 

Reports are coming in daily from the villages and we are well 
acquainted with the heart, the thought, and the purpose of the people. 
It is our task now to give our support and assistance to the organi- 
zation of the foundations of our future Government, to strengthen the 
consumers, producers, and credit cooperative unions of the masses, 
to maintain the power of the zemstvos, in order that at a certain time 
of the future the great workaday masses may be united on the basis 
of creating a single stable State out of the now disconnected parts' 
of our country. This, as we see it, is the way to the rebirth of our 
country. 

We think that the American democracy which is friendly toward 
us will help us to lay the foundations of the future Russian State 
and will help us in building up here a new life. This faith has been 
brought to us by the friendly announcements of the American democ- 
racy and the friendly acts of the American Government. 
, E. Smiknov, 

Secretary of the Executive Committee 

of the Peasants' Union of Irkutsk. 



266 EEPOKT COMMITTEE OlST PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

Translation of a letter published in the Nashe Derevnya, 
Irkutsk, February 25, 1919 : 

Village Beatskoie, District Nijneudinsk. 
E])iTOE Nashe Deeevivya, Irkutsk. 

Dear Sir : The population of the Bratskaya and Bolshemamurskaya 
Counties are reading witli great Interest the American Publicity Bu- 
reau literature vs'hich is being sent to them by the Irkutsk Govern- 
ment Peasants' Union. They are interested in this literature for two 
reasons, first because the desire is constantly growing among them 
for a knowledge of what is going on in the outside world and second, 
and chiefly, because they are longing for a new and democratic order 
of things. The order of American life finds great approval among the 
majority of our population ; the Siberian wants to live as the Ameri- 
can does. 

Generally, a great need of literature of rural, domestic, and co- 
operative character is felt. And although the peasants' cooperative 
paper Nashe Derevnya gives us such answer to these needs as it can, 
it is far from what we, the peasant breadmakers, want to receive and 
what we require of the press. 

Give us more literature, you who are acquainted with our interests 
and who appreciate our start toward the light. Send to the villages 
more books and pamphlets which are written according to the needs 
of the peasant population. 
Respectfully, yours, 

A. KOKOEIN. 



REPORT COMMITTEE O'N PUBLIC INFORMATION. 



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REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 269 

Committee articles printed in the Ekaterinl)urg papers between 

Dec. 12 and Feb. 11, 1919. 
Uralskaya Jizni : 

Economic Help in Russia.* 

Land Reform in California. 

How War has Effected Schools in America. 

Night Schools in America. 

How Wilson Brought Industrial Peace. 

Wilson's Explanation of His Third Peace Point.* 

Agricultural Finance in America.* 

History of Tanks. 

Prohibition of Child Labor in America. 

Mrs. Wilson to Allied Women. 

Public Education in America. 

The Steel Mule. 
Otetchesvennia Viedomosti : 

Work of American Red Cross.* 

How the American Army is Chosen.* 

Work of Prof. Russell. 

Quotation, first editorial in Friendly Word. 

Activity of Y. M. C. A.* 

Note on Dr. E. J. Billion.* 

Wilson's Explanation of His Third Peace Point 

Significance of recent Congressional Elections in America.* 
Gorni Krai : 

American Policy in Siberia.* 

How the American Army is Chosen.* 

Living Conditions of American Worknjen. 

Eight Hour Day in America. 

Growth of League of Nations Idea.* 
Ural Economy : 

Life of the American Farmer.* 

Financial Facilities of the American Farmer.* 

Education of the American Farmer.* 
A complete analysis of all material in the Ekaterinburg papers 
touching America will be found in my report letters in my ofiice files. 

Wm. Adams Beown, jr. 

Articles sent to Svobodnaya Perm. 

Various News. 

Freedom of Religious Worship. 

Newspapers in America. 

Wholesale Ship Building. 

Telephone System. 

Y. M. C. A. Pamphlet. 

Farmers Non-Partizan League. 

1 Articles written or prepared by Wm. Adams Brown, jr. 



270 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC) INFORMATION". 

Organizing Three Million Farmers. 

Wliy Farmers Supported the War, 

Land for Returned Soldiers. 

Industrial Peace. 

Justice to Workers. 

Influence of War on American Education. 

Democratic Education. 

United States and Poland. 

Polish Heroes. 

Use of American Fleet after the War. 

Articles sent to papers in other cities than Ekaterinberg. 

Sent January 20 : 

Tieumen, Svobodnoe Slovo— 

American Activity in Siberia. 

Special Government Loans to Farmers. 

Tractors in Agriculture in America. 

Difficult Position of American Socialists. 
Tobolsk, Tobolsk Peoples Word — 

American Activity in Siberia. 

Schools of America are Clubs for the People. 

Why Farmers Supported the War. 

Learning Agriculture on these Farms. 
Petropavlosk, Edinstvo — 

American Activity in Siberia. 

Article of Walsh on Democratic Principles in Industry. 

Land Allotments for Returning American Soldiers. 

Rotation of Crops. 
Irbit, Irbutski Viestnik — 

American Activity in Siberia. 

Article of Walsh on Democratic Principles in Industry. 

Tractors in Agriculture in America. 

Public Opinion in America. 
To be sent two weeks later: 

Tieumen, Svobodnoe Slovo— 

A Country League of Nations. 

Rotation of Crops. 

Land Lots for Returning Soldiers. 

Y. M. C. A. Soldiers. 
Tobolsk, Tobolskoe Norodnoe Slovo — 

Article of Walsh on Democratic Principles in Industry. 

Rotation of Crops. 

Various News. 

Y. M. C. A. Pamphlet. 
Petropavlosk, Edinstvo — 

United States and Labor. 

Effort Toward Democratic Education in the United States. 

Why the Farmers Supported the War. 

Y. M. C. A. Pamphlet. 



• REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 271 
Articles sent to out-of-town papers. 

Irbit, Irbitski Viestnik: 

Insurance of Soldiers' Health. 

Steel Mule. 

School Rooms Help in Industrial Democracy. 

Special Government Loans to Farmers. 

Y. M. C. A. Pamphlet. 

Articles given to , of the Russian Information Bureau, to take 

to Omsk for the newspaper " Russian Army.'" 

What the American Soldier Reads. 

Kinematograph Accompanies the Soldier. 

Armament for tlie American Soldier. 

Trying out Airmen in America. 

Soldiers in Camp Read. 

Taft on Training Camps. 

One Hundred and Fifty Students under Arms. 

Further, asked him to ask Winters for the draft system article. 

Letter from Mrs. lanchevetski reporting on the work done 
for the committee in Cheliabinsk : 

Cheliabinsk. February 12. 
Dear Mr. Beown : I beg to advise you that up to the present time 
vv^e have not received Nos. 4 and 5 of the journal Friendly Word. 
The other journals and brochures sent by you were received in the 
. following amounts: 

Copies. 

(1) Friendly Word, No. 1 2,500 

(2) Friendly Word, No. 2 3,000 

(3) Friendly Word, No. 3 1, .500 

(4) American Activity in Siberia 3,000 

(5) German Attempt to Control Russia 2,500 

(6) 14 Peace Points of President Wilson 1,500 

(7) Young Men's Christian Association.- 1, 500 

(8) Posters of the League of Nations; Speech of 

President Wilson, Sept. 27, 1918 8,000 

(9) Letters of an American Friend 2,500 

(10) America and Peace 1, 750 

(11) German peace offer posters 1,000 

The literature received is distributed in Cheliabinsk and the sur- 
rounding district among teachers, priests, schools, liigh scliools, co- 
operative societies, hospitals, military hospital stations, newspaper 
offices, libraries, reading rooms, army staffs, and private individuals. 

A part of the literature received is sent to Zalotoust to the Zem- 
skaya Uprava for similar distribution among the population of Zala- 
toust and the surrounding district. 



272 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

In Cheliabinsk an office has been organized where all who wish to 
may receive daily the free literature of the committee. This office is 
open from 9 to 12 and from 3 to 6 daily. For the work of this office 
there has been engaged a secretary, Mr. Sokolof, a journalist, weU 
acquainted with publicity work. 

The literature of the committee interests every one very much. 
There are received daily new requests for sending literature and ex- 
pressions of gratitude for the sympathetic attitude of America toward 
Russia. 

For the expenses of the office and mailing I gave Mr. Sokolof 550 
rubles, for which he will account. He will also account for the dis- 
tribution of the literature. A full account of the expenses incurred 
by Mr. lanchevetski we can give only in Omsk, where he is now. In 
the absence of Mr. lanchevetski, the office will be in charge of Mr.' 
Sokolof. 

Yours, truly, 

M. Ianchevetski. 

Letter from M. E. Dementief, Tiumen: 

Jantjaey 24 1919. 
Deak Sik : With sincere thanks I confirm the receipt of the journal 
the Friendly Word, Nos. 1 and 2, several copies, and several pamphlets 
which I will try to distribute among the population. Many replies 
were received to the proposition made in your circular with regard 
to the receiving of the journal by individuals here, and there will be 
many more, so that it will hardly be possible to satisfy all who desire 
the journal, and as it will hardly be convenient to trouble you with 
sending the journal to many individual addresses, wouldn't it perhaps 
be better to do as follows : Send a lai-ger number of copies to my 
address, and then I, as director of the Tiumen Public Bank, member 
of the Householders' Committee, president of the Association of the 
Clergy, and acquainted with many different classes of the population, 
can distribute them, thus relieving you of the inconvenience of send- 
ing to a large number of addresses every week. At present you may 
send 50 or more copies weekly. 
Yours, etc., 

M. E. Demetief. 

Letter from the Teachers' Union of the Ural : 

January 17, 1919. 
Deae Sik : On the 14th of the present month I had the pleasure of 
receiving 50 copies of the journal Friendly Word, kindly sent by you. 
Expressing my thanks for the consideration shown our organization 
by you, I am glad to testify to the real interest on the part of the 
members of the union in your serious and interesting journal. The 
number of members of our union is more than 150 in Ekaterinberg, 
and I was able to give your journal to only a part of them. 
Very sincerely, yours, 

E. Stoeogi, 
Chairman Union Teachers. 



KEPOET COMMITTEE OHST PUBLIC INFORMATION. 273 

Letter from the Ekaterinberg Educational-Economic As- 
sociation (Kulturno-Ekonomiclieski Soiuz) : 

Januaey 18, 1919. 

Deae Sir: The Executive Committee of the Educational-Economic 
Association of Elcaterinberg expresses its deep gratitude for Nos. 1 
and 2 of the Friendly Word that were sent to it. 

The committee fully shares the thought that a friendly union of 
peoples is possible only when there is the fullest and most many-sided 
mutual acquaintance with the conditions of life and the ideals of the 
peoples. 

The committee takes advantage of the opportunity to say that in 
this connection the Friendly Word fully accomplishes its end. There- 
fore the committee is taking every measure toward the distribution 
of the journal among its members and asks you, if possible, to in- 
crease the number of copies sent. 
Yours, etc., 

D. , Vice Chairman. 

Letter from the divisional traffic superintendent of the 
Perm Railroad (receiving 200 copies) : 

January 10, 1919. 

Dear Sir : By the present I inform you that the copies of the 

Friendly Word sent us are being given out by hand to the employees 

and the workmen, and have won the sympathy of the readers, and I 

therefore respectfully ask the bureau to send 800 copies every week. 

Yours, etc., 

, Superintendent. 

Work in Russia — Archangel. 

[Report by Read Lewis.] 

Archangel, Becemher ^6", 1918. 
Edgar Sisson, 

General Director.^ Foreign Section.^ 

Committee on Public InforTnation.^ Washington. 
I have established on the basis of half support the Ameri- 
can Sentinel, published at Archangel for the American 
troops in northern Russia. The paper was started and is 
edited and published by Capt. Roger Lewis, of the Ameri- 
can Red Cross, formerly Associated Press representative in 
Petrograd, and myself. Its cost, which amounts to the equiv- 
alent of about $150 a week, is borne jointly by the Red Cross 
and the Committee on Public Information. 

I found on my arrival here a very real need of some med- 
ium which would furnish the American forces with regular 

121033—20 18 



274 EEPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 

news. Everyone in Archangel feels pretty much cut off 
from the rest of the world, and the tropps at the front had 
no way of getting even such news as was available in Arch- 
angel. To keep the men in regular contact with the out- 
side world and the important events taking place there, as 
well as with home news, seemed essential if their spirit and 
morale were to be maintained through the isolation and 
rigors of the long, dark winter months. The difficulties of 
getting together enough English type to print any kind 
of a paj)er and of finding typesetters were in a manner 
overcome and the paper was started. Shortage of paper 
makes it possible to print only about 2,500 to 3,000 copies a 
week. These are distributed to all American units and all 
English units. The paper thus serves in a small way as a 
channel of American propaganda with the English, and will, 
I trust, be one means of creating better feeling between the 
English and American forces in north Russia. 

The Sentinel is carried on quite independently of my 
regular Russian work, to which my chief energies are de- 
voted. 

Respectfully, yours, 

Read Lewis. 

The Work in China. 

The very remarkable success of the committee's work in 
China was due to the inspiring cooperation of Dr. Paul 
Reinsch, the American Minister, the brilliant and devoted 
services of Mr. Carl Crow, the Compub representative, and 
the effective and unstinted assistance of patriotic American 
residents in China. "While not completely descriptive of the 
work or achievements, there is pride and interest in the fol- 
lowing niemorial to the President of the United States 
unanimously adopted by the American Chamber of Com- 
merce of Shanghai, China, indorsing the work of the Com- 
mittee on Public Information: 

Until the outbreak of the war the only American and European 
news received in China was sent out by Reuters and by the German 
agency, Ostasiatische Lloyd. The latter agency, which was discon- 
tinued on China's entrance into the war, made no pretense of being 
other than a German agency devoted solely to German news. While 
Reuters is the most international of existing news agencies, it is 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 275 

edited in London primarily for tlie Britisli colonies and paid little 
attention to American affairs. The American news published by 
Reuters consisted very largely of reports of crimes and corruption and 
American policies were seldom referred to except when British inter- 
ests were affected. (Some specific examples of this are given in 
Appendix A.) 

Through the connection between Reuters and the Kokusai (the 
official Japanese news agency) the Japanese are able to present their 
views in China, as news sent from Tokyo is distributed by Reuters. 
This means that when there is a controversial issue between Japan 
and America, Japanese views are given the widest publicity in China, 
while American opinions are learned here only after they have been 
edited in London. In the past when there has been an issue between 
Japan and America only the Japanese side has been fully presented 
in China. This arrangement betwe'en the Kokusai and Reuters is 
similar to the arrangement between the Associated Press and Reuters 
with this important difference — that Japanese news is sent direct to 
China while American news sent by the Associated Press must come 
through London. 

In addition to this arrangement with Reuters the Japanese have 
organized a semiofficial news agency which supplies Far Eastern 
news to Chinese publications. Japanese consuls act as correspondents 
for this agency, the dispatches being sent in code. 

From time to time prominent Americans who visited the Far East 
have noted this condition and have thought to remedy it by organizing 
an American news service. But very high cable tolls across the 
Pacific and the small number of publications in China able to sub- 
scribe to a news service always made such an organization impos- 
sible. As a commercial proposition an American news agency in the 
Far East could not be made profitable for many years. Reuters with 
its long established connections is able to operate here only because 
of the support it receives from organized British commercial interests 
and the British Government. 

This situation has been partly remedied by the Committee on Pub- 
lic Information which, at the beginning of the war, arranged for the 
interception in Shanghai of a daily news report sent by wireless from 
San Diego and later from San Francisco. This service has helped to 
keep Americans in China in touch with the war activities of their 
homeland and has informed the Chinese of the part America has taken 
in the war. Had it not been for this report, Chinese would never 
have learned of the very important part America has played in the 
war, for Reuters report has been devoted very largely to telling of 
British victories and has steadily minimized the part played by the 
Americans and French. (See Appendix B.) 

During the last few months of the war the Committee on Public 
Information was very active in China and during that time conducted 
most effective war propaganda and has also perfected plans Avhich if 
carried out will serve to make American influence in China stronger 



276 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC UsTFORMATIOIsT. 

than it has ever been before. We will mention a few of the activities 
of the committee : 

(1) An American news agency has been organized to take over the 
work of translating American news and distributing it to the Chinese 
papers. This news agency is now supplying the news to more than three 
hundred Chinese newspapers, some of whom are paying for the serv- 
ice. American news now predominates in the Chinese papers, and 
this American agency, though only a few months old, is now supplying 
the bulk of the foreign news and comment published in the Chinese 
press. 

As this agency develops it will be able to (a) develop into a news 
distributing agency which is partly if not wholly self-supporting, (6) 
supply American officials and firms with translations of comment 
from the Chinese papers, (c) disseminate commercial and other news 
which will be of benefit to America's interest and of special help to 
Americans doing business in China, (d) help the Chinese newspapers 
to develop and expand their influence, thereby creating vehicles for 
the expression of public opinion and bringing China in line with 
the political development of the rest of the world. It is the first 
agency of its sort to be organized in China and has started with the 
hearty support of the Chinese publishers. 

It may be pointed out that the Chinese newspaper publishing in- 
dustry is still in its infancy, but is the most rapidly growing business 
in China. While 10 years ago there were less than a dozen there are 
now more than 400 dailies published in the Chinese language. 

(2) The publication of the war addresses of President Wilson, 
in both Chinese and English, has been arranged with Chinese pub- 
lishers. These are to be used as textbooks in the Chinese schools. 

(3) More than 400 volunteer agents located in every province of 
China have been secured. These agents undertake the work of dis- 
tributing literature and of reporting on Chinese opinion. They are 
all Americans, either American missionaries or employees of American 
firms. Although only recently organized they form an effective and 
efficient force and are able in the shortest possible time to distribute 
throughout China any literature it is thought desirable to send 
out. It is the most efficient organization of its kind in the Far 
East. No other country has now and none can form an organization 
of this kind, for no other country is so ably represented in the interior 
of China. (See Appendix 0.) 

(4) A mailing list which will comprise the names of prominent 
Chinese in every locality in China is now being compiled. This list 
when complete will contain the names of 50,000 of the most important 
citizens of the Chinese Republic. If kept up to date it will enable 
the American Government to speak directly to the Chinese people. 

(5) The representative of the Film Division of the Committee on 
Public Information has just arrived in China. The work this division 
of the committee can do will be very valuable, and doubtless it can 
be carried on without expense to the Government, for the rental of the 
films will cover the cost of operation. 



KEPOET COMMITTEE OlST PUBLIC INEOEMATION. 277 

(6) The representative of the committee has in mind many other 
plans for advancing American interests and influence in China. 
Among them we may mention the promotion of tlie publication of 
trade magazines, the translation and publication of American books, 
the preparation of suitable textbooks for the Chinese schools, the 
collection of crop reports, the distribution of American seed to 
Chinese farmers, the distribution of American school and college 
catalogues, etc. Many of these activities will be carried out without 
expense to the United States Government and only need the atten- 
tion of the committee representatives. 

In conclusion, the American Chamber of Commerce, representing 
more than 100 American business firms and individuals doing busi- 
ness in China, most heartily indorses the work the Committee on 
Public Information is doing in China, and expresses the earnest hope 
that it will continue its work here and will be suppUed with funds 
sufficient to carry out its program. Unless this is done, America's 
influence in China may not be felt to the extent that America deserves 
because her voice will not be heard. 



APPENDIX A. 

EEUTEES AND AMERICAN NEWS. 

The following excerpts were selected at random from Reuters re- 
port of July and August, 1912. They give a fair idea of the character 
of American news Reuters has always circuLited. Reuters has always 
emphasized American crime, political graft, and commercial hypoc- 
risy. Until the Committee on Public Information began work in 
China this was the only news about America received in China 
and it was from this news alone that the Chinese formed their opin- 
ions of current American affairs. The excerpts referred to above 
follow : 

New York, July 26.— There is rioting in the Paint Creek mining 
district of West Virginia. The miners have cut off telephones and 
telegraphs and in the absence of the news the papers are publishing 
the wildest report of flghting with bombs, machine guns, and rifles. 
The most creditable is that two private detectives were killed. 

New "York, July 28. — Communications with Paint Creek the coal 
mining district of West Virginia, has been restored. One miner was 
killed in the riots. Many shots were fired, but nobody else was 
injured. 

New York, July 30. — There was a sensational climax to the Rosen- 
thal case yesterday evening when the grand jury indicted Police 
Lieutenant Becker on a charge of murder. Becker was arrested at 
the police station and brought to the Criminal Court where he was 
arraigned. He was remanded, bail being refused. The indictment 
of Becker followed the evidence of three gamblers who have been 
detained for some time charged with complicity in the killing. 



278 KEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOKMATION. 

New York, July 31.— A man who lias been arrested in tlie Rosen- 
thal murder case has sworn to an affidavit that three police, officials 
and a city official divided graft to the amount of gold $2,500,000 dur- 
ing the past year from gambling and other illegal resorts. 

New York, August 12. — A negro and six Italians were electrocuted 
at Sing Sing Prison yesterday, the largest number for one day 
hitherto. 

New York, August 12. — The provisions of the Panama Canal bill 
excluding ships owned by the American railroads from the use of the 
canal is arousing the fiercest opposition in railroad circles, which 
declare that the provision has established a monopoly of the coastwise 
trade. 

The American press has combined to attack the bill in the warmest 
language as an act of incredible folly and wanton selfishness. 

New York, August 15. — In connection with the police graft investi- 
gation. District Attorney Whitman has unearthed bank accounts show- 
ing that high officials have accumulated as much as a million dollars. 
Lieutenant Becker, whose salary is $2,000 a year, has deposited 
$68,845 since November. 

New York, August 22. — A thousand pounds sterling reward has been . 
anonymously placed' at the disposal of the district attorney for the 
arrest of Lefty Louis and Gyp-the-Blood who are wanted, and for a 
complete round-up of persons suspected of complicity in the murder 
of the gambler Rosenthal. The police are not eligible for the reward. 
The district attorney is receiving written threats of death. 

Washington, August 22.— There are indications of a hot political 
campaign owing to allegations made in the Senate by Senator Boies 
Penrose of Pennsylvania that the trusts contributed large sums to 
Mr. Roosevelt's political campaign in 1904. Mr. Roosevelt has pub- 
lished letters showing that he had forbidden the acceptance of such 
contributions. 

New York, August 25. — Julia Curran, an Irish governess, who was 
found dead in a low-class hotel here, is believed to have been mur- 
dered by a man who lured her there. The police describe the death 
as due to natiiral causes. The coroner's surgeon suggested that the 
police were trying to hush up the crime in order to save the reputa- 
tion of a graft protected house. 

London, August 26. — The papers emphatically decline to accept 
President Taft's argument anent the canal bill, which they regard 
as a mere legal quibble and worthier of a pettifogging attorney than 
the President of a great Republic. 

APPENDIX B. 

Reuters reports since the war began have been widely published 
around Canton, the Chinese papers copying them from the British 
papers of Hongkong. In view of this fact the following excerpt from 
a report by an American official in Canton is significant : 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 279 

" I think it will interest you to hear that I have been told by a 
well-educated Chinese friend that he has not seen any news in the 
local press of the arrival of the American troops in France, and that 
the Germans here have been spreading reports that the A,mericans 
have no heart in fighting against them." 

APPENDIX C. 

The volunteer agents of the committee recently distributed 50,000 
posters, copy of which is attached. These posters were placed on 
city gates, at the entrances to Yamens and in other prominent places. 
In many cities they enlisted the help of local officials, who lent. the 
services of the police. A large number of these agents have reported 
to the Committee on Public Information as to the reception accorded 
the posters. 

These agents are in frequent communication with the Shanghai 
office of the Committee on Public Information and it is believed that 
they supply more complete and accurate reports on Chinese opinion-, 
than can be secured from any other agency. 

Counting the selUng stations of the Standard Oil, Singer Sewing 
Machine Co., and British-American Tobacco Co., together with chapels, 
reading rooms, and mission schools, the committee now has at its 
disposal more than 2,000 places for the display of pictures and 
posters. These cover every important point in China. 

Work in Argentina, Urttgtjay, and Paraguay. 
(By H. H. Sevier, Commissioner.) 

On June 19, 1918, your commissioner assumed tlie direction 
of the activities of your committee in Argentina, Uruguay, 
and Paraguay, taking over the headquarters offices which 
had been opened by your representative, Lieut. F. E. Acker- 
man, U. S. N, E. The inauguration of an educational, cam- 
paign along the lines decided upon by your chairman and the 
then director of your Foreign Educational Division imme- 
diately followed. 

The preliminary organization effected by Lieut. Acker- 
man was perfected and arrangements for the carrying out 
of the work on a broad and comprehensive scale were made. 
Most attention, at the outset, was devoted to the mobilization 
of the press of the three republics and the establishment of 
such relations with each individual newspaper as would in- 
sure the widest publicity for informative reports of Amer- 
ica's effort in the great war, our war aims and peace pur- 
poses, the magnitude of our preparations, and the determina- 



280 REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INEOEMATION. 

tioii of the American people to engage their entire resources, 
if necessary, to bring about complete victory for the cause 
to which they had committed themselves. 

Your commissioner was at once convinced that the most 
effective means of securing the attention and respect and 
sympathy of the most of the peoples of our sister republics 
was to tell them our story, day after day, as forcefully as 
possible, through the medium of their newspapers. The 
percentage of literacy in Argentina and Uruguay, particu- 
larly, is remarkably high, and every newspaper of any im- 
portance at all in those countries has a considerable follow- 
ing. The good will and cooperation of the leading journals 
was secured at the beginning, and within a reasonable length 
of time 90 per cent of the publications, of all classes in the 
countries named, were receiving and using our service. The 
newspapers of the cities and towns carried daily a specially 
prepared cable service covering official announcements from 
Washington, the development of our war preparations, and 
the extent of our participation in the acutal fighting; the 
progress of our shipbuilding, munitions manufacture, and 
the financial, moral, and other aid extended to our Allies. 
These news stories were frequently played up with illustra- 
tions of our air and sea craft, our camps, cantonments and 
trenches, our factories, and our guns ; and with photographs 
of our statesmen, soldiers, and citizen workers in every 
branch of war activity. 

Weekly and class publications were regmlarly supplied 
with special articles and illustrations, carefully prepared to 
meet their particular requirements and style. The tri- 
weekly, semiweekly, and weekly press of the Provinces was 
furnished with condensed news stories assembled from the 
more important developments of the period between publica- 
tion. 

It should be mentioned that all news stories and special 
articles were translated by experts in our offices, and always 
in the language of the publication receiving our service. 
During the periods of important military operations and 
through the exciting times preceding the armistice a day 
and night service was maintained, with our offices in con- 
stant touch with the great newspapers of the three countries. 
In submitting our matter we invariably stipulated that it 



EEPOET COMMITTEE OIsT PUBLIC IFEORMATIOIT. 281 

was offered for reproduction either in total or in part, at the 
discretion of the editor, and that no credit to the committee 
was necessary. In many instances, however, our credit line 
was carried, and in no instance, to our knowledge, was our, 
matter garbled or falsely construed. 

The value and importance of such a service may be more 
fully appreciated if it is understood that before the advent 
of your committee the amount of news of any character con- 
cerning the United States carried by South American pub- 
lications was practically negligible. The European news 
agencies occupied the field without opposition of conse- 
quence. The French and English associations naturally de- 
voted their services to the interests of their own countries. 
The affairs of the United -States, even our war activities, 
were treated lightly. Under subsidies of the German Gov- 
ernment and German capitalists three daily newspapers were 
published in Buenos Aires. One, written in the Spanish 
language, was a positive force, because of the skill with which 
it distorted the facts and the cleverness of its editorial mis- 
representation of the cause of the Allies. The other two, 
printed in German, gave aid and comfort to the Teutonic 
element. 

Fortunately, there are now two American news associa- 
tions — ^the Associated Press and the United Press — operating 
successfully in South America with a rapidly increasing 
clientele. They are furnishing an excellent and comprehen- 
sive service and will undoubtedly prove indispensable in 
carrying on the campaign, for the permanent establishment 
of mutual knowledge, understanding, and friendship which 
your committee conceived and placed in operation. 

An important feature of the work of your Buenos Aires 
office was the preparation, printing, and distribution of pam- 
phletSj posters, circulars, etc. A list of all American busi- 
ness concerns was secured. A card index indicated how 
much matter each could eff-ectively distribute. The packing 
houses, banks, shippers, merchants, and selling agencies 
cheerfully agreed to inclose our literature in their daily cor- 
respondence. Many patriotic institutions and individuals 
took from us copies of the speeches of President Wilson and 
other leaders by the thousands, forwarding them to their rep- 
resentatives and customers in all sections of the country. 



282 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION'. 

The ever increasing demand from these sources indicated the 
interest with which America's message was being received. 

The photographs sent from Washington were captioned 
and catalogued on their arrival. They were used in profu- 
sion in newspapers and magazines both with and without 
explanatory articles. In addition, and perhaps most effec- 
tive, were the exhibitions of the pictures in public places. 
For such displays some 100 or more light, attractive frames 
were designed, each frame carrying 12 photographs. These 
were placed in the show windows of the largest business 
houses, the lobbies of the leading hotels, and the reading 
rooms of various social, commercial, and workingmen's clubs. 
In every city or town of any importance one or more of these 
frames was conspicuously located. By a carefully worked- 
out system we were able to change these displays once a week. 
In the offices of the committee files of such American news- 
papers, magazines, trade journals, etc., as were sent us or 
could be purchased, were kept. These, together with our 
Government reports, the Official Bulletin, authoritative arti- 
cles on banking, industrial, manufacturing, agricultural, and 
other subjects by American experts were at the disposition 
of the general public. From them data was obtained by 
educators, journalists, and students. We wrote articles on 
given subjects and assembled facts and figures for addresses 
delivered to various organizations and societies. Editors of 
Argentina, Spanish, French, Italian, and British publica- 
tions were constantly supplied with material which was de- 
sired in order to answer statements of enemy writers. 

Personal association with leaders of South American 
thought, was not overlooked or neglected. Your commis- 
sioner was frequently extended the privilege of addressing 
the universities and schools in response to requests from the 
student bodies for information concerning " North America." 
-A sincere desire on the part of many students to attend uni- 
versities in the United States, in order that they might per- 
fect themselves in the English or " North American " lan- 
guage and study our life, our laws, and our business methods, 
was developed, and at the suggestion and with the assistance 
of Dr. Ernesto Nelson, of Buenos Aires, and Dr. Galves, of 
the University of Chili, a plan for an exchange of North 
American for South American students was worked out and 



REPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC lE-FORMATIO:^. 283 

about to be placed in operation when the activities of the 
committee were suspended. 

The moving-picture feature of the committee's work did 
not develop until the arrival of Mr. Ernest L. Starr, who 
arrived in October. No films of any consequence had been 
received from the Division of Films up to that time. Mr. 
Starr was assigned to both Argentina and Chili by your 
commissioner, and later to Uruguay. It should be stated 
that Mr. Starr achieved remarkable success with his exhibi- 
tions, conducting the film campaign with energy and ability. 
In view of the early closing of the committee's activities it 
was agreed that Mr. Starr would report direct to the com- 
mittee, covering all phases of film propaganda. 

Your commissioner is under obligations to Mr. Frederico 
Crocker, of Montevideo, who acted as local representative in 
Paraguay; to William Dawson, Esq., American consul at 
Montevideo, and to the American colony of Uruguaj'- in 
general. The assistance of Hon. Daniel Mooney, American 
minister, and the American residents of Asuncion, was of 
much value in our efforts in Paraguay. 

The committee's activities in Chili are covered by the 
reports of Mr. A. A. Preciado up to October, 1918. Mr. 
Presiado served as the committee's representative until that 
time, when the writer assumed charge of the Santiago office 
under instructions from Washington. The armistice shortly 
followed Mr. Preciado's retirement, and the activities from 
then until the close were mostly in the handling of the 
important news incident to that event. 

Work in Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia. 
(By O. N. Geiffis, Commissioner.) 

In this final report of the activities of the Lima office of 
the United States Committee on Public Information, cover- 
ing the territory of Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia, it is neces- 
sary to note that the territory to be covered was widely scat- 
tered; that journalism in these countries is still extremely 
provincial, and that communication and transport are slow 
and uncertain. 



284 EEPOET COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INEOEMATIOHT. 

This handicap was offset somewhat by the fact that the 
writer of this report, who was placed in charge of the Lima 
office, had been a resident in Lima for the previous five or six 
years and for that period of time had been handling a pub- 
licity organization, in the form of an Anglo- American news- 
paper. The West Coast Leader. It was possible to place the 
services of the Leader organization — its agents, correspond- 
ents, and friends— entirely at the disposition of the com- 
mittee and obtain for the committee's publicity material a 
comprehensive circulation in territory which would other- 
wise have been difficult and expensive to cover. Thus in 
addition to telegraph and mail service reaching the im- 
portant centers, such as Lima and Arequipa in Peru, La Paz, 
and Oruro in Bolivia, and Guayaquil and Quito in Ecuador, 
the pamphlet and pictorial publications were sent broadcast 
through the more remote provinces of the three republics — 
to the isolated mining camps, the scattered estates — to points 
as widely separated and as difficult to reach as Santa Cruz 
de la Sierra and Trinidad in Bolivia, Moyabamba and the 
Chanchamayo Valley in Peru, Esmeraldas and Cuenca in 
Ecuador. 

It is not my desire to in any way over-estimate the im- 
portance of the results obtained by the work conducted in 
this territory. Accurate analysis of these results is, of 
course, impossible. Yet it can not be denied that, as a result 
of the few months intensive work undertaken by the com- 
mittee in this field, the mass of people in all sections of the 
country have acquired a far more graphic and comprehen- 
sive idea of the power and position of the United States, as 
well as the policies and ideals of the American people, than 
they ever had before. These conceptions could not possibly 
have been obtained through ordinary channels, and it is safe 
to say that the Peruvians and their neighbors have a much, 
clearer idea of the war efforts and achievements of the 
States than they have of the efforts and achievements of 
any of our European allies, though the latter were engaged 
in the war for a much longer period. This clearer concep- 
tion is due almost wholly to Compub activities, for other 
agencies of intercommunication made no radical departure 
in their established policies to meet the radically altered 
conditions. 



KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION. 285 

"What I regard as concrete evidence of some of the state- 
ments made in the above paragraph is supplied by the mag- 
nificient response of Lima, a city of less than 200,000 inhabi- 
tants, to the fourth Liberty loan, with a total of $700,000. 
Lima is far from being a wealthy city, and this subscription 
was $400,000 more than the maximum set by the committee 
in charge of the sale of bonds. But the investing public here 
had become thoroughly convinced of the boundless resources 
and impregnable economic strength of the States. They 
could not evade absorbing that impression. The committee 
photographs setting forth American industrial resources 
were constantly surrounded by interesting crowds, while the 
morning and afternoon papers invariably carried their 
columns of supplementary data. As a first-hand observer 
of Latin American opinion during the past few years I 
would say that the old conception of the United States held 
in 1913, an admixture of Mexican and Colombian suspicions 
and general distrust, has given entirely away in 1919 to a 
wholly new conception and realization of the full magnitude 
of American power and policy. 

Wire akd Wireless Distribution of Compub News. 

The most important and perhaps the most influential fea- 
ture of the Compub service from the point of view of this 
particular field was the daily cable service. Owing to ar- 
rangements effected by cable, railway telegraph, and wireless 
communication, two trunk systems were thrown out from the 
central office in Lima, covering a wide stretch of territory at 
a very low cost. 

The first system was south from Lima, wireless messages 
being filed at the San Christobal (Lima) radiographic sta- 
tion, which were picked up by the Cachendo wireless sta- 
tion, located near Arequipa on the Southern Railway of 
Peru. Through arrangement with Mr. L. S. Blaisdell, mana- 
ger of the Southern, an experienced telegraph operator re- 
ceived the messages from the State wireless service and sent 
them out over the railway telegraph line to Mollendo, Cuzco, 
Arequipa, Puno, and La Paz, and intermediate points. At all 
of these points the messages were given full publicity. Ar- 
rangements were being made for a further extension of this 
southern trunk line by sending out the messages from La Paz 



286 REPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIOIT. 

over all of the Bolivian railway telegraph lines, but owing 
to the signing of the armistice shortly after this office was 
opened and the falling off of cable service no regular service 
was ever established on the Bolivian railways, though many 
of the more important messages were given publicity 
throughout Bolivia in this manner. 

The second line was north from Lima, by Central & South 
American Cable Co., to Payta, Peru, and Guayaquil, Ecua- 
dor. At the latter point the messages were filed free of 
charge on the Guayaquil & Quito Eailway telegraph line to- 
Quito, Ecuador, and intermediate points. 

The subagents cooperating with this office on the southern 
line wire service were Mr. L. S. Blaisdell, manager of the 
Southern Railway, at Arequipa, and Mr. Victor Tyree, of 
Denniston & Co., at La Paz. 

Those cooperating with this office on the northern wire 
service were Mr. C. W. Copelancl, of the American consulate, 
Guayaquil, and Prof. E. S. Brown, of the Allied committee 
at Quito. Expenditure in connection with this service is 
duly set forth in the accounts of the Lima office, which have 
been submitted. 

By means of the foregoing service, the daily cables of the 
committee were distributed and published in all of the 
more important daily newspapers of Peru, Bolivia, and 
Ecuador. 

As noted in the report of November 25th,, the following 
papers received the direct telegraph service. 

In Peru. 
Lima : El Comercio, La Prensa, La Cronica, La Ley, El Tiempo. 

* Piura : El Deber. 

* Cajamarca : El Heraldo, El Ferrocarril. 

* Chiclayo : El Progreso, El Bien Agricola. 

* FerreSafe : Le Epoca. 

* Trujillo : El Deber, La Libertad. 

* Huancayo : La Voz. 

* Canete : La Tarde. 

* Chincha Alta : La Union. 

* lea : El Heraldo, El Tiempo. 
Mollendo : La Patria, El Portefio. 
Arequipa: El Heraldo. 

Puno: El Siglo. 

Note. — Papers indicated thus (♦) received their service from a Lima 
correspondent who was given copies of the Compub cables. They paid their 
own telegraph tolls. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATION. 287 

In Ecuador. 

Guayaquil: El Guante, El Tiempo, El Indipendiente, El Diario 
Ilustrado. 

Quito: El Comercio, La Nacion, El Dia. 
Riobamba : Los Andes. 
Bahia: El Globe. 

In Bolivia. 

La Paz : El Diario, El Tiempo. 

Both in Ecuador and Bolivia the telegraphic news reached 
more papers than those listed above, but definite lists have 
never been received from the agents. The armistice in No- 
vember and the closure of the Compub offices in January, 
together with the practical abandonment of daily cable serv- 
ice in December, tended to lessen the enthusiasm of our out- 
side agents, whose services were largely voluntary, Messrs. 
Tyree, Copeland, and Brown merely being paid a small 
monthly sum to cover incidental expenses. As I advised in 
my previous report, organization of Compub work in Ecua- 
dor and Bolivia to the same degree it was organized in 
Peru would have necessitated a personal visit to both these 
countries. 

In addition to the newspapers, there were many small 
communities, particularly mining camps, along the line of 
the Central Railway of Peru, where no newspapers existed, 
but where this telegraphic news was received and placed on 
bulletin boards. The same condition applied to the South- 
ern Railway system in southern Peru and the Guayaquil & 
Quito Railway in Ecuador, over which Compub telegrams 
were transmitted. 

The handling of these north and south wire reports took 
up no small portion of the time of myself and my assistant, 
Mr. E. A. Le Roux. This work, together with the full serv- 
ice of every description given to the Lima newspapers, pre- 
vented us from taking up as comprehensively as could be de- 
sired the numerous suggestions and queries which came in 
constantly from the various sections of the committee at 
Washington and New York. 



288 REPOKT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFOEMATIOIT. 

MAIL NEWS. 

All of the newspapers above listed received the mail news 
service regularly. The papers of La Paz, Lima, Quito, and 
Guayaquil were supplied with the full service, the smaller 
provincial papers receiving generally alternate sets of mail 
matter. All of the mail matter was distributed direct from 
the Lima office for central and northern Peru, and elsewhere 
by Messrs. Blaisdell from Arequij^a, Tyree from La Paz, 
Copeland from Guayaquil, and Brown from Quito. 

PAMPHLET DISTRIBUTION. 

As stated in the previous report of the pamphlets re- 
ceived by this office for distribution some 40 per cent were 
retained in Peru, 30 per cent shipped to Ecuador, and 30 
per cent shipped to Bolivia. Of the amount retained in 
Peru practically all were sent into the smaller towns and 
provinces. This was owing to the fact that in the metro- 
politan centers the daily press and other abundant reading 
material nullified' to a considerable degree the propaganda 
value of the pamphlet; whereas in the provinces reading 
matter is exceedingly scarce and difficult to secure and even 
patent-medicine almanacs are read religiously through. My 
experience has been that even the most attractive pamphlets, 
though they may be carefully conserved by their recipients, 
are rarely if ever read through in the metropolitan centers. 
Vast sums of money were spent by British propaganda on 
costly lithographed pamphlets, but it is now generally ad- 
mitted that this money was inadvisably spent and that 
more effective results could have been secured by other 
means. Were it not for the provincial outlet, I personally 
would have advised the suspension of pamphlet distribu- 
tion. It might have reached the mark in a few individual 
cases, but in Lima widespread pamphlet distribution would 
have done more harm than good. For four years pamphlets, 
British, French, Belgian, and German, had been raining 
from the heavens, the public were surfeited with them, and 
pamphlets were actually creating prejudice against their 
distributors. 



EEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INEORMATION. 289' 
PHOTOGRAPPIIC SERVICE. 

This was, beyond question, one of the most effective divi- 
sions of Compub activities. The appeal of the picture serv- 
ice was instantaneous, not so much to the press, as to the 
general public. It has been my experience that average news- 
paper illustrations do not hold a reader's attention very long, 
while high quality engravings or preferably original photo- 
graphs catch and hold the eye of people in every walk of 
society. Certainly the 12 bulletin boards which we placed 
throughout Lima, each carrying 40 to 50 photographs, were 
never lacking an audience. This system of photographic dis- 
tribution was highly satisfactory in its results. After rotat- 
ing on the 12 Lima boards, sets of photographs were sent up 
the line of the Central Eailway to be shown at the various 
stations and camps, and were also sent out into the provinces 
and were kept track of until lost or worn out. In this man- 
ner each photograph passed before several thousand pairs of 
eyes, while out of the abundant supply the newspapers were 
provided with all they could use. The wastage in photo- 
graphic publicity material was therefore practically nil. The 
poster reproduction of photographs with Spanish captions 
were also exceedingly popular and permitted us to reach 
certain provincial districts where the use of photographs 
would have been prohibitive from the viewpoint of cost. 
All of the photographic enlargements were suitably framed 
and after being exhibited for several weeks in shop windows 
were distributed among various leading clubs and other in- 
stitutions. 

This report is in many respects merely a revision of my re- 
port of November 25, but as the offices were in operation for 
only two months after that report was made the limited addi- 
tional experience has not tended to alter materially the out- 
look I then had. The keynote of this office has been " efficient 
distribution," and more attention has been devoted to the busi- 
ness of keeping the material moving to the ultimate con- 
sumer — the press and the public — ^than to any other factor 
in the situation. There was very little to criticise in the 
material sent out from the States — nothing, in fact, that I 
can recall at the present time. 

121033—20 19 



290 KEPORT COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC IlSTFORMATIOlSr 

Other Work in South America. 

The activities of the Committee on Public Information in 
other South American countries followed the same lines as 
those described by Mr. Sevier and Mr. Griffis. The com- 
mittee's representatives were: 

Brazil: Hon. Edwin V, Morgan, United States ambassador. 

Chile: A. A. Preciado. 

Panama, Costa Rica, Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Colombia: 
S. P. Verner. 

Venezuela: Hon. Emil Sauer, Maracaibo, and tlie Hon. Preston 
McGoodwin, American minister, Caracas, Venezuela. 

To all of these is due a debt of appreciation for work 
faithfully, brilliantly, and effectively performed. 

Work iisr S^a'teden and Norway. 

Mr. Eric H. Palmer was the commissioner of the Commit- 
tee on Public Information for both Sweden and Norway, and 
the results achieved were remarkable for the completeness 
;->f their success. Mr. Guy Crosswell Smith, after inaugurat- 
ing the film campaign in Eussia, was appointed director of 
films for all Scandinavian countries and was the directing 
genius in the campaign that eliminated the German propa- 
ganda film. 

Respectfully submitted, 

GEORGE CREEL, 

Chairman. 










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